Chapter 12, Political Organization Key Terms Social differentiation

Chapter 12, Political Organization Key Terms  Social differentiation

Chapter 12, Political Organization Key Terms Social differentiation The relative access individuals and groups have to basic material resources, wealth, power, and prestige.

Egalitarian society A society in which no individual or group has more privileged access to resources, power, or prestige than any other. Rank society

Society characterized by institutionalized differences in prestige but no important restrictions on access to basic resources. Stratified society Society characterized by permanent social and economic inequality, in which some people are denied access to basic resources.

Achieved status A social position that a person chooses or achieves on his or her own. Ascribed status A social position that a person is born into.

Power The ability to control resources in ones own interest. Authority The ability to cause others to act based on characteristics such as honor, status, knowledge, ability, respect, the holding of formal public office.

Political ideology The shared beliefs and values that legitimize the distribution and use of power in a particular society. Political process The ways in which individuals and groups use

power to achieve public goals. Factions Informal systems of alliance within well-defined political units such as lineages or villages. Leadership The ability to direct an enterprise or action. Rebellion

The attempt of a group within society to force a redistribution of resources and power. Revolution An attempt to overthrow an existing form of political organization. Law A means of social control and dispute

management through the systematic application of force by those in society with the authority to do so. Political organization The patterned ways in which power is legitimately used in a society to regulate behavior. Social

complexity The number of different groups and their interrelationships in a society. Band Small group of people, related by blood or marriage, who live together and are loosely associated with a territory in which they forage.

War A formally organized and culturally recognized patterns of collective violence directed toward other societies or between segments within a larger society. Tribe Culturally distinct population whose members consider themselves descended from the same

ancestor. Age set A group of people of similar age and sex who move through some or all of lifes stages together. Age

grades Specialized hierarchical associations based on age, which stratify a society by seniority. Segmentary lineage system A form of sociopolitical organization in which multiple descent groups form at different levels and function in different contexts.

Complementary opposition A political structure in which higher-order units form alliances that emerge only when lowerorder units come into conflict. Bigman A self-made leader who gains power through personal achievements rather than through political office.

Mediation A form of managing disputes that uses the offices of a third party to achieve voluntary agreement between disputing parties. Compensation A payment demanded by an aggrieved party to compensate for damage. Chiefdom

A society with social ranking in which political integration is achieved through an office of centralized leadership called the chief. Acephalous Lacking a government head or chief. State A hierarchical, centralized form of political

organization in which a central government has a legal monopoly over the use of force. Citizenship Membership in a state.

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • A Short Course on Scientific Writing Prepared by

    A Short Course on Scientific Writing Prepared by

    Compound Sentences " Precursor activity to the eruption began on March 20, 1980, and many times during the next two months the mountain shook for minutes." Complex Sentences "Although the amount of devastation caused by the May 18 blast was...
  • This year's Activities

    This year's Activities

    All JCA staff wear a uniform and name badges with a photograph. All staff members are DBS checked. Condover Hall has CCTV and security barriers at the entrance. Senior staff are on site from 7am to 11pm. Night security patrols...
  • Data Gathering Techniques of the Professor User Group

    Data Gathering Techniques of the Professor User Group

    Proposed Methods Semi-structured Interviews with Contextual Spin Focus Group Discussion Questionnaire Semi-structured Interview with Contextual Spin Why? Utilize the benefits of semi-structured interview techniques of pre-planned questions with follow up probing.
  • Freshman Seminar Daily Agenda

    Freshman Seminar Daily Agenda

    Definition. Purpose. Diction. The author's choice of words. Foundation of all the other elements. Reflects and determines the level of formality and shape the reader's perceptions. Detail. Facts, observations, and incidents. Develops a topic by bringing life an color to...
  • Chapter 2Operating System Overview

    Chapter 2Operating System Overview

    priority levels to the various processes, with the scheduler selecting processes in. priority order. The long-term queue is a list of new jobs waiting to use the processor. The. OS adds jobs to the system by transferring a process from...
  • Genealogy Basics - Society of American Indian Government ...

    Genealogy Basics - Society of American Indian Government ...

    What You Need to Know About BIA. The BIA no longer has extensive involvement in tribal membership. Current Federal policy and case law limits the involvement of the BIA in tribal membership matters unless mandated by congressional legislation, or is...
  • JK Audit & Reimbursement Update April 8 -

    JK Audit & Reimbursement Update April 8 -

    System Login: Access controlled by EIDM. Restricted to EIDM PS&R SO / BSO ... Additional information is available on the CMS web site including a video training presentation and FAQs. ... Part B bad debts need to be included...
  • MTP : Y3 Summer 1 French: Hungry Giant

    MTP : Y3 Summer 1 French: Hungry Giant

    This unit is based upon: a Hungry Giant story -asking politely for items, exploring fruit and breakfast foods, reading, performing and playing games .