Principles and Practice of Information Security and ...

Principles and Practice of Information Security and ...

Biomedical Informatics Year in Review Notable publications and events in Informatics since the 2007 AMIA Symposium Daniel R. Masys, MD Professor and Chair Department of Biomedical Informatics Professor of Medicine Vanderbilt University School of Medicine Content for this session is at: http://dbmichair.mc.vanderbilt.edu/amia2

008/ including citation lists and links and this PowerPoint Design for this Session Modeled on American College of Physician Update sessions Emphasis on what it is and why it is important 1-2 examples of each in detail and others in synopsis Audience interaction for each category of item discussed

Source of Content for Session Literature review of RCTs indexed by MeSH term Medical Informatics, Telemedicine & descendents or main MeSH term Bioinformatics, and Entrez date between November 2007 and October 2008 further qualified by involvement of >100 providers or patients (n=31) Poll of American College of Medical Informatics fellows list It takes a village

Thanks to Rebecca Jerome

Russ Altman David Bates Don Detmer Parvati Dev Robert Dolin Peter Elkin Charles Friedman Robert Friedman Betsy Humphreys

George Hripcsak Isaac Kohane Nancy Lorenzi Randy Miller Meryl Rosenbloom Dean Sittig David States Justin Starren

Mark Tuttle Topics Representative New Literature Notable Events the Top Ten list New Literature Highlights: Clinical Informatics Clinical Decision Support Personal Health Records Telemedicine The practice of informatics

New Literature Highlights: Bioinformatics and Computational Biology Human Health and Disease The practice of bioinformatics Clinical Decision Support Clinical Decision Support for Providers Reference

Stevens J et al. Pediatrics. 2008 Jun;121(6):1099-105. [Childrens Hospital, Columbus, OH] Title Trial of computerized screening for adolescent behavioral concerns. Aim to determine whether computerized screening with real-time printing of results for pediatricians increased the identification of injury risk, depressive symptoms, and substance use among adolescents. Methods 878 primary care pts 11-20 yrs old from low income populations

Clinical Decision Support for Providers Reference Stevens J et al. Pediatrics. 2008 Jun;121(6):1099-105. Methods, contd Clinics randomly assigned to have pediatricians receive screening results either just before face-toface encounters with patients (immediate-results condition) or 2 to 3 business days later (delayedresults condition) Measures: numbers of conditions identified and recognition rate by clinical providers.

Results 59% of respondents had 1 or more behavioral issues Of those screen positive, 68% were identified and documented by clinicians vs. 52% in delayed results group Clinical Decision Support for Providers Reference Stevens J et al. Pediatrics. 2008 Jun;121(6):1099105.

Importance Adds to an extensive literature that patient provided information via a variety of care setting input methods (portals, waiting room kiosks and workstations, tablet PCs) can influence identification and care planning for health conditions Clinical Decision Support for Providers Reference Poller et al. J Thromb Haemost. 2008 Jun;6(6):935-43. [Univ.

Manchester, UK] Title An international multicenter randomized study of computerassisted oral anticoagulant dosage vs. medical staff dosage. Aim To compare the safety and effectiveness of computerassisted dosage with dosage by experienced medical staff at the same centers. Methods A randomized study of dosage of two commercial computerassisted dosage programs (PARMA 5 and DAWN AC) vs. manual dosage at 32 centers in 13 countries. Clinical Decision Support for Providers

Reference Poller et al. J Thromb Haemost. 2008 Jun;6(6):935-43. Methods, contd Safety and effectiveness of computer-assisted dosage were compared with those of medical staff dosage. Results 13,219 patients participated, 6503 patients being randomized to medical staff and 6716 to computer-assisted dosage. International Normalized Ratio (INR) tests numbered 193,890 with manual dosage and 193,424 with computerassisted dosage. In the 3209 patients with deep vein thrombosis/ pulmonary

embolism, 37 fewer clinical events (24%, P = 0.001) for computer assisted dosage. Clinical Decision Support for Providers Reference Poller et al. J Thromb Haemost. 2008 Jun;6(6):935-43. Results, contd Time in target INR range improved with computer assisted dosage (P<.0001) Importance

Adds to an extensive literature on anticoagulant dosage clinical decision support that has consistently shown outcomes improvement vs. unaided clinician judgment. First international multicenter study (32 sites) to show that effects are robust across a large number of care settings worldwide Clinical Decision Support for Providers Reference Weber V, White A, McIlvried R. J Gen Intern Med. 2008 Apr;23(4):399-404. [Geisinger Health Sys, Danville PA]

Title An electronic medical record (EMR)-based intervention to reduce polypharmacy and falls in an ambulatory rural elderly population. Aim To evaluate an EMR-based intervention to reduce overall medication use, psychoactive medication use, and occurrence of falls in an ambulatory elderly population at risk for falls. Methods Standardized medication review conducted and recommendations made to the primary physician via the EMR. Randomized by clinic to intervention vs. normal care Clinical Decision Support for

Providers Reference Weber V, White A, McIlvried R. J Gen Intern Med. 2008 Apr;23(4):399404. Methods, contd Patients contacted to obtain self reports of falls at 3-month intervals over the 15-month period of study. Fall-related diagnoses and medication data were collected through the EMR. Results 620 Pts over age 70 enrolled. Intervention did not reduce the total number of medications, but reduced prescribing of psychoactive meds (P < .01)

Intervention group had 0.38 risk of falls vs. controls as documented by EMR (P < .01) but no difference when self report data added. Clinical Decision Support for Providers Reference Weber V, White A, McIlvried R. J Gen Intern Med. 2008 Apr;23(4):399-404. Conclusion EMR to assess medication use in the elderly may

reduce the use of psychoactive medications and falls in a community-dwelling elderly population. Impact Looking only inside the EMR may miss real world health events. Best to gather independent observations if possible in interventional studies. Clinical Decision Support for Providers Reference van Wyk et al. Circulation. 2008 Jan 22;117(3):371-8. [Erasmus Univ, Rotterdam, Netherlands].

Title Electronic alerts versus on-demand decision support to improve dyslipidemia treatment: a cluster randomized controlled trial. Aim To study the effect of both alerting and on-demand decision support with respect to screening and treatment of dyslipidemia based on guidelines of the Dutch College of General Practitioners. Methods Cluster randomized trial 38 Dutch general practices (77 physicians) who used the ELIAS electronic health record, and 87,886 of their patients Clinical Decision Support for Providers

Reference van Wyk et al. Circulation. 2008 Jan 22;117(3):371-8. [Erasmus Univ, Rotterdam, Netherlands]. Methods, contd Each practice assigned to receive alerts, on-demand support, or no intervention. Outcome: percentage of patients screened and treated after 12 months of follow-up. Results In alerting group, 65% of Pts requiring screening were screened vs. 35% of Pts in the on-demand group and 25% of Pts in control group. In alerting group, 66% of patients requiring Rx were treated vs.

40% of Pts in on-demand group and 36% of Pts in the control group. Clinical Decision Support for Providers Reference van Wyk et al. Circulation. 2008 Jan 22;117(3):371-8. [Erasmus Univ, Rotterdam, Netherlands]. Conclusions Alerting version of the clinical decision support systems significantly improved screening and treatment performance for dyslipidemia by general practitioners. Impact Magnitude of improvements in guideline adherence

historically associated with inpatient settings can be observed in primary care outpatient settings for common disorders, using a practice-based EMR (in the Netherlands). More evidence of Northern Europe leading in ambulatory practice innovations vs. US Clinical Decision Support for Reference Providers Mulvaney SA et al. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2008 Mar-Apr;15(2):203-11. [Vanderbilt, Nashville, TN] Title

A randomized effectiveness trial of a clinical informatics consult service: impact on evidence-based decision-making and knowledge implementation. Aim To determine the effectiveness of providing synthesized research evidence to inform patient care practices via an evidence based informatics program, the Clinical Informatics Consult Service (CICS). Methods Consults randomly assigned to CICS Provided, where clinicians received synthesized information from literature addressing the consult question or No CICS Provided, in which no information was provided. Clinical Decision Support for

Providers Reference Mulvaney SA et al. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2008 Mar-Apr;15(2):203-11. Methods, contd Outcomes measured via online post-consult forms that assessed consult purpose, actual and potential impact, satisfaction, time spent searching, and other variables. Results 226 consults made during 19-month study period. Clinicians primarily made requests in order to update themselves (65.0%, 147/226) and were satisfied with the service results (Mean 4.52 of possible 5.0, SD 0.94). Intention to treat (ITT) analyses showed that consults in the CICS

Provided condition had a greater actual and potential impact on clinical actions and clinician satisfaction than No CICS consults. Clinical Decision Support for Reference Providers Mulvaney SA et al. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2008 Mar-Apr;15(2):203-11. Results Evidence provided primarily impacted the use of a new or different treatment (OR 8.19 95% CI 1.04-64.00). Reasons for no or little impact included a lack of evidence addressing the issue or that the clinician was already implementing the practices indicated by the evidence.

Conclusions Clinical decision-making, particularly regarding treatment issues, was impacted by the service. Impact Programs such as the CICS may provide an effective tool for facilitating integration of research evidence into management of patient care and may foster clinicians' engagement with the biomedical literature. Clinical Decision Support for Patients Reference Persell et al. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2008 Feb;34(2):98105. [Northwestern Univ, Chicago] Title

Patient-directed intervention versus clinician reminders alone to improve aspirin use in diabetes: a cluster randomized trial. Aim To determine whether mailing to Pts plus nurse telephone call more effective than standard CDSS reminders to physicians for prescribing ASA to diabetics. Methods Cluster-randomized design, 19 physicians caring for 334 eligible patients at least 40 years of age randomized. All clinicians received computerized reminders at office visits. Clinical Decision Support for Patients Reference

Persell et al. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2008 Feb;34(2):98-105. Methods, contd Intervention physicians received e-mails asking whether aspirin was indicated for each patient. If so, patients received a mailing and nurse telephone call addressing aspirin. Primary outcome was self-reported regular aspirin use. Results Outcome assessment telephone interviews completed for 242 (72.5%) patients. At follow-up, aspirin use was reported by 60 (46%) of the 130 intervention patients and 44 (39%) of the 112 reminder-only patients, a nonsignificant difference.

Clinical Decision Support for Patients Reference Persell et al. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2008 Feb;34(2):98-105. Results, contd In subgroup reporting no aspirin use at baseline and no contraindications, 33 (43%) of the 76 intervention and 22 (30%) of the 74 reminder-only patients began using aspirin, a 10% difference accounting for clustering (P = .013). Conclusions A patient-directed intervention modestly increased aspirin use among diabetes patients beyond that achieved using

computerized clinician reminders for ideal candidates. Obstacles included difficulty contacting patients, real or perceived contraindications, and failure to follow the nurse's advice. Clinical Decision Support for Patients Reference Persell et al. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2008 Feb;34(2):98-105. Impact

Person-intensive best practice strategies, like automated CDSSs, encounter diminishing returns vs. ideal guidelines and outcomes Clinical Decision Support for Patients Reference Ten Wolde GB et al. Addiction. 2008 Apr;103(4):662-70. [Leiden Univ, Netherlands] Title Long-term effectiveness of computer-generated tailored patient education on benzodiazepines: a randomized controlled trial. Aim

To examined the long-term effectiveness of a tailored patient education intervention on benzodiazepine use. Methods Controlled trial with three arms, comparing (i) a single tailored letter; (ii) a multiple tailored letters and (iii) a general practitioner letter. More info in tailored letters. 508 Pts using benzodiazepines recruited by their general practitioners and assigned randomly to one of the three groups. Post-test took place after 12 months. Clinical Decision Support for Patients Reference

Ten Wolde GB et al. Addiction. 2008 Apr;103(4):662-70. Results Participants receiving tailored interventions were twice as likely to have quit benzodiazepine use compared to the general practitioner letter. Among participants with the intention to discontinue usage at baseline, both tailored interventions led to high percentages of those who actually discontinued usage (single tailored intervention 51.7%; multiple tailored intervention 35.6%; general practitioner letter 14.5%). Conclusions Tailored patient education can be an effective tool for reducing benzodiazepine use, and can be implemented easily.

Clinical Decision Support for Patients Reference Ten Wolde GB et al. Addiction. 2008 Apr;103(4):66270. Impact Adds to literature on CDS for Pts that suggests it is easier to get Pts to stop than start medications. Clinical Decision Support for Patients Reference

Kypri K et al. Arch Intern Med. 2008 Mar 10;168(5):530-6. [Univ. Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia] Title Randomized controlled trial of web-based alcohol screening and brief intervention in primary care. Aim To determine whether an electronic Screening and Brief Intervention (e-SBI) reduces hazardous drinking. Methods RCT in a university primary health care service. 975 students (age range, 17-29 years) screened using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). 599 students (61%) scored in hazardous or harmful range

Clinical Decision Support for Patients Reference Kypri K et al. Arch Intern Med. 2008 Mar 10;168(5):530-6. [Univ. Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia] Methods 576 (300 women) in high risk group consented and were randomized to receive an information pamphlet (control group), a Web-based motivational intervention (single-dose e-SBI group), or a Web-based motivational intervention with further interventions 1 and 6 months later (multidose e-SBI group). Measures: self-reported alcohol consumption at 12 months

Results Single-dose e-SBI group at 6 months reported a lower frequency of drinking, less total consumption, and fewer academic problems that were sustained at 12 months. Multidose e-SBI group at 6 months reported same plus modestly reduced episodic heavy drinking (NS), sustained at 12 months. Clinical Decision Support for Patients Reference Kypri K et al. Arch Intern Med. 2008 Mar 10;168(5):530-6. Conclusions

Single-dose e-SBI reduces hazardous drinking, and the effect lasts 12 months. Additional sessions seem not to enhance the effect. Impact Adds to literature that college students are a unique population willing to report hazardous behaviors and respond to information interventions directed at reducing those behaviors. Clinical Decision Support for Patients Reference Matheny ME et al. Arch Intern Med. 2007 Nov 12;167(20):2233-9.

[Brigham & Womens Hospital, Boston] Title Impact of an automated test results management system on patients' satisfaction about test result communication. Aim To assess the impact of physicians' use of a test results management tool embedded in an electronic health record on patient satisfaction with test result communication. Methods Cluster-randomized, trial of 570 patient encounters in 26 outpatient primary care practices Physicians in intervention practices were trained, given access to test results management tool with imbedded patient notification functions.

Clinical Decision Support for Patients Reference Matheny ME et al. Arch Intern Med. 2007 Nov 12;167(20): 2233-9. Methods, contd Patient satisfaction surveys conducted by telephone after the patient underwent the test and were administered before and after the intervention in both arms. Results The survey response rate after successful patient contact was 74.2% (570/768). After adjusting for patient age, sex, race, socioeconomic status, and

insurance type, the intervention significantly increased patient satisfaction with test results communication (odds ratio, 2.35; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-5.25; P = .03) and more satisfied with information given them for medical treatments and conditions regarding their results (odds ratio, 3.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.30-9.17; P = .02). Clinical Decision Support for Patients Reference Matheny ME et al. Arch Intern Med. 2007 Nov 12;167(20): 2233-9. Conclusions

Automated test results management system can improve patient satisfaction with communication of test results ordered by their primary care provider and can improve patient satisfaction with the communication of information regarding their condition and treatment plans. Impact Knowledge is power and contributes to customer satisfaction in healthcare. Clinical Decision Support for Patients Reference

Preibe et al. Br J Psychiatry. 2007 Nov;191:420-6. [University of London, London, UK] Title Structured patient-clinician communication and 1-year outcome in community mental healthcare: cluster randomised controlled trial. Aim To test a computer-mediated intervention structuring patientclinician dialogue (DIALOG) focusing on patients' quality of life and needs for care. Methods Cluster-randomized, trial of 134 providers in six countries were allocated to DIALOG or treatment as usual; 507 people with schizophrenia or related disorders included. Clinical Decision Support for

Patients Reference Preibe et al. Br J Psychiatry. 2007 Nov;191:420-6. Methods, contd Every 2 months for 1 year, clinicians asked patients to rate satisfaction with quality of life and treatment, and request additional or different support. Responses fed back immediately in screen displays, compared with previous ratings and discussed. Primary outcome was subjective quality of life, secondary outcomes were unmet needs and treatment satisfaction. Results

Of 507 patients, 56 lost to follow-up and 451 were included in intention-totreat analyses. Patients receiving the DIALOG intervention had better subjective quality of life, fewer unmet needs and higher treatment satisfaction after 12 months. Clinical Decision Support for Patients Reference Preibe et al. Br J Psychiatry. 2007 Nov;191:420-6. Conclusions Structuring patient-clinician dialogue to focus on patients' views positively influenced quality of life, needs for care and treatment satisfaction.

Impact CDSS tools that facilitate communication complement those that provide information from data/knowledge sources. New CDSS RCTs showing no difference for intervention vs. control 1. Matheny ME et al. A randomized trial of electronic clinical reminders to improve medication laboratory monitoring. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2008 Jul-Aug;15(4):424-9. [Brigham & Womens, Boston] 2. Hicks LS. Impact of computerized decision support on blood pressure management and control: a randomized

controlled trial. J Gen Intern Med. 2008 Apr;23(4):429-41. [Brigham & Womens, Boston] 3. Tamblyn R et al. A randomized trial of the effectiveness of on-demand versus computer-triggered drug decision support in primary care. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2008 JulAug;15(4):430-8. [McGill University, Montreal, Canada] 4. New CDSS RCTs showing no difference for intervention vs. control Thomas KG et al. Use of a registry-generated audit, feedback, and patient reminder intervention in an

internal medicine resident clinic--a randomized trial. J Gen Intern Med. 2007 Dec;22(12):1740-4. [Mayo Clinic] 5. Harari D et al. Promotion of health in older people: a randomised controlled trial of health risk appraisal in British general practice. Age Ageing. 2008 Sep;37(5):565-71 [St Thomas Hospital, London, UK] - computerized health risk appraisal & action plan 6. Hansagi H et al. Is information sharing between the emergency department and primary care useful to the care of frequent emergency department users? Eur J Emerg Med. 2008 Feb;15(1):34-9. [Karolinska Univ, Sweden] case notes of ED forwarded to PMDs

Clinical Decision Support Questions and Comments Personal Health Records Personal Health Records Reference Grant RW et al. Arch Intern Med. 2008 Sep 8;168(16):1776-82. [Mass General/Partners, Boston] Title Practice-linked online personal health records for type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized controlled trial. Aim

To evaluate effects of web-based PHR linked to EMR on Type 2 diabetes care. Methods randomized 11 primary care practices. Intervention practices received access to a DM-specific PHR that imported clinical and medications data, provided patient-tailored decision support, and enabled the patient to author a "Diabetes Care Plan" for electronic submission to their physician prior to upcoming appointments. Personal Health Records Reference Grant RW et al. Arch Intern Med. 2008 Sep 8;168(16):1776-82. [Mass General/Partners, Boston]

Methods, contd Active control practices received a PHR to update and submit family history and health maintenance information. All patients attending these practices were encouraged to sign up for online access. Results 244 patients with DM enrolled (37% of the eligible population with registered online access, 4% of the overall population of patients with DM). Study participants were younger (mean age, 56.1 years vs 60.3 years; P < .001) and lived in higher-income neighborhoods (median income, $53,784 vs $49,713; P < .001) but had similar baseline glycemic control compared with nonparticipants.

Personal Health Records Reference Grant RW et al. Arch Intern Med. 2008 Sep 8;168(16):1776-82. Results More patients in the intervention arm had their DM treatment regimens adjusted (53% vs 15%; P < .001) compared with active controls. No significant differences in risk factor control between study arms after 1 year (P = .53). Conclusions Pre-visit use of online PHR linked to the EMR increased rates of DMrelated medication adjustment. Low rates of online patient account registration and good baseline

control among participants limited the intervention's impact on overall risk factor control. Clinical Decision Support for Patients Reference Grant RW et al. Arch Intern Med. 2008 Sep 8;168(16):1776-82. [Mass General/Partners, Boston] Impact Motivated, engaged patients with personal resources constitute the majority of PHR and portal users. These well-educated good

patients can make it difficult to detect outcomes differences due to high baseline compliance. Telemedicine Telemedicine 10 new RCTs published November 2007 October 2008 3 hypertension 1 each diabetes care, stroke, coronary disease, heart failure, transplantation follow-up, implantable cardioverter, robotic telerounding

Telemedicine 3 RCTs on hypertensiom Green BB, et al. Effectiveness of home blood pressure monitoring, Web communication, and pharmacist care on hypertension control: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2008 Jun 25;299(24):2857-67. [Group Health, Seattle] Santamore WP et al. Accuracy of blood pressure measurements transmitted through a telemedicine system in underserved populations. Telemed J E Health. 2008 May;14(4):333-8. [Temple Univ, Philadelphia] Madsen LB et al. Blood pressure control during telemonitoring of home blood pressure. A randomized controlled trial during 6 months. Blood Press.

2008;17(2):78-86. [Aarhus Univ, Denmark] Telemedicine Methods Group Health Study: 778 hypertensive Pts in 3 grps : use secure website +/- pharmacist web communication vs. usual care. Outcome variable: Percent of Pts with controlled BP at 12 months Temple study: 464 hypertensive pts given recording sphygmomanometer. Entered BP reading on website, compared to downloaded BP values at clinic visits. Denmark study: 236 hypertensive pts randomized to entering BP into PDA synchronized

over net, with web provider-pt feedback. Outcome variable: mean systolic BP change over 6 months. Telemedicine Results Group Health Study found web + pharmacist care increased numbers of Pts with controlled BP but not web alone vs. standard care. Temple study found Pt entered accurate BP readings, including underserved and low literacy patients Denmark study found both groups had BP fall during study, telemonitoring as good as office

visit monitoring Impact Adds to substantial literature showing therapeutic equivalency of telemedicine vs. in person monitoring of chronic conditions. Telemedicine Reference Meyer BC et al. Lancet Neurol. 2008 Sep;7(9):787-95. [UC San Diego] Title Efficacy of site-independent telemedicine in the STRokE DOC trial: a randomised, blinded, prospective study.

Aim To assessed whether telemedicine (real-time, two-way audio and video) or telephone was superior for decision making regarding use of thrombolytics in acute stroke. Methods Stroke patients at four remote sites in California randomized to video and DICOM image telemedicine vs. telephone consultation with neurologists at academic center. Cases reviewed for correctness of decision regarding use of thrombolytics and incidence of intracerebral hemorrhage Telemedicine Reference

Meyer BC et al. Lancet Neurol. 2008 Sep;7(9):787-95. Results 234 patients assessed Jan 2004 Aug 2007. 111 randomized to each arm, 207 completed study. Correct treatment decisions were made more often in the telemedicine group than telephone grp 98% vs 82%, p=0.0009). Intravenous thrombolytics were used at an overall rate of 25% (31 [28%] telemedicine vs 25 [23%] telephone, 1.3, 0.7-2.5; p=0.43). No difference in mortality (1.6, 0.8-3.4; p=0.27) or rates of intracerebral hemorrhage. Conclusions Telemedicine results in more accurate stroke decision making

Impact Telemedicine useful way to project specialized neurology svcs Telemedicine Reference Shea S, IDEATel Consortium. Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc. 2007;118:289-304. [Columbia Univ, NYC] Title The Informatics for Diabetes and Education Telemedicine (IDEATel) project. Aim To comparing telemedicine case management to usual care for

diabetes in low socioeconomic status patients. Methods 1,665 Medicare recipients with diabetes, aged 55 years or greater, living in federally designated medically underserved areas of New York State. Specialized home telemedicine unit with web-enabled computer, video, glucose and BP monitoring, upload to Columbia EMR Primary endpoints were HgbA1c, blood pressure, and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. Telemedicine Reference Shea S, IDEATel Consortium. Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc. 2007;118:289-304.

Results In New York City, 98% of participants were black or Hispanic, 69% were Medicaid-eligible, and 93% reported annual household income < or =$20,000. In upstate New York, 91% were white, 14% Medicaid eligible, and 50% reported annual household income < or =$20,000. 95% of NYC participants did not know how to use a computer BP, LDL, and HBA1C all decreased in intervention grp relative to usual care grp at 1 year of follow-up. Same effects observed in urban and rural populations User satisfaction high. Telemedicine

Reference Shea S, IDEATel Consortium. Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc. 2007;118:289-304. Conclusions Telemedicine is an effective method for translating modern approaches to disease management into effective care for underserved populations. Impact Telemedicine effects seen in low income, noncomputer literate population No analysis of cost-effectiveness provided Telemedicine

Reference Ellison LM et al. Arch Surg. 2007 Dec;142(12):1177-81 [Penobscot Bay Medical Center, Rockport, ME] Title Postoperative robotic telerounding: a multicenter randomized assessment of patient outcomes and satisfaction. Aim To assess patient safety and satisfaction when robotic videoconferencing (telerounding) is used in the postoperative setting. Methods 270 adults undergoing a urologic procedure requiring a hospital stay of 24 to 72 hours were randomized to receive

either traditional bedside rounds or robotic telerounds. Reference Telemedicine Ellison LM et al. Arch Surg. 2007 Dec;142(12):1177-81 [Penobscot Bay Medical Center, Rockport, ME] Methods, contd The primary outcome measure was postoperative patient morbidity. Secondary outcomes were patient-reported satisfaction and hospital length of stay. Other variables assessed included demographics, procedure, operative

time, estimated blood loss, and mortality. Patients also completed a validated satisfaction instrument 2 weeks after hospital discharge. Results Morbidity rates and length of stay were similar between the study arms (standard rounds vs telerounds: 16% vs 13%; P = .64, 2.8 days LOS both groups, P=.94). Patient satisfaction was equivalently high in both groups. Telemedicine Reference Ellison LM et al. Arch Surg. 2007 Dec;142(12):117781 [Penobscot Bay Medical Center, Rockport, ME]

Conclusions Robotic telerounds matched the performance of standard bedside rounds after urologic surgical procedures. Impact Provocative in-hospital telemedicine report Telemedicine provider skills somewhat different than in person skills; some clinicians natural TV doctors, some not Telemedicine RCTs with no difference between intervention and control

Dansky et al. Impact of telehealth on clinical outcomes in patients with heart failure. Clin Nurs Res. 2008 Aug;17(3):182-99. [Penn State] Home monitoring vs. F2F care, no sig diff in symptoms or ED visits/hospitalizations. Leimig R et al. Infection, rejection, and hospitalizations in transplant recipients using telehealth. Prog Transplant. 2008 Jun;18(2):97-102. [Univ Tenn.] Live interactive sessions w/ specialized telemedicine equip including physical exam vs. nurse visits. No diff in infections, rejection, hospitalizations. Telemedicine Questions and Comments

Practice of Informatics Practice of Informatics Reference Love TE et al. J Gen Intern Med. 2008 Apr;23(4):383-91. [Case Western, Cleveland] Title Electronic medical record-assisted design of a cluster-randomized trial to improve diabetes care and outcomes. Aim To describe the design of a CRT of clinical decision support to improve diabetes care and outcomes.

Methods EMR-derived Pt characteristics used to partition Pts into groups with comparable baseline characteristics for two different clusterrandomized interventional trials of diabetes care using two different EMRs (Systems A and B). Measures: distributions of important eligibility and covariates compared to traditional means of identifying groups Practice of Informatics Reference Love TE et al. J Gen Intern Med. 2008 Apr;23(4):383-91. Results In System A, 4,306 patients assigned to 2 groups of practices; 8,369 patients in system B assigned to 3 groups of practices.

Nearly all baseline outcome variables and covariates were wellbalanced, including several not included in the initial design. Study design balance was superior to alternative partitions based on volume, geography or demographics alone. Conclusion EMRs facilitated rigorous CRT design by identifying large numbers of patients with diabetes and enabling fair comparisons through preassignment balancing of practice sites. Practice of Informatics Reference Love TE et al. J Gen Intern Med. 2008 Apr;23(4):383-91. Impact

In the era of Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSAs) increasingly sophisticated methods are being developed to data mine EMRs for observational studies, eligibility and design for interventional studies. Practice of Informatics Reference Bereznicki BJ et al. Med J Aust. 2008 Jul 7;189(1):21-5.. [Univ of Tasmania, Australia] Title Data-mining of medication records to improve asthma

management. Aim To use community pharmacy medication records to identify patients whose asthma not well managed, implement and evaluate a multidisciplinary educational intervention to improve asthma management. Methods 42 pharmacies ran software application to "data-mine" med records, generating a list of patients w/ >= 3 canisters of inhaled short-acting beta(2)-agonists in the preceding 6 months. Practice of Informatics Reference Bereznicki BJ et al. Med J Aust. 2008 Jul 7;189(1):21-5 .

Methods, contd Pts randomized to be contacted by the community pharmacist via mail, and sent educational material & letter encouraging them to see their general practitioner for an asthma management review. Outcome variable: ratio of preventer meds (steroids) to reliever meds (beta2 agonists) Results 702 intervention and 849 control Pts.

Threefold increase in preventer-reliever ratio in intervention vs. control group Practice of Informatics Reference Bereznicki BJ et al. Med J Aust. 2008 Jul 7;189(1):21-5. Conclusion Community pharmacy medication records can be effectively used to identify patients with suboptimal asthma management, who can then be referred to their GP for review Impact

Similar to post-Katrina experience in US, commercial pharmacy records can be merged and data mined to improve care Practice of Informatics Reference Meystre SM, Huag PJ. Int J Med Inform. 2008 Sep;77(9):602-12. [Univ of Utah] Title Randomized controlled trial of an automated problem list with improved sensitivity. Aim To improve the completeness and timeliness of an electronic

problem list. Methods Authors developed a system using Natural Language Processing (NLP) to automatically extract potential medical problems from clinical, free-text documents Problems then proposed for inclusion in an electronic problem list management application. Practice of Informatics Reference Meystre SM, Huag PJ. Int J Med Inform. 2008 Sep;77(9):602-12. Methods, contd 247 patients enrolled intensive care unit and IN

cardiovascular surgery unit) All patients had their documents analyzed by the system, but the medical problems discovered were only proposed in the problem list for intervention patients. Measured the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, likelihood ratios and the timeliness of the problem lists. Results System increased sensitivity of problem lists in ICU, from 9% to 41%, and to 77% if problems automatically proposed but not acknowledged also considered. Practice of Informatics

Reference Meystre SM, Huag PJ. Int J Med Inform. 2008 Sep;77(9):602-12. Results, contd Timeliness of addition of problems to the list was greatly improved, with a time between a problem's first mention in a clinical document and its addition to the problem list reduced from about 6 days to less than 2 days. No significant effect was observed in the cardiovascular surgery unit. Impact

NLP is coming of age for extraction of structured Practice of Informatics Questions and Comments New Literature Highlights: Bioinformatics and Computational Biology Human Health and Disease The practice of bioinformatics Bioinformatics: Human Health & Disease

Reference Cooper GM et al. Blood. 2008 Aug 15;112(4):1022-7.) [Univ Washington, Seattle] Title A genome-wide scan for common genetic variants with a large influence on warfarin maintenance dose. Aim To determine whether common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) other than VKORC1 and CYP2C9 have a large effect on warfarin dosing. Methods Index population of 181 warfarin-using Pts and two

independent verification populations (total 374) were studied for 550,000 SNPs. Bioinformatics: Human Health & Disease Reference Cooper GM et al. Blood. 2008 Aug 15;112(4):1022-7.) Results Most significant independent effect was associated with VKORC1 polymorphisms (P = 6.2 x 10(-13)) in the index patients.

CYP2C9 (rs1057910 CYP2C9*3) and rs4917639) was associated with dose at moderate significance levels (P approximately 10(-4). 355 candidate SNPs in index population did not replicate in other populations. Conclusion Two SNPs named in FDA labeling information for Coumadin are likely to be the only clinically significant ones. Bioinformatics: Human Health & Disease Reference Cooper GM et al. Blood. 2008 Aug

15;112(4):1022-7.) Importance Model of independent verification of Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS) is essential due to noisy, high dimensionality nature of SNP data. Bioinformatics: Human Health & Disease Reference Uhl GR et al. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2008 Jun;65(6):683-93. [NIDA intramural program, NIH]

Title Molecular genetics of successful smoking cessation: convergent genome-wide association study results. Aims To identify replicated genes that facilitate smokers' abilities to achieve and sustain abstinence from smoking (referred to as quit-success genes) found in more than 2 genome-wide association (GWA) studies of successful vs unsuccessful abstainers, Secondarily, to nominate genes for selective involvement in smoking cessation success with bupropion hydrochloride vs nicotine replacement therapy (NRT).

Bioinformatics: Human Health & Disease Reference Uhl GR et al. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2008 Jun;65(6):68393. Methods GWA study in 550 subjects from 3 centers, with secondary analyses of Nicotine Replacement Tx vs bupropion responders. Results SNPs associated with successful smoking cessation

were identified and found to participate in alteration of cell adhesion, enzymatic, transcriptional, structural, and DNA, RNA, and/or protein-handling functions Partial overlap with gene variants associated with dependence on addictive substances, and memory. Bioinformatics: Human Health & Disease Reference Uhl GR et al. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2008 Jun;65(6):683-93. Importance Molecular genetics can be used to match

types and intensity of anti-smoking treatments with the smokers most likely to benefit from them. Pathway interpretation of SNP functionality is early evidence of systems biology approach to understanding mechanisms of complex traits Bioinformatics: Human Health & Disease Reference Castellanos-Rubio A et al. Gastroenterology. 2008

Mar;134(3):738-46. Title Combined functional and positional gene information for the identification of susceptibility variants in celiac disease. Aim Characterize genetic contributions to celiac disease susceptibility using a novel approach Methods Intestinal biopsy specimens subjected to gene expression analysis

Bioinformatics: Human Health & Disease Reference Castellanos-Rubio A et al. Gastroenterology. 2008 Mar;134(3):738-46. Methods, contd Intestinal biopsy specimens subjected to gene expression analysis to identify overexpressed genes relative to normal mucosa 71 genes found via differential expression analysis had 361 previously described SNPs. Genotyping panels for these 361 SNPs used to

characterize 262 celiac disease Pts vs. 214 controls Bioinformatics: Human Health & Disease Reference Castellanos-Rubio A et al. Gastroenterology. 2008 Mar;134(3):738-46. Results Strong evidence of association present for three SNPs that pinpoint novel candidate determinants of

predisposition to the disease in previously identified linkage regions (eg, SERPINE2 in 2q33, and PBX3 or PPP6C in 9q34). Importance Use of complementary functional and structural approaches to finding diseaserelated genes The Practice of Bioinformatics Reference Chaussabel D et al. Immunity. 2008 Jul;29(1):150-64. [Baylor, Houston, TX] Title

A modular analysis framework for blood genomics studies: application to systemic lupus erythematosus. Aim Create strategy for microarray analysis that is based on the identification of transcriptional modules formed by genes coordinately expressed in multiple disease data sets. Methods Genes coordinately over-expressed in cells from SLE Pts organized into transcriptional modules representing common metabolic pathways

The Practice of Bioinformatics Reference Chaussabel D et al. Immunity. 2008 Jul;29(1):150-64. [Baylor, Houston, TX] Results Modules used to select biomarkers that were more robust in predicting disease progression in SLE patients than individually overexpressed genes. Importance An example of systems scale analysis combining quantitative assessment of individual genes with knowledge of control

pathways and metabolic circuits, to predict clinically meaningful events Computational Biology and Bioinformatics Questions and Comments Top Ten List of Notable Events in the Past 12 months Top Ten Events #10 Personal Genome Project data available 10/20/08

Top Ten Events #10 Personal Genome Project data available #9 ONC Strategic Plan published, 6/3/2008 Top Ten Events #10 Personal Genome Project data available #9 ONC Strategic Plan published #8 Massachusetts and Nevada pass laws requiring encryption of portable devices. September 2008 Even organizations that have no facilities or personnel in Massachusetts should anticipate that they will be subject to the regulations if they maintain personal information of any Massachusetts residents. Personal information is defined as: first name and last name or first initial and last name in combination with Social

Security number; drivers license number or state-issued identification card number; and financial account or credit or debit card number with or without any required security code, access code, personal identification number or password that would permit access to an individuals financial account. Besides the new encryption obligation, the regulations require entities that maintain personal information of Massachusetts residents to: designate an employee to maintain security program; identify paper, electronic and other storage media (including laptops) that contain personal information; conduct risk assessments; develop and implement, according to the results of those risk assessments, a program that ensures the security of all records whether maintained in paper or electronic form that contain personal information of Massachusetts residents; document the security program; include in the security program: processes for granting and withdrawing access privileges, ensuring proper authentication of users, appropriate access controls, methods of assigning passwords,

maintaining up to date firewalls and malware protections, training all affected employees and disciplining employees for violations of the security program; implement physical access controls and develop a written procedure; limit the amount of personal information to that which is reasonably necessary to accomplish the purpose for which the personal information was collected; limit the amount of time that personal information can be retained to only the time necessary to accomplish the purpose for which personal information was collected; limit access to only those individuals who need access in order to accomplish their job duties; regularly monitor compliance with the security program; conduct at least annual reviews of the security program and measures; and document response taken in connection with any security breach. Also, a Nevada statute, scheduled to take effect on October 1, 2008, will require encryption by entities doing business in that state of all personal information leaving an organizations system and transmitted over electronic networks. Taken together, the Nevada and Massachusetts enactments go a long way toward

Top Ten Events #10 Personal Genome Project data available #9 ONC Strategic Plan published #8 Massachusetts, Nevada require encryption #7 Exchange of clinical data using HITSP standards orchestrated by ONC, 9/23/2008 Top Ten Events #10 Personal Genome Project data available #9 ONC Strategic Plan published #8 Massachusetts, Nevada require encryption #7 Exchange of clinical data using HITSP standards orchestrated by ONC

#6 AMIA organizes Rockefeller Global eHealth conference, Bellagio, Italy, July 2008 The Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center 20-25 July, 2008 Top Ten Events #10 Personal Genome Project data available #9 ONC Strategic Plan published #8 Massachusetts, Nevada require encryption

#7 Exchange of clinical data using HITSP standards orchestrated by ONC #6 AMIA organizes Rockefeller Global eHealth conference #5 - CMS Medicare Improvements Act of 2008 pays mor for e-prescribing Top Ten Events #10 Personal Genome Project data available #9 ONC Strategic Plan published #8 Massachusetts, Nevada require encryption #7 Exchange of clinical data using HITSP standards orchestrated by ONC #6 AMIA organizes Rockefeller Global eHealth

conference #5 - CMS Medicare Improvements Act of 2008 pays more for e-prescribing #4 Explosion of molecular data 2nd, 3rd, and 4th full human genomes online in past year $500 personal genome expected in 3 years Proteomic labs generating a terabyte of mass spec data per

experiment Straining communication, archiving and analysis infrastructure Top Ten Events #10 Personal Genome Project data available #9 ONC Strategic Plan published #8 Massachusetts, Nevada require encryption #7 Exchange of clinical data using HITSP standards orchestrated by ONC #6 AMIA organizes Rockefeller Global eHealth conference #5 - CMS Medicare Improvements Act of 2008 pays more

for e-prescribing #4 Explosion of molecular data #3 - FDA Sentinel Initiative launched, May 2008 Top Ten Events #10 Personal Genome Project data available #9 ONC Strategic Plan published #8 Massachusetts, Nevada require encryption #7 Exchange of clinical data using HITSP standards orchestrated by ONC #6 AMIA organizes Rockefeller Global eHealth conference #5 - CMS Medicare Improvements Act of 2008 pays more for e-prescribing #4 Explosion of molecular data

#3 - FDA Sentinel Initiative launched #2 NIH Public Access policy becomes mandatory 12/2007 And the #1 top event of 2008 is Top Ten Events #10 Personal Genome Project data available #9 ONC Strategic Plan published #8 Massachusetts, Nevada require encryption #7 Exchange of clinical data using HITSP standards orchestrated by ONC #6 AMIA organizes Rockefeller Global eHealth conference #5 - CMS Medicare Improvements Act of 2008 pays more

for e-prescribing #4 Explosion of molecular data #3 - FDA Sentinel Initiative launched #2 NIH Public Access policy becomes mandatory #1 Obama wins Presidency on platform including $50B for EMR infrastructure The Year in Review Summary The only thing we know about the future is that it

will be different. Peter Drucker The Village Inn Content for this session is at: http://dbmichair.mc.vanderbilt.edu/amia2 008/ including citation lists and links and this PowerPoint

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