The FRAME Routine Key Topic Roman Geography is

The FRAME Routine Key Topic Roman Geography is

The FRAME Routine Key Topic Roman Geography is about How geography influenced the development of Roman culture and civilization Essential details Rome was centrally located in the Mediterranean Basin and distant from eastern powers Located on the Italian Peninsula Created a crossroads for trade along the Mediterranean Seaknown as seaborne commerce Rome was protected by: 1) The 2) Alps Seas (Mediterranean and Adriatic) So What? (Whats important to understand about this?) Due to Rome's central location, they were able to influence those around the Mediterranean Basin Map of Rome Italian Peninsula Greece The Alps Adriatic Sea Rome Mediterranean Basin Mediterranean Sea Black Sea Roman Gods/Goddesses Jupiter:

Juno: - Jupiter (Greek: Zeus) - King of the gods Married - Juno (Greek: Hera) - Queen of the gods Diana Venus - Venus (Greek: Aphrodite) - Goddess of love - Diana (Greek: Artemis) - Goddess of hunt and childbirth Apollo - Apollo (Greek: Apollo) - God of the sun and music Neptune - Neptune (Greek: Poseidon) - God of the seas Minerva Mars - Mars (Greek: Ares) - God of war - Minerva (Greek: Athena) - Goddess of wisdom Key Topic The FRAME

Roman Republic is about . . . Social structure and democratic features of the republic of Rome Main Idea Main Idea Social Structure Citizenship Main Idea Consuls Details Details The Roman Republic had 3 social classes: Patriciansnobility/rich (few in number) Plebeiansmajority of the population (landowners, merchants, farmers) Slavesthose that were conquered (not based on race) So What? Citizenship was held by all patricians and plebeians and extended to a few foreigners Citizens had rights not extended to slaves and nonRomans All citizens could vote but had the responsibility to pay taxes and serve in the military

Details At the top of the government (two people elected by the assembly each year) Served on year terms Could veto any decisions made by the assembly Ran the government Main Idea Roman Republic Details Two bodies made up the representative branch of the govt. 1) Senate made up of patricians controlled finances and foreign affairs 2) Assembly made laws for Rome Both branches were elected by the people Twelve Tables were the first written set of Roman Laws Rome made great developments in representative democracy, which is the foundation of our government in the U.S. Key Topic The FRAME Causes and Results of the Punic Wars is about . . . What caused the Punic Wars and what were the results Causes of the Punic Wars

Essential Details Rome fought Carthage in 3 wars that lasted over 100 years The wars were fought over competition for trade Results of the Punic Wars Essential Details Romans destroyed Carthagetheir major economic competitor Rome expanded trade and wealth Rome now dominated the Mediterranean Roman culture spread through the following areas: Rome and Carthage both wanted to control trade along the Mediterranean Sea -Mediterranean Basin (Africa, Asia, Europe, including the Hellenistic world of the Eastern Mediterranean - Western Europe (Gaul and British Isles) So What? After Rome conquered Carthage, they controlled the Mediterranean and were able to spread their culture Map of Rome and Carthage Gaul Spain Corsica Rome Sardinia Carthage Sicily Med. Sea Key Topic

The FRAME Punic Wars is about . . . The events that took place during the Punic Wars Main Idea 1st First Punic War Details The Carthaginians had taken control of Sicily, Corsica, and Sardinia Romans marched south to defeat Carthage Romans won and gained the three islands So What? Main Idea 2nd Second Punic War Details Hannibal invaded the Italian Peninsula Hannibal got to Rome but never defeated the city Rome counterattacked the city of Carthage Carthage gave up all land except the city of Carthage Main Idea 3rd

Third Punic War Details Rome was angry from the 2nd Punic War and attacked Carthage Rome completely destroyed the city and annexed (added) it Romes victory over Carthage allowed them to be the dominating force over the Mediterranean Sea Key Topic The FRAME Routine Fall of the Roman is about Republic How military conquests alter economic and social life in Rome Essential details 1 2 Spread of slavery in the agricultural system - Cheap slave labor took jobs away from average citizens Unemployment of small farmers going into cities - Small farms were transformed into slave plantations, putting many out of work 3 Devaluation of Roman currency (inflation) 4 Julius Caesar took power - Rome broke out into Civil War So What? (Whats important to understand about this?) Economic problems and Civil War led to the fall of the Roman Republic. Key Topic

The FRAME Imperial Rome Pt.1 is about . . . How the rise of Julius Caesar led to the fall of the Roman Republic Main Idea Main Idea Julius Caesar Details Ides of March Details Julius Caesar began as a leader of Senate was fearful of Caesar so they the Roman Army In 60 B.C.E., he joined military leaders Pompey and Crassius to form the First Triumvirate assassinated him Caesar later seized complete power Rome broke out in new civil war and crushed Pompey and the Senate -Venni, Veddi, Vicci Marc Anthony (Caesars general) and Caesar made himself dictator for life March 15, 44 BCEBeware of the Ides of March Octavian (Caesars nephew) hunted down the murderers So What? The Roman Republic could not recover from the threat posed by Julius Caesar

Key Topic The FRAME Imperial Rome Pt.2 is about . . . The events that led up to Imperial Rome Main Idea Main Idea Marc Anthony vs. Octavian Augustus Caesar Details Details Main Idea Reasons for Imperial Rome Details Soon Anthony and Octavian Senate renamed Octavian Civil War gave rise fought for power Augustus Octavian (Augustus) Caesar Now have unified and enlarged empire -That uses imperial power and the military Failure to provide from a peaceful succession of emperors Anthony made allies with

Egypt 31 BCE, Octavian defeated Marc Anthony and his ally Cleopatra So What? Rome became an empire and Augustus was the emperor Roman Empire took away power from the people but expanded Roman territory and strengthened military power Contributions of ancient Rome: Roman Culture: - Rome embraced and adopted the culture of the Ancient Greeks Pantheon: - Dome structure built to honor the Roman gods - Conquest spread Roman culture and technology throughout Europe - Has open eye in center to let in sunlight (skylight) Forum: - Public place for political debate Coliseum: - Center for entertainment (gladiators, Christian sacrifices, mazes, naval battles) - Contained a number of separate buildings - Aqueducts: Artificial channels for carrying water with less materials -Roads: All roads lead to Rome - Stone amphitheater Technology:

-Roman Arches: Used to hold large weight Contributions of ancient Rome: Religion: -Based on Greek polytheism - Roman mythology still present today (names of the planets) - Later Christianity emerged within the Roman Empire Science and Medicine: - emphasis on public health system (public baths, public water system, medical schools, etc.) Literature: - Romans stole the Greek style of epic poems - Virgil wrote the Aeneidtied to Homers Iliad Law and Language: - The Twelve Tables (principle of innocent until proven guilty) -Latin became the basis of Romantic languages Ptolemymathematician/astronom er Proposed theory that the Earth was at the center of the universe - Today many of our words come from Latin words Key Topic The FRAME Pax Romana and Origins of Christianity is about . . . The impact of the Pax Romana and the origins of Christianity Main Idea Pax Romana

Details Pax Romana- Latin for Roman Peace - Occurred under Augustus Caesar Lasted for 200 years Expansion and solidification of the Empire Time of wealth and peace Main Idea E= Economic Pax Romana S= Social P= Political Details Guaranteed safe travel and trade on Roman Roads _______ Increased emphasis on the family ________ Uniform system of money established ________ Civil Service System created to make improvements to Rome _______ Developed a uniform rule of law (Twelve Tables) _________ Promoted prosperity and stability ________ Stability returned to social classes ___________ Main Idea Origins of Christianity Details Traces its roots back to Judaism Led by Jesus of Nazareth Jesus claimed to be the Messiah (or savior)

Christianity conflicted with the polytheistic beliefs of the Roman Empire - Led to his crucifixion So What? 1) The Pax Romana was a great time of peace and prosperity in the Roman Empire 2) Christianity originated out of Judaism Key Topic The FRAME Beliefs and Spread of Christianity is about . . . The beliefs and development of Christianity Main Idea Christian beliefs and customs Details Monotheisticbelieve in one god Jesus is both the Son and incarnation of god Believe in life after death judgment day, heaven, or hell Sacred Text= Holy Bible (Old and New Testament) - New Testament contains the life and teachings of Jesus Christian doctrines established by early church councils Main Idea Main Idea Spread of Christianity Church of

Rome Details Details Message was popular--eternal life, forgiveness, golden rule, etc. Early martyrs inspired others Apostles such as Paul, carried the religion throughout the Roman Empire Paul built churches from Mesopotamia to Rome Paul spread Christianity to Gentiles (non-Jews) Emperor Constantine converted to Christianity and made it legal The Edict of Milan was the document that made Christianity legal - Later Christianity became the official state religion The Church became a source of moral authority Loyalty to the Church became more important than loyalty to the Emperor The Church became the main unifying force in Western Europe

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