Chapter 50 ~ An Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere I am the Lorax. I speak for the trees. I speak for the trees, for the trees have no tongues. What is Ecology? Ecology
is the scientific study of the interactions between organisms and their environment. Distribution and Abundance of organisms is not homogenous In Georgia, the legend says That you must close your windows At night to keep it out of the house. The glass is tinged with green, even so...
From the poem, "Kudzu," by James Dickey Distribution and Abundance of organisms is determined by: Abiotic factors: non-living chemical and physical factors such as temperature, light, water, and nutrients Biotic factors: the living components
Fig. 50.1 Copyright 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Factors Affecting the Distribution of Organisms The swelling continued over the next day until the whole left of my face European Honeybee was a puffy Africanized honey
red useless mass.bee I was unable to open my eye properly again for about two more days. Factors Affecting the Distribution of Organisms Food eaten by 1 locust swarm = Food eaten 1000
people Factors Affecting the Distribution of Organisms 2005 2006 Culex Pipiens Mosquito: West Nile Virus Carrier? Factors Affecting the Distribution of
Organisms Species Dispersal, Biotic Factors, Abiotic Factors, Behavior and Habitat Selection Factors Affecting the Distribution of Organisms -Introduced Species or Non-native species - newbies to an area Abiotic factors: temp, light, wind, water (these 4 make up climate), oxygen, salinity, pH, fire, moisture, rocks/soil Biotic factors: competition, predation, disease, Factors Affecting the Distribution of Organisms
-Species Dispersal - Can the species get to a particular location? -Habitat Selection - Even if the habitat is suitable, does the species select it to breed/build nests -Behavior - Is the behavior of the species amenable to its spreading in the chosen location? -Abiotic Factors - Are the nonliving factors condusive? -Biotic Factors - Are the living factors condusive? -For each of the three examples: identify which of these made it easy to colonize/immigrate and distribute in a new location Tens Rule - Only 1 out of 10 introduced species make it!
Ecological time - (minutes, months, years) Evolutionary time - (decades, centuries, millennia, and longer). Levels of Organization in Ecological Study Organismal ecology is concerned with the behavioral, physiological,
and morphological ways individuals interact with the environment. (chp 51) Population: a population is a group of individuals of the same species living in a particular geographic area.
Population Ecology - Chp 52 Community: all the organisms that
inhabit a particular area. Community Ecology chp 53 Any abiotic factors in a community? No! Fig. 50.2c Ecosystem: all the abiotic factors + entire community of species that
exist in a certain area. Biomes major ecosystems of the world Terrestrial Biomes and Acquatic Biomes Fig. 50.2d Aquatic Biomes -Marine Biome (3% salt; 75% of earth covered by this biome) -Freshwater Biome (<1% salt)
Aquatic Biomes - Vertical Stratifiction based on light - why is this important? PHOTIC ZONE (light) APHOTIC ZONE (no light) BENTHIC ZONE - ooze (sediments from top), benthos (organism communities), and detritus (dead matter - food for benthos) Aquatic Biomes
PHOTIC ZONE Algae + cyanobacteria = Phytoplankton Very Important - Make oxygen Zooplankton - live on phytoplankton Thermocline - area of rapid change in temperature APHOTIC ZONE BENTHIC ZONE
Worms, Bacteria - Use oxygen which has to come from surface; decomposers release nutrients back by breaking down dead material Thermocline - seen in summer (stratification=layers) ; prevents oxygen from sinking to lower areas and nutrients (after decomposers break down dead matter) from rising up to the surface Turnover or mixing occurs in spring and fall due to changing surface temperatures
Figure 50.15 Lake stratification and seasonal turnover - compare the temperature on the top of the lake (0oc-ice) to lower layers (4oc). Look at the oxygen in the different layers. What trend do you notice ? Why is the top layer at a lower temp? What signiicance does it have to living organisms? Figure 50.15 Lake stratification and seasonal turnover - What is happening in spring? What is turnover and why is it important? Figure 50.15 Lake stratification and seasonal turnover - What is happening in summer? Is there any turnover - why/why not?
Figure 50.15 Lake stratification and seasonal turnover - You get it by now - what does fall bring to the lake? Aquatic Intertidal - waves + tides; crabs, barnacles,algae Oceanic - phytoplankton (floating), nekton (free Biomes: Freshwater vs. Ocean swimming
when temperature rises and causes coral bleaching! Reef dies as a result. Aquatic Biomes: Oceans/Abyssal zone Abyssal Zone -Hydrothermal Vents (Origin of Life Here??) Tube-dwelling worms!! + chemoautotrophic prokaryotes (extremophiles)
Aquatic Biomes: Algal Blooms Eutrophication (addition of fertilizers) causes algal blooms Algae start reproducing heavily due to increase in nutrients (fertilizers) or temperature
Algae eventually die and sink to bottom Bacteria grow in large numbers and reduce oxygen available to all life forms in the water Types Of Lakes
Oligotrophic Lake: narrow and deep (more stratification); has few photosynthetic organisms, nutrient poor, oxygen rich deep waters Cultural Eutrophication (addition of fertilizer- runoff from farms or wastes) Eutrophic
Lake: wide and not very deep; has a lot of photosynthetic organisms, nutrient rich, Aquatic Biomes
Wetlands: area covered with water; can filter toxins/pollutants out of water; has low oxygen and high nutrient content; humans have destroyed them (90%) Estuary: transition area beween river and sea; salinity varies; also very productive;
animals have to adapt to variations in salinity, currents- Terrestrial Biomes (look up abiotic factors and biotic factors that are the hallmarks of each biome) Terrestrial Biomes Tropical
Rain Forest Vertical Stratification plants show intense competition for light High rainfall, warm temp Highest animal diversity
Terrestrial Biomes Savanna Tropical Grasslands
Long dry season, warm Scattered trees Fire - benefit is renewal of grasses as grass seed needs fire to germinate/sprout Grazing animals Terrestrial Biomes
Desert Hot and Dry Extremes in
temperature between day and night Plants like cacti store water (succulents), reduced leaf area Terrestrial Biomes
Chaparral Hot summers and Wet winters (California) Shrubs, small trees Fire
Terrestrial Biomes Temperate Grasslands Converted into agricultural land Dry winters, wet summers
Fire Terrestrial Biomes Temperate Deciduous Forests
Leaves are shed in winter (hence deciduous) Fall colors! Terrestrial Biomes Coniferous
Forests Cone bearing trees like pine, spruceevergreen Taiga
Northern Coniferous Terrestrial Biomes Tundra Permafrostpermanent ice on
ground, high winds Lichen, moss, small shrubs, few trees Caribou, reindeer Factors Affecting the Distribution of Organisms The range of the American Beech can be predicted under 2 climate-change scenarios.
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