Classifying Matter: OUTCOME QUESTION(S): S1-2-03 What are the
Classifying Matter: OUTCOME QUESTION(S): S1-2-03 What are the symbols of the first 20 elements and other common ones? S1-0-04 What symbols and systems help people use chemicals safely at home, work, and for the environment? Vocabulary & Concepts
element atom Periodic Table WHMIS HHPS SDS Periodic Table of Elements contains all known elements in the universe! Define element: Pure substance that cannot be broken down into any other simpler part. Atoms: 1.
All matter is made of tiny particles ATOMS 2. Atoms of each element are unique 3. Compounds are combinations of elements 4.
Atoms cannot be created or destroyed You need to memorize the symbols of these elements. An updated Periodic Table contains 118 elements, the atoms of which come together to make up EVERYTHING in the Universe. WHMIS is a government program that requires all dangerous substances to have: 1. Labels on the containers 2. Safety data sheet (SDS)
Some dangerous substances can be pure elements or combinations of elements that make up chemicals. Labels are the first alert to the user about the major hazards associated with that product: 1 1. Product identifier 3 2. Supplier identifier
4 3. Pictogram(s) hazard symbols 5 4. Signal word 5. Hazard statement(s) 6
6. Precautionary statement(s) 7. Supplemental label information 2 Safety Data Sheets (SDSs) are detailed, summary documents written by the manufacturer or supplier of the product: By law, SDSs must be kept by the employer/user in an accessible location for anyone to reference
the hazards of the product how to use the product safely how to recognize symptoms of exposure what to do if emergencies occur WHMIS (GHS) Pictograms / Symbols HHPS - Hazardous Household Product Symbols
These symbols are easy to recognize and find on a product generally used at home. HHPS pictograms are intentionally easier so individuals with NO science background will understand the hazards RULE 6: Never work alone in a Lab. It is safer to work in pairs, so one can always get help if it is need. HELP!!
HELP!! Ever. Lab Safety Rules GENERAL GUIDELINES 1. Read all instructions carefully before you start an experiment.
2. Do not use or handle anything until instructed by the teacher. 3. Only do experiments authorized by your teacher. 4. Keep your work area clean and tidy.
5. NO food in the laboratory. 6. DO NOT taste, touch or smell any chemicals. 7. Be alert and proceed with caution at all times in the laboratory.
8. Never work alone in the laboratory. 9. Dress properly during a laboratory activity. 10. Wear necessary safety equipment. 11. DO NOT touch your face during the lab. 12. Wash your hands with soap afterwards.
11. Take only as much chemical as you need. 12. Take care in measuring chemicals and clean up spills immediately. 13. DO NOT pour ANY chemicals in the sink without instruction. 14. NEVER use chipped, cracked, or dirty glassware. 15. Know the location of all emergency equipment. 16. Report any accident or injury to the teacher immediately. Laboratory Hazards WHAT DO YOU DO? Thermal Burns - water, ice Chemical Burns
- water, eye-wash, shower Laceration (cuts) - Band-Aids Fire - fire blanket, extinguisher CAN YOU ANSWER THESE QUESTIONS? S1-2-03 What are the symbols of the first 20 elements and other common ones? S1-0-04
What symbols and systems help people use chemicals safely at home, work, and for the environment? Vocabulary & Concepts element atom Periodic Table WHMIS HHPS SDS CLASSIFYING MATTER: Classification
OUTCOME QUESTION(S): S1-2-09 How do you classify matter using the words: element, compound, atom, molecule, mixture and pure? Vocabulary & Concepts Pure Mixture Compound Molecule Diatomic
Heterogeneous Homogeneous Metalloid Matter: Anything that has mass and takes up space, or volume. Pure Every particle that makes up a substance is the SAME. Mixture
Substance contains more than one kind of particle. PURE 1. Elements Simplest form matter Smallest particle of an element - atom 2. Compounds Two or more elements chemically bonded Smallest particle of an compound molecule A bucket of gold atoms (Au) and
a bucket of water molecules (H2O) are both PURE since in both cases there is only ONE type of particle Element: Sodium all pure sodium atoms Compound: Salt all pure sodium chloride molecules Its possible to have compounds of the same atoms: Called diatomic (two atoms) molecules
Oxygen gas O2 Hydrogen gas H2 Homogeneous (can not see the pieces) Mixture is evenly distributed solution Cannot physically separate different particles Salt and water Coke Cheese Heterogeneous (can see the pieces) Mixture is not evenly distributed
Different particles can be separated physically Sand and water Pizza Bubble tea Metals Most common form of matter 75% of elements Metals demonstrate similar (but NOT identical) physical and chemical properties Non-metals 15% of elements Non-metals demonstrate properties that are the
opposite of metals A staircase on every Periodic Table separates the metals from the non-metals Metalloids: Elements on the staircase 6% of elements Exhibit properties between metal / non-metals. CAN YOU ANSWER THESE QUESTIONS? S1-2-09 How do you classify matter using the words: element,
compound, atom, molecule, mixture and pure? Vocabulary & Concepts Pure Mixture Compound Molecule Diatomic Heterogeneous Homogeneous Metalloid Classifying Matter:
Properties of Materials and Chemical Reactions OUTCOME QUESTION(S): S1-2-07 What properties classify elements as metals, nonmetals or metalloids? S1-2-12 How do you identify physical or chemical change and if a chemical reaction has taken place?
Oxidation Law of Conservation of Matter Physical properties Trait that is observed or measured without changing the composition of matter No two substances in the Universe have the same Can be qualitative or quantitative melting or boiling point - UNIQUE State/phase solid, liquid or gas (normally)
Hardness how easy it is to scratch or dent Viscosity how easy it flows Melting point unique temperature needed to change from solid into liquid Boiling point unique temperature needed to change from liquid into gas Other examples of Physical Properties: Lustre shiny or dull Malleability how easy to bend or flatten (opposite brittle) Ductility how easy to pull into a wire
Solubility does it dissolve in water Conductivity does it transfer heat/electricity Chemical properties Trait describes if substance reacts chemically Cannot be observed without changing the original material Reactivity does it react quickly? Combustibility does it ignite or burn? Corrosion does it react with acids? Oxidation does it react with air? Toxicity does it react with the body?
You have to be willing to destroy or alter the substance you are testing to find a chemical property Property Lustre Metal shiny Nonmetal Metalloid dull
solid* solid / gas* solid * semi (*) there are exceptions to these properties Physical Change A change in shape or state of a substance No evidence of a new material forming - crushing, melting, boiling, cutting
H O H Anything that changes what it looks like NOT what it is Chemical change A change in chemical properties of a substance **Means a new substance is formed a chemical reaction has happened!
Evidence of a chemical reaction (and chemical change): 1. A change in colour 2. A change in smell 3. Fizzing or bubbling (new gas being made) Testing for Gases Oxygen flame re-ignites or glows brighter
Hydrogen gas explodes with a pop 4. A new solid forms from a mixture of liquids or the mixture goes cloudy This new solid is called a precipitate 5. A change in energy Energy could be light, heat, sound think of the most obvious change in energy reaction an EXPLOSION!
Physical properties Chemical properties Test the material Physical change State or shape NO Reaction Same substance with
same properties Chemical change colour smell energy
Gas bubbles Precipitate Chemical Reaction New substance with new properties 1000 kg 1000 kg
Would the tree and the ash weigh the same? Law of Conservation of Matter: In any chemical reaction matter cannot be created or destroyed. Atoms will rearrange to form new compounds with new properties, but the number and type of atoms will not change during the reaction CAN YOU ANSWER THESE QUESTIONS? S1-2-07
What properties classify elements as metals, nonmetals or metalloids? S1-2-12 How do you identify physical or chemical change and if a chemical reaction has taken place? Vocabulary & Concepts State/Phase Lustre Ductility Malleability Solubility
Conductivity Reactivity Combustibility Toxicity Precipitate Corrosion Oxidation Law of Conservation of Matter
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