WHEN FRACKING ISN'T CALLED FRACKING: Flawed Well Stimulation
WHEN FRACKING ISN'T CALLED FRACKING: Flawed Well Stimulation Definition in Proposed State Oil Legislation (HB 191/SB 318) Excludes Most Common Form of Fracking-like Extraction in FL (image and article at https://www.onepetro.org/journal-paper/SPE-129329-JPT) Industry depiction of acid stimulation / matrix acidizing wormholes formed in carbonate rock dissolved with acids and fracking chemicals aka Matrix Acidization High pressure well stimulation
that created fractures Considered Fracking by industry Does not create fractures (dissolves the rock) Not Fracking to industry Yet both use a lot of freshwater, inject hazardous fracking chemicals underground and create toxic flowback to be disposed of In matrix acidizing, the goal is to dissolve minerals in the rock to increase well productivity. This is accomplished by injecting an application-specific solution of
acid into the formation at a pressure between the pore pressure and fracture gradient, (emphasis added to highlight below fracture gradient) Note: Note: Floridas Floridas geology geology is is carbonate carbonate rock rock Real life at the Hogan well: Question at onset as to
whether fracking or acid stimulation occurred Commissioned by DEP Eventual confirmation of fracking at the Hogan well Trade secret documents were evaluated by independent expert, who concluded in Dec. 2014 that well had been hydraulically fracked - after well was also acid stimulated to dissolve rock. MSDS from Hughes HF proposal Chemical disclosure list page 1 of 3claimed trade secret
But acid stimulation with fracking chemicals also confirmed at the Hogan well Common fracking chemicals on FracFocus site highlighted to show those used when well acidized Excerpt from Hughes acidizing proposal Highly hazardous fracking chemicals used in both the acidizing and fracturing operations MSDS from Hughes acidizing AND hydraulic fracturing proposal Acid stimulation at the Hogan well
NOT acid cleaning or acid fracking http://www.slideshare.net/MHaNiFChAChAR/carbonate-acidizing-design-142 Acids did not stay inside or in the immediate vicinity of well as would be the case with acid cleaning The acid was mixed with standard fracking chemicals The acid fracking chemical mixture dissolved more than three feet out into solid rock It did not use pressure exceeding fracture gradient to create fractures = ACID STIMULATION or MATRIX ACIDIZING was used to enhance oil
production at Hogan well California Public Resources Code correctly captures acid stimulation 3157. (a) For purposes of this article, "well stimulation treatment" means any treatment of a well designed to enhance oil and gas production or recovery by increasing the permeability of the formation. Well stimulation treatments include, but are not limited to, hydraulic fracturing treatments and acid well stimulation treatments. (b) Well stimulation treatments do not include steam flooding, water flooding, or cyclic steaming and do not include routine well cleanout work, routine well maintenance, routine removal of formation damage due to drilling, bottom hole pressure surveys, or routine activities that do not affect the integrity of the well or the formation. 3158. "Acid well stimulation treatment" means a well stimulation treatment that uses, in whole or in part, the application of one or more acids to the well or underground geologic
formation. The acid well stimulation treatment may be at any applied pressure and may be used in combination with hydraulic fracturing treatments or other well stimulation treatments. Acid well stimulation treatments include acid matrix stimulation treatments and acid fracturing treatments. Acid matrix stimulation treatments are acid treatments conducted at pressures lower than the applied pressure necessary to fracture the underground geologic formation. California Code of Regulations (14 CCR 1761) distinguishes cleaning from stimulation (B) Well stimulation treatment does not include routine well cleanout work; routine well maintenance; routine treatment for the purpose of removal of formation damage due to drilling; bottom hole pressure surveys; routine activities that do not
affect the integrity of the well or the formation; the removal of scale or precipitate from the perforations, casing, or tubing; a gravel pack treatment that does not exceed the formation fracture gradient; or a treatment that involves emplacing acid in a well and that uses a volume of fluid that is less than the Acid Volume Threshold for the operation and is below the formation fracture gradient. CA formula to distinguish cleaning from stimulation: (3) Acid Volume Threshold means a volume, in US gallons, per treated foot of
well stimulation treatment, calculated as follows: (((Size of the drill bit diameter in inches that was used in the treated zone / 2 + 36 inches)2 - (bit diameter in inches / 2)2) x 3.14159 x 12 inches x treated formation porosity) / 231 (inches3/gallon). Inputting Hogan information into CA formula confirmed it was acid stimulation, not acid cleaning (see above). The lowest calculated or measured porosity in the zone of treated formation shall be
the treated formation porosity used for calculating the Acid Volume Threshold. HB 191/SB 318 only address techniques that fracture, excluding acid stimulation (as acid stimulation/matrix acidizing dissolves, does not fracture or exceed the fracture gradient) Excerpt from SB 318 SB 318 requires a permit for high pressure fracturing operations only SB 318 establishes a moratorium for high pressure fracturing operations only
SB 318 studies high pressure fracturing operations only Not one mention of acid stimulation anywhere in the bills and each place specifically limits only to fracturing Excluding acid stimulation in HB 191/ SB 318 means: No study No moratorium No added regulation No added disclosure of
chemicals of the technique more commonly being used in our geology acid stimulation! HB 191/SB 318 even excludes some fracturing Excerpt from SB 318 Creates another large loophole as unlikely to fracture given pressure involved to do so, and unclear how to determine which operations incidentally fracture especially beforehand!
HB 191/SB 318 should at least capture all well stimulation To even move in right direction with forming the proper foundation for future legislation, legislation must capture ALL forms of well stimulation involving the injection of hazardous chemicals. Current bill HB 191/SB 318 fails to address acid stimulation Legislation must address all well stimulation But still will not provide all the public safeguards needed
No requirement that nearby abandoned wells be plugged properly to current standards No requirement that they use alternative water instead of prime potable water supplies No requirement that all chemicals be disclosed to local governments so they can provide adequate emergency response Etc. etc. etc.
Their size: broadsheet size (most common), tabloid size (National Enquirer) What geographic areas they cover: national, , state, local. Whom they are intended to target: Wall Street Journal, The Atlanta Voice. Types of Publications. Types of Magazines.
To understand what structure is expected in a piece of persuasive writing. ... Once you have your skeleton plan, you're 70% of the way there: all you need to do is flesh it out with persuasive language and rhetorical devices!...
ELIPSA, ZEUGMA Petra Libíková 14.4.2010 ELIPSA Z řeckého slova ellipsis = nedostatek, chyba, vynechání Označována též výpustka (výpustek) ELIPSA = vynechání takových slov nebo vět, které označují skutečnosti známé ze situace nebo z kontextu, a které si proto můžeme bez...
Solstice Chart Veteran Homelessness: the Mental Health Challenge Within Objectives Summary Background Current Mental & Addiction Disorders among Persons Experiencing Homelessness Concerns and Responses PowerPoint Presentation One view of homeless causation Components to Promote an Exit from Homelessness (all shown...
Phyllis Schlaflywas a huge supporter of more aggressive conservatism in the Republican Party. Equal Rights Amendment opponent (Chapter 29) Accused Republicans of being Democrats in disguise. Goldwater's militant tone and Lyndon Johnson's dedication to continue liberalism after Kennedy's assassination was...