World World History: History: Connection Connection to to

World World History: History: Connection Connection to to

World World History: History: Connection Connection to to Today Today Chapter 14: The Renaissance and Reformation (13001650) Section 1: The Renaissance in Italy Section 2: The Renaissance Moves North

Section 3: The Protestant Reformation Section 4: Reformation Ideas Spread Section 5: The Scientific Revolution Copyright 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. 1 The Renaissance in Italy Objectives: 1. Why were the Italian city-states a favorable setting

for a cultural rebirth? 2. What was the Renaissance? 3. What themes and techniques did Renaissance artists and writers explore? 1 Renaissance Italy How the Crusades caused the Renaissance

1 European port cities __________________, especially those in __________ from which supplies were dispatched. _________ and __________ become major powers, not only from shipping supplies to the Crusader, but from cargos received from the East. The arts of ________________ improve allowing the construction of larger ships. This knowledge and technology will be acquired by Portugal and Spain in their voyages of discovery. These voyages were largely inspired by the desire to obtain ____________ goods such as silk, cotton, spices, and porcelain that the Crusaders found in the East A tremendous ______________ was created for these products, but they were _______________because Turkish and Arab middlemen controlled access. The voyages

of discovery, both the Portuguese voyages around Africa and Columbus' voyage west, were designed to establish ___________ contacts with the East, primarily China. -These goods were not unknown to Europeans before the Crusades. Access to the _________________and ________ Route are factors which helped to build support in Europe in addition to religious fervor. -____________ writings as well as _____________ works lost to the West came to the West after the call of Rome began to reach Western scholars. This fueled a spirit of inquiry just as universities began to be founded in the West. -This inspired an increased interest in the ______________, especially in

Italy, but other Western kingdoms as well. -Gradually a new philosophical tradition rose to compete with the Catholic Church 1 Why Did the Renaissance Begin in Italy? The Renaissance was marked by a new interest in the culture of ancient __________. Italy had been the center of the Roman empire.

The cities of Italy had survived the Middle Ages and grown into prosperous centers of _________ and ____________________. A wealthy _____________ class in the Italian city-states stressed education and individual achievement and spent lavishly on the ____________. Florence produced an amazing number of gifted poets, artists, architects, scholars, and More on why Italy?

-Italy had always been somewhat different than the other European powers. -Italy was __________ fully feudalized and it rejected most of the feudal practices -Medieval traditions in Italy were ____________ -Italian city-states grew wealthy because of its _______________ on the Mediterranean they were centers of wealth and crossroads of culture -Its influence in the trade with the Crusaders

THE MERCHANT PRINCES These were individuals and families who had become _____________through trade. They had a respect for human achievement and a commitment to ___________ good. Combined, these traits led to ____________ humanism. For our purposes, they were the key patrons of the arts. An example would be the Medici family The Medici Family

Cosimo-spent a considerably part of his huge wealth on charitable acts and cultivated literature and the arts. He amassed the largest library in Europe, brought in many Greek sources, including the works of Plato, he was a ____________ of many artists including the great master _________________. During his rule and that of his sons and grandson, ________________ became the cultural center of Europe and the cradle of the new Humanism. Lorenzo The Magnificent," as he was called by the people of Florence, was a statesman, ruler, and patron of the arts. Lorenzo ruled Florence with his younger brother, Giuliano, from 1469 to 1478. After his brother's assassination in 1478, he was sole ruler until his death. Lorenzo's greatest contribution to history was his patronage of the _________. He

contributed more than anyone to the flowering of Florentine genius in the late 15th century, supporting such giants as Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo. 1 What Was the Renaissance? The Renaissance was a time of creativity and change in many areaspolitical, social, economic, and cultural. Most important were the changes that took place in the way people _____________ themselves and

their world. Renaissance thinkers explored the human experience in the here and now. They emphasized ________________ achievement. The Renaissance ideal was the person with talent in many fields. The Revival of Europe Although generally classified by most scholars as the last century of the medieval era, the 14th century is generally seen as the beginning

of the Renaissance and the beginning of a modern state of _______. "Renaissance" means __________ in French and describes the ____________ and economic changes that occurred in Europe beginning in the 14th century. 1 Humanism At the heart of the Italian Renaissance was an intellectual movement known as humanism.

a system of thought that is based on the ___________, characteristics, and behavior that are believed to be best in human beings, rather than on any ________________ authority Humanism was based on the study of ______________ culture and focused on _____________ subjects rather than on religious issues. They believed the classical writers could teach important ideas about life, love, and beauty Humanists studied the humanities, the subjects taught in ancient Greece and Rome. They believed that education should stimulate creativity. Humanists wanted people to improve their lives through _____________ and new experiences Humanists praised the _________________ and the world in which they lived.

Humanists werent interested in religious topics. 1 Renaissance Artists and Writers Explored New Themes and Techniques WRITERS PAINTERS Wrote self-help books to help ambitious men and women rise

in the Renaissance world Developed __________ style Learned rules of ___________ Used shading to make objects look round and real Studied human anatomy Used live models ARCHITECTS Rejected _________ style

Adopted columns, domes, and arches that had been favored by the _____________ and ____________ 2 Humanists Writers -Humanists stressed______________and _______________ learning. -They believed that the revival of ancient learning should be used to bring about _______________ and ____________ reforms.

-Three humanists: Desiderius Erasmus called for ______________ of the church and for the Bible to be translated from Latin into the vernacular, or language of ordinary people. Thomas More pressed for social reform and wrote of a utopian society. Niccolo Machiavelli- Author of _________________A political guidebook- The ends justify the means, It is better to be feared than loved Machiavelli- Author of ____________________ Would you like to be under a ruler that followed Machiavellis ideas? It is better to be feared than loved

and The ends justify the means 1 Three Geniuses of Renaissance Art ______________ Made sketches of nature and of models

___________ corpses to learn how the human body worked Masterpieces include __________and The Last Supper Studied botany, anatomy, optics, music, architecture, and engineering Made _____________ for flying machines and undersea boats _________________

Talented _________, engineer, painter, architect, and poet Sculpted the _________ and statue of David Painted huge mural to decorate the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in ___________ Designed the dome for St. ____________ Cathedral in Rome

________________ Studied the works of Michelangelo and Leonardo Paintings blended __________ and __________ styles Best known for paintings of the _________, the

biblical mother of Jesus Renaissance Art 15th and 16th century Artistic Vocabulary Classics Perspective Fresco Realism

Patron Secular Vanishing point Madonna Vernacular Humanism Humanism was an important movement in the Renaissance literature. Humanists wanted people to improve their lives through __________ and new experiences. They urged people to study Ancient ____________ and __________ literature.

They believed the classical writers could teach important ideas about life, ______, and _____________. Humanists praised the ___________ and the world in which they lived. Humanists werent interested in religious topics. Secularism Secularism is the focus on things that can be ____________ in the here-and-now.

-Renaissance artists usually emphasized the muscles and bone structures of their subjects, even if their subjects were angels and saints. Michelangelo Buonarroti

Michelangelo was born on March 6, 1475. In April of 1508, Michelangelo was summoned to Rome by Julius II. Michelangelos David He wanted Michelangelo to paint bible scenes on the ____________ Chapel Ceiling. Michelangelo was a _______ sculptor, __________, and poet. Also Lorenzo di Medici, ruler of ____________, hired Michelangelo to create many works of art for him. His most famous works in architecture were the _________ on top of

St. Peters Church in the Vatican and the square of buildings that form the civic center of Rome. The Pieta by Michelangelo Sistine Chapel David by Michelangelo and Donetello Leonardo da Vinci

Leonardo da Vinci was born on April 15, 1452. He became a Painter, an architect, a scientist, sculptor, and engineer. His most famous works were ______________and_________________. In his sketch book there were designs for a flying machine, a bicycle, a machine gun, and a submarine. He also planned a canal system and several buildings for Milan. In addition to everything else, Leonardo also studied botany, anatomy, and biology.

Leonardo da Vincis Mona Lisa Da Vincis Mona Lisa TheLast Supper Classical Influence Raphael

Raphael was born in Urbino in 1483 and received his first instruction in the techniques of painting from his father, Giovanni Santi, a minor artist. At the age of 17, his father sent him to Perugia to become an apprentice under the highly-regarded Perugino School. Raphael is best known for his _______________ and for his large figure compositions in the Vatican in Rome. Raphaels St. Catherine done in 1507

Raphaels School at Athens

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