View) Area of interest closest to cassette Extend affected leg cranially & ventrally Opposite leg pulled out of way Arch head & neck dorsally Hind limbs in natural position Dont over-rotate thorax Head & limbs make a T
Borders: Proximal 1/3 of humerus & scapula 6 Shoulder & Scapula (Caudocranial View) (Same positioning for humerus) 7
Humerus (Mediolateral View) *Positioning is identical to scapula 8 Humerus (Mediolateral View) Lateral recumbency with affected leg down Affected leg is extended forward Opposite leg drawn back
Head and neck extended dorsally. Larger dogs may need 2 views Elbow/shoulder may differ in density Center ray at mid-shaft Borders 1/3 bone proximal to shoulder & distal to elbow 9 Humerus (Caudocranial
View) Same positioning as for shoulder/scapula Be aware of distortion since forearm is away from cassette 10 Elbow (Mediolateral Extended View) Move head & neck dorsally Extend other limb caudally
Affected elbow joint is in 120-degree extended position Maintain symmetry of structures with small foam pad under distal region of affected limb 11 Elbow (CrCa View)
Foam pad under unaffected limb Pull head away from affected limb Center ray on center of humeral condyles Borders 1/3 of bone proximal & distal Symmetry is essential * Same positioning for other CrCa views (with different borders) 12
Radius & Ulna (Mediolateral View) Same as for extended elbow view (with different borders) Place foam under the humerus & cranial thorax to maintain alignment Make sure cassette is large enough to include correct borders Measure at mid-shaft to minimize over-exposure
13 Radius & Ulna (CrCa View) Positioning as for CrCd elbow view (with different borders) Measure at mid-shaft of bone 14 Carpus (Mediolateral Hyperflexed
View) Lateral recumbency Hyperflex carpus Helps evaluate carpal joint laxity Borders Proximal third of metacarpus to distal third of radius/ ulna 15
Foot (Mediolateral View) Separate digits with tape (cotton isnt as effective) Measure & center primary beam at site of interest Borders Proximal 1/3 metacarpus to distal 1/3 R/U Cassette can be split point toes in same direction 16 Foot (Dorsopalmar View)
17 Hind Limb: General Considerations Anatomy (Pelvis): Half of femoral head should be in the acetabulum Femoral heads should be rounded and smooth Femoral neck should be smooth with no remodeling
Views (2): Dorsal recumbency for pelvis (V/D) and femur (CrCa) Sternal recumbency for distal hind limb (CdCr) 18 Hind Limb Terminology Dorsal recumbency: Used for proximal hind end
Sternal recumbency: Used for distal rear limbs 19 The Pelvis: Standard Positions Lateral Ventrodorsal Ventrodorsal Frog-Leg
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