The Great War: World War I The War to End All Wars The lamps have gone out all over Europe and we shall not see them lit again in our lifetime. - British Prime Minister Lord Grey Long Term Causes of World War I
Nationalism Militarism Imperialism
Peace time alliances Long-standing ethnic grudges Map 22.1 European Alliances in 1914 (p. 638) 25_8.jpg Short term timeline leading to World War I
June 28 - Assassination of Austro-Hungarian Archduke and heir, Francis Ferdinand (and Sophie, his wife) July 23 - Austria issues ultimatum to Serbia and invades on July 27 July 28-30 - Russians mobilize as Serbias ally August 1 - Germany, Austria-Hungarys ally, declares war on Russia (and Serbia) August 3 - Germany declares war on France (allied
with Russia) and invades Belgium en route to Paris, France August 4 - Great Britain, Frances ally, declares war on Germany The sides formed Triple Entente (Allies)
France Great Britain Italy Russia (1917 exit)
United States (1917 entry) Central Powers Germany Austria-Hungary (empire) Ottoman Empire Bulgaria
United States remains neutral Woodrow Wilson: Remain neutral in thought as well as deed To protect international trading rights He kept us out of war. 1916 presidential campaign slogan U.S. Neutrality under fire
British blockade of North Sea Germans engage in submarine (u-boat) warfare Lusitania crisis (May 1915) British liner sunk by German U-boats Arabic and Sussex sinkings (Germans issue Sussex pledge)
Economic ties with Britain and France - war time trade and US financing of allied war effort Shifting US public opinion Reports of German cruelty (Huns) reinforced by Lusitania
Ethnic loyalties Native born Americans (not Indians) favored Britain and French victory British War Propaganda Pro-War politicians (TR) More Propaganda
Preparedness Greater $ for military spending necessary National Security League National Defense Act: June 1916 Midwest and Western
Americans opposed to preparedness (Populists, Progressives, Socialists) Election of 1916
He Kept us out of War Peace efforts had failed Wilson narrowly won January 1917, Peace without Victory Speech April 1917, Wilson asked for declaration
of war. From Neutrality to War Zimmermann Telegram (1917) Russian Revolution (1917) Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
The World Must be made safe for Democracy (Progressive crusade) Mobilization in the USA War Industries Board (Bernard Baruch) coordinated production
and price controls Food Administration (Herbert Hoover) voluntary efforts to conserve food for soldiers Financing - Liberty Bonds
25_10.jpg America and the War Effort (p. 636) Remember Your First Thrill of American Liberty (p. 649) Wartime Public Opinion Committee on Public Information propaganda agency
in America (George Creel) do your bit for the war Hate the Hun, Liberty Cabbage, Salisbury Steak, Can the Kaiser Wartime Civil Liberties
Espionage and Sedition Acts (1917-18) jail sentences for those critical of disloyal or abusive remarks toward US war effort Schenck v. United States (1919) clear and present danger - free
speech could be limited The Armed Forces Selective Service Act (1917) draft: 2.8 million draftees, 2.9 million volunteers Eventually 2 million were sent to Europe Blacks - 400,000 served, few officers Blacks hoped for service abroad = equal rights at home (not so)
American Society Women took mens jobs while men were Over There led to Nineteenth Amendment Mexicans - left Mexico (upheaval and revolution) and took
jobs in American West Blacks - Great Migration to northern cities for job opportunities and to escape poverty Fighting the War New style of
warfare: mechanized Machine guns tanks long-range, heavy artillery poison gas (various types) Trench warfare
(not entirely new) No-Mans Land Hand grenades Other factors after US entry Russian revolution and withdrawal (Treaty of Brest-Litovsk) allowed Germany to focus on Western front entirely
Naval shipping losses = huge. Led to Convoy System and record ship construction Pershings Crusaders: The Doughboys American Expedition ary Force
(AEF) General John J. Pershing First major action in spring 1918
American Battles:1918 German Counteroffensive Chateau-Thierry (2nd Battle of the Marne) Belleau Wood (June 1918) Meuse (river) Argonnes (forest) Offensive (Fall 1918) St. Mihiel
November 11, 1918 Armistice (cease-fire) 25_13.jpg American Troops at the Western Front, 1918 Map 22.2 U.S Participation on the Western Front, 1918 (p. 644) 25_19.jpg
25_16.jpg Casualties 50,000 Americans died in 1918 combat 1918 Influenza epidemic (worldwide) killed thousands of soldiers and millions of people around the globe 112,000 American fatalities
Approximate Comparative Losses in World War I Winning the Peace: The Versailles Peace Conference Paris and Palace of Versailles Big Four: Woodrow Wilson
(USA) David Lloyd George (GBR) Georges Clemenceau (FR) Orlando Vittorio (IT) Russia excluded Defeated powers
humiliated Wilsons 14 points the major proposal Wilsons 14 Points To make the world safe for democracy #1-5 - international law
recommendations #6-13 - European boundary restructure #14 - League of Nations page1012.jpg page1039.jpg
Seed treatment with Azospirillum and Azotobacter saves 20 to 30 kg N/ha in sesame, mustard, sunflower and safflower Application of phosphorus solubilising bacteria (PSB) mobilizes fixed P in soil and reduces P requirement * Irrigation More than 77% of oilseeds...
Time phrases in the Present and Present Perfect (past) Tense Time phrases for the Present Tense jetzt heute heutzutage zur Zeit im Moment diesen Monat dieses Jahr diese Woche seit einem Monat einem Jahr seit einer Woche now today nowadays...
This slide contains a photograph of the first DCNet station located on the roof of the Department of Commerce (HCHB). Coupled with the testbed questions of adequate levels of meteorological monitoring in urban environments, the DCNet system was established as...
NASA's Cassini Finds Saturn's Rings Coat Tiny Moons. NASA's InSight Prepares to Take Mars' Temperature. In this computer graphic, NASA's Voyager 1 probe, moving toward upper left, nears the edge of the sun's influence, flying through a region of space...
Hofstede's Four (five) Dimensions of Culture. Power distance. The extent that a culture excepts that power is unequally distributed. Generally low in Scandinavia. High in south America and France. Uncertainty avoidance. Degree to which members of a culture is uncomfortable...
Microsoft, Windows, Windows Vista and other product names are or may be registered trademarks and/or trademarks in the U.S. and/or other countries. The information herein is for informational purposes only and represents the current view of Microsoft Corporation as of...