Digital Planet: Tomorrows Technology and You Chapter 4

Digital Planet: Tomorrows Technology and You Chapter 4

Digital Planet: Tomorrows Technology and You Chapter 4 Software Basics The Ghost in the Machine Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Categories of Software Compilers and translator programs Enable programmers to create other software

Software applications Serve as productivity tools to help users solve problems System software Coordinates hardware operations Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 2 The Language of Computers

Every computer processes instructions in machine language. Numeric codes used to represent basic operations: Adding and subtracting numbers Comparing numbers Moving numbers Repeating instructions Programmers use high-level languages. C++, Java, etc. Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 3

Consumer Applications Disclaimeran end-user license agreement (EULA) protects companies from errors in programs Licensing: Buy software license not program Distribution by direct sales or download from Web Includes public-domain software and shareware Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4 Web Applications

Growing trend toward using applications that run on remote Internet servers instead of local PCs. Google Docs Webmail programs: Gmail, Hotmail, Yahoo! Mail Wikis: Wikipedia Online communities: Facebook Its all about The Cloud Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 5 System Software:

The Hardware-Software Connection System software: Class of software that includes the operating system and utility programs Handles low-level details and hundreds of other tasks behind the scenes User does not need to be concerned about details Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 6 What the Operating System Does Every computer depends on an operating system to:

Keep hardware running efficiently Maintains file system Supports multitasking Manages virtual memory Operating system runs continuously when computer is on Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 7 Utility Programs

Serve as tools for doing system maintenance and repairs not handled by operating system Utilities make it easier for users to: Copy files between storage devices Repair damaged data files Translate files so different programs can read them Guard against viruses and other harmful programs Compress files so they take up less space Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 8 The Operating System

When you turn on the computer, the CPU automatically begins executing instructions stored in ROM. The operating system (OS) loads from the disk into part of the systems memory. Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9 The Operating System (cont.) The OS loads the application program into memory and remains in memory, so it can provide services to the application programdisplay on-screen menus, communicate with the printer, and perform other common actions.

Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 10 UNIX and Linux UNIX: Command-line, character-based OS Internet is populated with computers running UNIX OS of choice for workstations and mainframes in research and academic settings Favored by many who require an industrial-strength, multiuser OS

Linux, a UNIX clone, is distributed and supported free Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 11 Compatibility Issues Operating systems are designed to run on particular hardware platforms. Applications are designed to run on particular

operating systems. Most cloud applications are designed to run on multiple platforms. Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 12 Disk Formatting Hard disks are formatted by manufacturer before installing operating system: Electronic marks are put on disk. Disk is divided into series of concentric tracks.

Tracks are divided into sectors. Sectors are bundled into clusters or blocks. File system provides way to link multiple clusters to store large files Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 13 Defragmentation Contents of file may become scattered over clusters.

Accessing information is faster if file is assigned to contiguous clusters. A defragmentation utility eliminates fragmented files. Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 14 Software Piracy and Intellectual Property Laws Software piracy: Illegal duplication of copyrighted

softwareis rampant Few software companies use physical copy protection methods and that makes copying easy Many people unaware of laws Others simply look the other way Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 15 The Piracy Problem Software industry loses billions of dollars every year to software pirates.

Business Software Alliance (BSA) estimates that more than one-third of software in use is illegally copied. Piracy is particularly hard on small companies. Industry organizations work with law enforcement agencies to crack down on piracy. Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 16 MSPublisher Lets look at the first application (software) that we need to understand for this course.

Microsoft Publisher On the PCs in Froman If you want to use it at home, you can find Free Trial software downloads. Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 17

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