Professor Miryam Yataco Steinhardt School of Culture ...

Professor Miryam Yataco Steinhardt School of Culture ...

Quechua Language II Emergent Literacy Practices of the Andean World Miryam Yataco NYU Steinhardt School of Culture, Education and Human Development Multilingual Multicultural Education Program 2010 [email protected] 02/08/20 1 Writing as Resistance or Emergent Communicative Mediations One of the most intriguing dimensions of the encounter between the old world and the new is the testimony of those who lived in the intercultural, interethnic setting of the first one hundred years of contact. Much more scarce than European accounts of this experience are those of (Adorno, R. R. 2001) 2001) American natives. (Adorno, 02/08/20 2 One such extra-ordinary testimony comes from the central and southern Andes of Peru after the turn of the 17th century. Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala's First New Chronicle and Good Government (1615) survives as one of the most extraordinary writings of all colonial Spanish (Adorno R. R. 2001) 2001) America and of Andean History. (Adorno 02/08/20 3

Andean Chroniclers The appropriation of the Sign 1- Don Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala. 2- Juan Santa Cruz Pachacuti Yamqui Salcamaygua - First literate Andean subjects & authors. They published around the end of the 1600s and early 1700s. Marginalized politically, socially and linguistically in their own lifetime, they wrote and launched counteroffensive. -Their traditional native oral cultures did not prepare them for written expression much less in a European language. But they did produce text. -Their native voices have been marginalized, and were ignored until recently. 02/08/20 4 Andean Chroniclers The appropriation of the Sign Both are presumed to have been highly multilingual individuals speaking from 7 to 8 languages during their life time. Their discourse was tinted with a painful urgency to communicate. Created highly hybridized texts. Including writing simultaneously in two & three languages & including sketches, drawings. Created consistent anti-colonial rhetoric. 02/08/20 5 Don Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala Born between 1530 -1570 -- Death 1615 - 1620. Descendant of a noble Inca family. Had access to education. Born in San Cristobal de Sondondo, province of Lucanas (Ayacucho.) Father was a Curaca. Mother: Juana Curi Ocllo was a Coya. Had a half brother an indio mestizo Martin de

Ayala who became a great influence to the author. 02/08/20 6 Drawings from Guaman Poma 02/08/20 7 Drawings from Guaman Poma 02/08/20 8 Drawings from Guaman Poma 02/08/20 9 Drawings from Guaman Poma 02/08/20 10 Drawings from Guaman Poma 02/08/20 11 Drawings from Guaman Poma 02/08/20 12 Guaman Poma de Ayala Expressed his views on political

matters Vehemently stated his opposition to the rule of the conquistadors being openly anticlerical. Denounced Denounced inconsistencies and injustices executed by Spanish civil, ecclesiastical and military authorities. 02/08/20 13 Guaman Poma for teachers Important: Guaman Pomas web-site. Guaman Pomas Pomas information information Guaman His work has been published in Spanish however you might find Letter to a King: A Peruvian Chiefs Account of Life under the Incas and under Spanish Rule, a translation by Christopher Dilke. Dilke spells the authors name Huaman Poma. 02/08/20 14 Guaman Poma for teachers: The text text in in itself. itself. The The nueva crnica is handwritten in a 17th-century style. While looking at the handwritten text might give students a sense of the challenges of research, most teachers will find the 398

illustrations quite useful. Guaman Poma drew images of European and Inca rulers and scenes of Inca and colonial life. The images of the post-contact period are especially useful for teaching about cultural contact and Spanish colonialism. These images show the diversity of people in the colony, including European priests and royal officials, indigenous nobles and workers, African slaves, and mixed people of different classes. They also depict the colonial hierarchy, with Spanish officials, priests, and settlers in charge of indigenous workers and African slaves. (Joan Bristol 2002, George Mason University) 02/08/20 15 Juan Santa Cruz Pachacuti Yamqui Salcamaygua Pachacuti Yamqui born after the Spanish Conquest in the province of Canas y Canchis, spent time in Cuzco and had close ties with people who had witnessed Inca religious practices before the contact period. Relacion de antiguedades deste reyno del Piru (1620): Juan de Santa Cruz Pachacuti Yamqui Salcamaygua From Sacred Texts: 02/08/20 16 Juan Santa Cruz Pachacuti Yamqui Salcamaygua 02/08/20 17 Juan Santa Cruz Pachacuti Yamqui Salcamaygua those on

on the the right right to to feminine feminine elements. elements. those The sun sun is is to to the the left, left, the the moon moon the the right. right. The Below them them appear appear the the morning morning star, star, Below drawn as as a a black black dot dot with with many many rays rays drawn coming out, out, and and the the smaller smaller evening evening star, star, coming drawn as as a a smaller

smaller group group of of rays. rays. Below Below drawn them is, on the left, a cluster of stars, the them is, on the left, a cluster of stars, the Pleiades, labeled Verano, which means Pleiades, labeled Verano, which means summer, or or dry dry season season (possibly (possibly in in summer, association with Pleiades ritual at the association with Pleiades ritual at the summer solstice solstice during during the the dry dry season), season), summer and, on

on the the right, right, nube, nube, winter winter clouds. clouds. and, Continuing down, the Earth Mother Continuing down, the Earth Mother (Pachamama) is on the left, with a (Pachamama) is on the left, with a rainbow above it, a set of circles (labeled rainbow above it, a set of circles (labeled "ymaymana auraycunaawin," or "ymaymana auraycunaawin," or springs of of abundance) abundance) below, below, and and a a bolt bolt springs of lightning

lightning near near the the left left edge; edge; and, and, on on of the right, right, Mother Mother Sea Sea (Mamacocha), (Mamacocha), fed fed the by a a spring, spring, with with a a tree tree next next to to it it and and off off by near the the right right edge, edge, Chuquechinchay, Chuquechinchay, a a near cat-like creature, creature, which which may may represent represent an an cat-like Inca constellation constellation named named for for a

a cat. cat. Inca Between these these two two groups groups of of objects objects Between stand a a couple, couple, a a man man on on the the left left and and a a stand woman on on the the right. right. Below Below them them is is a a gridgridwoman like pattern labeled "collca" or like pattern labeled "collca" or storehouse. storehouse. Pachacuti Yamqui's Relacin de antiguedades deste Reyno del Pir . Among many other details, it contains a

description of Coricancha ("enclosure of gold"), the most important temple in the city of Cusco. In his text Pachacuti Yamqui included a detailed drawing describing a wall of this temple. Few drawings made by indigenous people survive from this period, and this chart is one of the most elaborate. The description includes: The five-sided cosmological chart displays bilateral symmetry around an axis that runs from the peak to the center of the bottom. The large oval near the top is a gold disk that stood for Viracocha, the Inca creatordeity. The cross above it represents Orion. The three stars in the middle, labeled "orcorara" or three equal stars, form the belt of Orion (Alnitak, Orionis; Alnilam, Orionis; Mintaka, Orionis), with Betelguese, Orionis above and Rigel, Orionis below. The cross below it represents the Southern Cross, to which it bears a close resemblance. The other objects are organized in pairs. The features on the left generally correspond to masculine elements in the universe 02/08/20 The Columbia Columbia Earth Earth Institute Institute The (2000) (2000) News News 18 Santa Cruz Pachacuti This Ynca ordered the smiths to make a flat plate of fine gold; which

signified that that there there was was aa Creator Creator of of heaven heaven and and earth; earth; and and itit was was of of signified Relacion de de antiguedades antiguedades deste deste reyno reyno del del Piru Piru (1620): (1620): Juan Juan de de Santa Santa Cruz Cruz Pachacuti Pachacuti Yamqui Yamqui this shape. shape. Relacion this Salcamaygua Salcamaygua 02/08/20 19 These two trees typified his father and mother Apu-tampu and Apachamama-achi, and he ordered that they should be adorned with roots of gold and silver, and with golden fruit. Hence they were called Ccurichachac collquechachac tampu-yracan, which means that the two trees typified the parents, and that the Yncas proceeded from them, like fruit from the trees, and that the two trees were as the roots and stems of

the Yncas. Relacin Relacin de de antiguedades antiguedades deste deste reyno reyno del del Piru Piru (1620): (1620): Juan Juan de de Santa Santa Cruz Cruz Pachacuti Pachacuti Yamqui Yamqui Salcamaygua Salcamaygua 02/08/20 20 Pilgrimage to the Quyllur Riti 02/08/20 21 Pilgrimage to Quyllur Riti 02/08/20 22 02/08/20 23 02/08/20 24 Hilaria Supa was born in the community of

Wayllaqocha in 1957. Raised by her maternal grand parents as a young child, she witnessed the landowner mistreat her grandfather and abuse women; these and other acts of violence against indigenous peoples had a strong impact on her. Against indigenosu people In 2001, she published an autobiography, Hilos de Mi Vida (Threads of my Life) which has been translated into both German and English. -Supa-Huaman-A-Rural-Quechua-Woman -Supa-Huaman-A-Rural-Quechua-Woman Hilaria Supa Huaman, is a Peruvian Congresswoman from the region of Cusco. A native Quechua speaker, she is an activist for human rights and the language rights of indigenous peoples. When she was elected to Congress in 2006, she became the first elected official in Peruvian history to take the oath in 02/08/20 an indigenous language. Ms. Supa has taken part in numerous international women's meetings, where she has actively used and promoted her native Quechua language. She is one of the most important Quechua language rights activist in Peru at present, she insists in using her mother tongue during congressional sessions. In doing so, Ms. Supa expresses her desire to create a new era of inclusion for the Quechua speaking people, and

to strengthen Perus intercultural and multilingual identity. 25 02/08/20 26 "When we we speak speak in in Quechua, Quechua, people people say say it's it's rude rude because they don't "When understand us us my my hope hope is is that that my language will my mother mother language will someday someday be be understand 02/08/20 appreciated; it it will will be be difficult, difficult, but but not Hilaria Supa Huaman not impossible." impossible." Hilaria Supa Huaman appreciated;

27 Freddy Ortiz Ortiz UCHPA UCHPA Freddy Uchpa is is aa QuechuaQuechuaUchpa singing Peruvian Peruvian singing rock & & blues blues band. band. rock Kusi Kusun Kusun Kusi =UaGM4U2MVkQ&feature=relat =UaGM4U2MVkQ&feature=relat ed ed Corazon contento contento Corazon =y0MkqEKgdUc =y0MkqEKgdUc Chachaschay Chachaschay =-TWUo73eVdg&feature=relate =-TWUo73eVdg&feature=relate dd

Chachaschay on on Jammin Jammin TV TV Chachaschay program. program. qXrGjj_BULM&feature=related qXrGjj_BULM&feature=related 02/08/20 28 Freddy Ortiz Ortiz UCHPA UCHPA Freddy Quechua speaking speaking rock rock & & Quechua blues band. band. blues Albums Wayrapim Wayrapim Kaprichpam Kaprichpam (1995) Qauka Kausay Qauka (1994) Qukman Muskiy Muskiy Qukman (2000) Lo Mejor Mejor De De

Lo Uchpa Uchpa (2005) Concierto Concierto (2006) 02/08/20 29 Ideas for lesson plans for teachers Levels K-12thth : Pio Pio Requinto bailable in 3D 02/08/20 30 Ideas for lesson plans for teachers: Key words Quechua- Runa Simi words: Quipu, Inti, Quyllur, Pacha, Cocha, names of people in Quechua (see list.) Historical Characters: Incas: Manco Capac, Atahualpa, Pachacutec, Tupac Amaru II. Guamn Poma, Santa Cruz Pachacuti, Women: Mama Ocllo, Cusi Quyllur, Micaela Bastidas. Food + Animals: Llama, Vicua, Alpaca, Condor, Papa, Quinua, Chicha, Maca, Oca Cancha. 02/08/20 31

Documentary on Bilingual Education Programs in Andahuaylas: Gavina Gavina Crdova, Crdova, Belisario Belisario Snchez. Snchez. Click --- http:// http:// Click =LbGn8oNayP4 Documentary 'Zorros de Arriba' made under auspices of Ford Foundation & Foro Educativo. This documentary examines the complexities of bilingual Quechua indigenous teachers & students working and attending bilingual education schools in rural Andahuaylas, Peru. It showcases the work and world of bilingual educators Gavina Cordova & Belisario Sanchez. With English subtitles. 02/08/20 32 02/08/20 33 02/08/20 34 Puklla

y Photography by: by: Photography Belisario Sanchez Sanchez Rojas, Rojas, Belisario bilingual educator from bilingual educator from Andahuaylas .. Born Born in in the the Andahuaylas community of of Argama Argama community district of of Pacucha, Pacucha, district Apurimac region. Apurimac region. His work work as as an an educator educator is is

His dedicated to to preserving preserving & & dedicated promoting the the mother mother promoting language and and culture culture of of his his language people: the Chanka nation. people: the Chanka nation. 02/08/20 35 02/08/20 36 Such a huge part of every culture is linguistically expressed that it is not wrong to say that most ethno cultural behaviours would be impossible without their expression via the particular language with which these behaviours have been traditionally associated. Joshua A. Fishman (2000) Can threatened languages be saved? (p.3) Multilingual Matters. 02/08/20 37 Photo by

by Pilar Pilar Oliveras Oliveras (Reuters) (Reuters) Photo The Hidden Hidden Truth Truth The 02/08/20 38 Education (in content and in practice), the legal system (its abstract prohibitions and concrete enforcements), religious beliefs and observances, the self-govern-mental operations, the literature (spoken and/or written), the philosophy of morals and ethics, the medical code of illnesses and diseases, greetings establishment of friendship are not only linguistically expressed but they are normally enacted, at any given time, via the specific language with which these activities grew up, have been identified and have been generationally associated. Joshua A. Fishman (2000) Can threatened languages be saved? (p.3) Multilingual Matters. 02/08/20 39 Photo by by Ciencia Ciencia yy Docencia Docencia Photo 02/08/20 40 Specific languages are related to specific

cultures and to their attendant cultural identities at the level of doing, at the level of knowing and at the level of being. Joshua A. Fishman (2000) Can threatened languages be saved? (p.3) Multilingual Matters. 02/08/20 41 02/08/20 42 General Information: Information: Quechua Quechua & Aymara Aymara Languages. Languages. General RUNASIMIKUCHU (Cyberquechua) (Cyberquechua) RUNASIMIKUCHU Cyberaymara Cyberaymara Red Cientfica Cientfica Peruana Peruana Red RUNASIMINET PUCP RUNASIMINET PUCP Runasimipi Runasimipi Multimedia Quechua Quechua Multimedia

AYMARARYATIQAATAKI AYMARARYATIQAATAKI Quechua Flashcards Quechua Flashcards %20Flashcards%22 %20Flashcards%22 Diccionario Aymara Aymara Diccionario Diccionario LENGUANDINA Quechua-Castellano, Aymara-Castellano Aymara-Castellano Diccionario LENGUANDINA Quechua-Castellano, Diccionario Quechua Ancashino Diccionario Quechua Ancashino Aaskitu:wawakuna awinankupaq awinankupaq Aaskitu:wawakuna Runasimipi Llaqta Llaqta Takikuna Takikuna Runasimipi

Materiales para para el el estudio estudio del del Quechua Quechua Materiales Nociones basicas basicas de de la la lengua lengua Aymara. Aymara. Nociones %20de%20Aymara%22 %20de%20Aymara%22 The consortium consortium of of Language Language & & Teaching Teaching The Quechua Linguistics Linguistics Quechua El Quechua Quechua en en Santiago Santiago del del Estero Estero El Cursos de de Linguistica Linguistica Quechua Quechua de de la la Universidad Universidad de de Tucuman Tucuman ADILQ.htm ADILQ.htm Quechua Language Language Courses Courses at at Centro Centro TINKU TINKU Quechua option=com_content&view=article&id=56&Itemid=64 option=com_content&view=article&id=56&Itemid=64 Information about about STILLA STILLA Information Curso de de Quechua Quechua UCLA UCLA Curso

Curso Quechua Curso Quechua Curso Universita Universita Castello Castello Curso Teaching Adv. Adv. Teaching Universidad UCLA UCLA Universidad Quechua T Notredame Quechua T Notredame Quechua en en la la Universidad Universidad de de Texas Texas Quechua

Quechua informacion informacion yy recursos recursos pedagogicos pedagogicos Clases Clases de de Quechua Quechua en en la la Universidad Universidad de de Cornell Cornell Quechua 02/08/20 Quechua en en la la Universidad Universidad de de Leyden Leyden en en Quechua at at Leiden Leiden University University 43 Quechua Quechua

Author Central to my Work: Partial list of Dr. Joshua Fishmans publications & articles. Readings in in the the sociology sociology of of language language (1968 (1968)) Den Den Haag, Haag, Paris: Paris: Mouton. Mouton. Readings Sociolinguistics: aa brief brief introduction introduction (1970) (1970) Rowley, Rowley, Mass.: Mass.: Newbury Newbury House. House. Sociolinguistics: Ethnocultural issues in the creation, substitution, and revision of writing systems (1988) In B. Rafoth and D. Rubin (eds) The Social Construction of Written Communication (pp. 27386). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Reversing language language Shift: Shift: Theory Theory and and Practice Practice of of Assistance Assistance to to Threatened Threatened Reversing Languages (1991) Clevedon, Multilingual Matters. (Winner of the British Association of Applied Applied Linguistics' Linguistics' prize prize for for "Best "Best Book Book of of the the Year"). Year"). of The Earliest Stage of Language Planning (2002) The First Congress Phenomenon. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. In Praise of the Beloved Language; The Content of Positive Ethnolinguistic Consciousness.. Berlin, Berlin, Mouton Mouton de de Gruyter, Gruyter, 1997. 1997. Consciousness

Handbook of Language and Ethnicity (ed.) (2001) New York, Oxford University Press, 1999. Paperback. Paperback. 1999. Can Threatened Languages Be Saved? (2000) Clevedon, Multilingual Matters. 02/08/20 44 Partial List of Bibliographical References 02/08/20 45

Academia Mayor Mayor de de la Lengua Lengua Quechua Quechua (1995) (1995) Diccionario Diccionario Quechua/Espaol/Quechua.Qosqo, Quechua/Espaol/Quechua.Qosqo, Peru: Academia Municipalidad del Qosqo. Qosqo. Municipalidad Adorno Rolena, Rolena, Guaman Guaman Poma Poma Y Y Su Su Crnica Crnica Ilustrada Del Per Per Colonial Colonial (2001) Ilustrada Del (2001) Kongelige Kongelige Bibliotek Bibliotek Adorno (Denmark). Museum Museum Tusculanum Tusculanum Press. Press. (Denmark). Adorno Rolena, Rolena, (1986)

(1986) Guaman Guaman Poma, Poma, Writing Writing and and Resistance Resistance in in Colonial Colonial Per. Per. University University of of Texas Adorno Press. Press. Brokaw Galen, Galen, The poetics of Khipu historiography: historiography: Felipe Felipe Guaman Guaman Poma Poma de de Ayala's Ayala's Nueva Nueva cornica cornica Brokaw and the the Relacin Relacin de de los los Quipucamayos. Quipucamayos. and Brotherston, G. G. (1992) (1992) Book Book of of the the Fourth Fourth World. World. Cambridge Cambridge Ed. Ed. Brotherston, Cerrn-Palomino, Rododlfo Rododlfo (1987)

(1987) Lingstica Lingstica Quechua Quechua Centro Centro Bartolom Bartolom de de las las Casas: Casas: Cuzco, Cuzco, Per. Per. Cerrn-Palomino, Coronel-Molina S., Hornberger Hornberger. Nancy (2000). World Languages Report: Quechua. Coronel-Molina S., Hornberger Hornberger. (2000). Report: University of of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania. University Cotari, D. D. (1996) (1996) Complejidad de la escritura quechua normalizada en la educacin bilinge. World World Cotari, Wide Web Web page page ( ( Wide Dilke, C., C., Letter to a King: A Peruvian Chiefs Account Account of Life under the Incas and under under Spanish Rule Rule Dilke, (New York:

York: E.P. E.P. Dutton, Dutton, 1978). 1978). (New Duviols P., (1993 )) Relacin Relacin de de Antigedades Antigedades deste deste reyno reyno del del Piru: Piru: Juan Santa Cruz Cruz Pachacuti Pachacuti P., Itier Itier C. C. (1993 Duviols Yamqui Salcamaygua Salcamaygua.. Institut Institut Francais Francais dEtudes Andines. dEtudes Andines. Yamqui Heggarty, Paul Web Web University of of Cambridge, U.K. Heggarty, Hornberger, N. N. (1995) (1995) Five Five vowels vowels or or three? three? Linguistics Linguistics and and politics politics in in Quechua Quechua language, language, planning

planning in in Hornberger, Peru. In J. Tollefson (ed.) Power and Inequality in Language Education. Cambridge: Cambridge Peru. In J. Tollefson (ed.) Power in Cambridge University Press. Press. University Hornberger, Nancy Nancy H., H., Coronel-Molina Coronel-Molina Serafin M. Quechua Quechua language shift, shift, maintenance, and Hornberger, revitalization in in the the Andes: Andes: the the case case for for language language planning. planning. Citation Citation Information. International Journal Journal revitalization of the the Sociology Sociology of of Language.

Language. Volume Volume 2004, 2004, Issue 167, 167, of Josephy,Jr., Alvin M. M. (1992) America America in in 1492. 1492. Knopf-The Knopf-The Newberry Library. Library. Josephy,Jr., Manheim B., (1991) The language of the Inka since the European Invasion. Texas Press. Manheim B., (1991) The language the Inka the European Invasion. Univeristy of Texas Mignolo W., W., Hill, Hill, E. E. Edit Edit (1994) Writing Writing without without words. words. Duke Duke University University Press. Press. Mignolo 02/08/20 46

Parker, G. G. (1963) (1963) La La clasificacin clasificacin gentica gentica de de los los dialectos dialectos quechuas. quechuas. Revista Revista del del Museo Museo -- Parker, Nacional 32, 32, 24152. 24152. Nacional Parma Alexandra, Alexandra, Cook Cook and and Noble Noble David David Cook Cook (eds., (eds., trans.), trans.), The The Discovery Discovery and and Conquest Conquest of of --Parma Peru (Durham: (Durham: Duke Duke University University Press, Press, 1998). 1998). Peru Pozzi-Escot, I. I. (1981) (1981) La La educacin educacin bilingue

bilingue en en el el marco marco legal legal de de la la Reforma Reforma Educativa Educativa -- Pozzi-Escot, Peruana. En En Acerca Acerca de de la la Historia Historia yy el el Universo Universo Aymara. Aymara. Lima, Lima, Peru. Peru. CIED. CIED. Peruana. Pozzi-Escot, I. I. (1997) (1997) El El multilingualismo multilingualismo en en el el Peru. Peru. Cusco Cusco PROEIB PROEIB Andes Andes Centro Centro -- Pozzi-Escot, Bartolome de de las las Casas. Casas. Bartolome Rodriguez-Chang, R. R. Sobre Sobre los los cronistas

cronistas indgenas indgenas del del Per Per yy los los comienzos comienzos de de una una escritura escritura -- Rodriguez-Chang, hispanoamericana (Estudio) (Estudio) RI RI XLVIII/120-121 XLVIII/120-121 (julio-diciembre (julio-diciembre 1982): 1982): 533533- 548 548 hispanoamericana Saussure, F. F. (1959) (1959) Course Course in in General General Linguistics. Linguistics. Mc-Graw Mc-Graw Hill Hill Publishers. Publishers. -- Saussure, Stewart, W. W. (1968) (1968) A A sociolinguistic sociolinguistic typology typology for for describing describing national national multilingualism. multilingualism. In In J. J. -- Stewart, Soto Ruiz, Ruiz, Clodoaldo Clodoaldo (1976b)

(1976b) Gramtica Gramtica Quechua Quechua Ayacucho-Chanca Ayacucho-Chanca -- Soto Lima Peru, Peru, Ministerio Ministerio de de Educacin. Educacin. .. Lima Tamayo Herrera, Herrera, J. J. (1980) (1980) Historia Historia del del Indigenismo Indigenismo Cuzqueo, Cuzqueo, Siglo Siglo XVIXX. XVIXX. Lima, Lima, Peru: Peru: -- Tamayo Instituto Nacional Nacional de de Cultura. Cultura. Instituto Trapnell, Lucy Lucy yy Neira Neira Eloy Eloy (2004) (2004) La La situacion situacion de de la la educacion educacion bilingue bilingue intercultural intercultural en en el el -- Trapnell, Per. Banco

Banco Mundial Mundial yy PROEIB PROEIB Andes. Andes. Documento Documento no no publicado. publicado. Per. Torero, A. A. (1974) (1974) El El Quechua Quechua yy la la Historia Historia Social Social Andina. Andina. Lima, Lima, Peru: Peru: Universidad Universidad Ricardo Ricardo -- Torero, Palma. Palma. Von Gleich, Gleich, U. U. (1994) (1994) Language Language spread spread policy: policy: The The case case of of Quechua Quechua in in the the Andean Andean republics republics of of -- Von Bolivia, Ecuador, Ecuador, and and Peru. Peru. International

International Journal Journal of of the the Sociology Sociology of of Language. Language. Bolivia, Weber, D. D. (1987b) (1987b) Estudios Estudios Quechua: Quechua: Planificacin, Planificacin, Historia, Historia, yy Gramtica. Gramtica. Peru: Peru: Ministerio Ministerio -- Weber, de Educacin, Educacin, Instituto Instituto Lingstico Lingstico de de Verano Verano (Serie (Serie Lingstica Lingstica Peruana Peruana #27). #27). de Zuiga, Madeleine Madeleine (2008) (2008) La La educacin educacin Intercultural Intercultural Bilingue Bilingue El El caso caso Peruano. Peruano. FLAPE. FLAPE. -- Zuiga, Foro Educativo Educativo Foro

02/08/20 47 Voces de los Andes Conference Revised Edition Edition New New York York University 2009. 2009. Revised All material material researched, compiled and edited by by Miryam Yataco, Yataco, Adjunct Adjunct faculty faculty All member at Steinhardt School of

Culture, Education and Human Development, New member School of Culture, Education and York University. All material used used for for educational educational purpose purpose only. Sources have been York cited if information was available. cited if information Infinite thanks thanks to to Stefano Stefano Keller Keller from from Linguistic Rights Rights without his his professional Infinite support and encouragement many of my work would have not been possible. support encouragement my work would been possible.

Infinite thanks thanks to Carlos Carlos Diaz OJJO Photograpy. Photograpy. Flickr photostream photostream slides 59-61 59-61 , 67Infinite 75. You may contact contact him at : 75. Photocredits to to slides slides 77-80. 77-80. Jorge Jorge L. L. Suarez Suarez Flickr photostream (XxcachorroxX). Photocredits Thanks to to colleague colleague bilingual bilingual educator, Belisario Belisario Sanchez Rojas for the photostream Thanks of Pukllay Pukllay 2008-slides 84 to 88. My best wishes to all all friends and bilingual bilingual educators educators of and colleagues colleagues in in Pacucha. and All my my work work is is dedicated dedicated to to my my mentor mentor Dr. Dr. Joshua Joshua Fishman Fishman and and to

to my my mother mother & my All brother. brother. A special special dedication dedication to to Congresswoman Congresswoman Hilaria Supa Huaman & to to Maria Esther A Mogollon. Mogollon. My very very special thanks thanks for their encouragement encouragement and professional support support to Carmen Carmen My Medeiros, Nancy Nancy Lemberger, Lemberger, Joshua Joshua Fishman, Fishman, Serafin Serafin Coronel-Molina, Coronel-Molina, Lisa Lisa Knauer, Knauer, Medeiros, Gary Anderson, Hilda Mundo-Lopez, Daniel Zamalloa, and foremost to NYU ITS staff staff Gary Anderson, Hilda Mundo-Lopez, Daniel Zamalloa, and foremost to NYU ITS

member Paul Galando. member You may contact contact the author at [email protected] You [email protected] 02/08/20 48

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    Service-Learning Student Showcase Scholarships ($200-$1000 each) Through the generosity of UCF's Student Government Association, Colleges, Interdisciplinary Studies, and the Experiential Learning over $11,000 in scholarships were awarded in 2017 to service-learning projects presented at the showcase. The scholarship awar
  • Present tense of "ser"

    Present tense of "ser"

    Vosotros/vosotras are the plural forms of tú. Ustedes is the plural form of usted. Vosotros is used when talking to a familiar group of males or a mixed group. Vosotras is the feminine form of vosotros and is used when...
  • IB Course Selection

    IB Course Selection

    Assessment . is criterion-related, which means student performance is measured against pre-specified assessment criteria based on the aims and objectives of each subject curriculum, rather than the performance of other students taking the same examinations.