Geology and Nonrenewable Minerals Chapter 14 Core Case
Geology and Nonrenewable Minerals Chapter 14 Core Case Study: Environmental Effects of Gold Mining Gold producers
South Africa Australia United States Canada Cyanide heap leaching Extremely toxic to birds and mammals 2000: Collapse of a dam retaining a cyanide leach pond Impact on organisms and the environment
http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=urFULAUsxj8&feature=r elated (heap leaching on Uranium) Major Geological Processes and Hazards? Concept 14-1A: Gigantic plates in the earths crust move very slowly atop the planets mantle,
and wind and water move the matter from place to place across the earths surface. Concept 14-1B: Natural geological hazards such as earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanoes, and landslides can cause considerable damage. Geology texts and videos https:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=ryrXAGY1dmE
www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/t Moving (2) Three types of boundaries between plates Divergent plates Magma Oceanic ridge Convergent plates
Subduction Subduction zone Trench Transform fault; e.g., San Andreas fault Boundary Animation Surface Build Up and Some
Wear Down Internal geologic processes Generally build up the earths surface External geologic processes Weathering Physical, Chemical, and Biological Erosion
Wind Flowing water Human activities Glaciers
Chemical, and Physical Processes Volcanoes Release Molten Rock from the Earths Interior Volcano Fissure Magma Lava
1980: Eruption of Mount St. Helens (this one takes time to load, so you might come back to it later.) 1991: Eruption of Mount Pinatubo Benefits of volcanic activity Creation of a Volcano Earthquakes Are Geological
Rock-and-Roll Events (1) Earthquake Seismic waves Focus Epicenter Magnitude Amplitude Major Features and Effects of
an Earthquake Earthquakes on the Ocean Floor Can Cause Huge Waves Called Tsunamis Tsunami, tidal wave Detection of tsunamis December 2004: Indian Ocean tsunami Magnitude of 9.15
Role of coral reefs and mangrove forests in reducing death toll Map of Affected Area of Dec 2004 Tsunami Before and After Japan 2011 http:// news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2011/
03/110316-zoom-satellite-pictures-japan-ts unami-earthquake-world-before-after/ (photos) http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=w3AdFjklR50 (Helicopter footage of tsunami waves) Gravity and Earthquakes Can Cause Landslides
Mass wasting Slow movement Fast movement Rockslides Avalanches Mudslides Effect of human activities on such geological events
14-2 How Are the Earths Rocks Recycled? Concept 14-2 The three major types of rocks found in the earths crustsedimentary, igneous, and metamorphicare recycled very slowly by the process of erosion, melting, and metamorphism.
There Are Three Major Types of Rocks (1) Earths crust Composed of minerals and rocks Three broad classes of rocks (based on formation) 1. Sedimentary
Sandstone Shale Dolomite Limestone
Lignite Bituminous coal There Are Three Major Types of Rocks (2) 2. Igneous Granite Lava rock
3. Metamorphic Anthracite Slate Marble Is the Slowest of the Earths Cyclic Processes 14-3 What Are Mineral
Resources, and what are their Environmental Effects? Concept 14-3A Some naturally occurring materials in the earths crust can be extracted and made into useful products in processes that provide economic benefits and jobs. Concept 14-3B Extracting and using mineral resources can disturb the land, erode soils, produce large amounts of solid waste, and pollute
the air, water, and soil. Nonrenewable Mineral Resources Mineral resource Fossil fuels Metallic minerals Nonmetallic minerals Ore
High-grade ore Low-grade ore Importance and examples of nonrenewable metal and nonmetal mineral resources Mineral Use Has Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages of the processes of mining and converting minerals into useful products
Disadvantages The Life Cycle of a Metal Resource SELF-STUDY Nonrenewable Mineral and Energy Resources
SELF-STUDY There Are Several Ways to Remove Mineral Deposits (1) Surface mining Shallow deposits removed Subsurface mining Deep deposits removed
Room and pillar Type of surface mining used depends on Resource Local topography There Are Several Ways to Remove Mineral Deposits (2) Types of surface mining Open-pit mining
Strip mining Contour mining Mountaintop removal Open-Pit Mine in Western Australia Contour Strip Mining Used in Hilly or Mountainous Region
Mountaintop Coal Mining in West Virginia, U.S. Mining Has Harmful Environmental Effects Scarring and disruption of the land surface E.g., spoils banks Loss of rivers and streams
Subsidence Major pollution of water and air Effect on aquatic life Large amounts of solid waste Created by Coal Area Strip Mining in Colorado Centralia, PA
https:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=S0yYfjU63wg &noredirect=1 (Yes, this is real.) Has Harmful Environmental Effects Ore extracted by mining Ore mineral
Gangue Smelting Water pollution Liquid and solid hazardous wastes produced Use of cyanide salt of extract gold from its ore Summitville gold mine: Colorado, U.S. Nonrenewable Mineral Resources Last?
Concept 14-4A All nonrenewable mineral resources exist in finite amounts, and as we get closer to depleting any mineral resource, the environmental impacts of extracting it generally become more harmful. Concept 14-4B An increase in the price of a scarce mineral resource can lead to increased supplies and more efficient use of the mineral, but there are limits to this effect.
Mineral Resources Are Distributed Unevenly Most of the nonrenewable mineral resources supplied by United States, Canada, Russia, South Africa, Australia Strategic metal resources Manganese (Mn)
Cobalt (Co) Chromium (Cr) Platinum (Pt) Market Prices Affect Supplies of Nonrenewable Minerals Subsidies and tax breaks to mining companies keep mineral prices artificially low Does this promote economic growth and national
security? Scarce investment capital hinders the development of new supplies of mineral resources Resources More Sustainability? Concept 14-5 We can try to find substitutes for scarce resources, reduce resource waste, and
recycle and reuse minerals. Some Scarce Mineral Resources Materials revolution Nanotechnology Silicon High-strength plastics Drawbacks?
Substitution is not a cure-all Pt: industrial catalyst Cr: essential ingredient of stainless steel We Can Recycle and Reuse
Valuable Metals Recycling Lower environmental impact than mining and processing metals from ores Reuse Solutions: Sustainable Use of Nonrenewable Minerals
(posted on the USGS' Hydro-Acoustics Work Group webpage by R. Iredale, The Environment Agency of England and Wales, 2005) Currently, ADCPs are the most efficient instrument for riverine environment characterization (monitoring and research needs) If properly operated, the instrument can...
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