1 What Is Anthropology? 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies,

1 What Is Anthropology?  2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies,

1 What Is Anthropology? 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, In 2 Overview Anthropology confronts basic questions of human existence and survival. How we originated. How we have changed.

How we are changing still. 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, In 3 Anthropology is holistic Interested in the whole of the human condition Past, present, and future Biology Society Language

Culture 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, In 4 Four subfields Cultural anthropology examines cultural diversity of the present and recent past. Archaeology reconstructs behavior by studying material remains

2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, In 5 Four subfields Biological anthropology study of human fossils, genetics, and bodily growth and nonhuman primates Linguistic anthropology considers how speech varies with social factors and over time and space 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, In

6 Human Adaptability Society organized life in groups Culture traditions, customs and innovations that govern behavior and beliefs Distinctly human Transmitted through learning 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, In

7 Adaptation, Variation, and Change Adaptation process by which organisms cope with environmental forces and stresses Humans adapt using biological and cultural means 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, In 8

Adaptation, Variation, and Change Rate of change accelerated during the past 10,000 years Foraging sole basis of human subsistence for millions of years Only took few thousand years for food production cultivation of plants and domestication (stockbreeding) of animals 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, In 9

Adaptation, Variation, and Change First civilizations arose between 6000 and 5000 B.P. (Before the Present) More recently, spread of industrial production profoundly affected human life Todays global economy and communications link all contemporary people, directly or indirectly, in modern world system 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, In 10

Table 1.1 Forms of Cultural and Biological Adaptation (to High Altitude) 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, In 11 General Anthropology Academic discipline of anthropology includes: Sociocultural (cultural anthropology) Archaeological

Biological Linguistic 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, In 12 Four-field Approach Developed in U.S. Early American anthropologists studying native peoples of North America combined studies of customs, social life, language, and physical traits

2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, In 13 General Anthropology Sound conclusions about human nature cannot be derived from studying a single nation, society, or cultural tradition 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, In

14 Cultural Forces Shape Human Biology Biocultural inclusion and combination (to solve a common problem) of biological and cultural perspectives and approaches Culture key environmental force in determining how human bodies grow and develop Cultural standards of attractiveness and

propriety influence participation and achievement in sports 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, In 15 Cultural Anthropology Describes, analyzes, interprets, and explains social and cultural similarities and differences Ethnography Fieldwork in a particular culture; provides account of that

community, society, or culture Ethnology cross cultural comparison; the comparative study of ethnographic data, of society and of culture 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, In 16 Table 1.2 Ethnography and Ethnology Two Dimensions of Cultural Anthropology 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, In

17 Archeological Anthropology Study of human behavior and cultural patterns and process through material remains Artifacts (e.g., potsherds, jewelry, and tools)

Garbage Burials Remains of structures 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, In 18 Archeological Anthropology Archaeologists use paleoecological studies to establish ecological and subsistence parameters within which given groups lived

Archaeological record provides unique opportunity to look at changes in social complexity over time 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, In 19 Archeological Anthropology Archaeologists also study the cultures of historical and living people Historical archaeology combines archaeological data and textual data to

reconstruct historically known groups Rathjes garbology shows what people report may contrast with real behavior 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, In 20 Biological Anthropology Study of human biological variation in time and space Includes evolution, genetics, growth and development, and primatology

Draws on biology, zoology, geology, anatomy, physiology, medicine, public health, osteology, and archaeology 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, In 21 Biological Anthropology Special interests: Paleoanthropology human evolution as revealed by the fossil record Human genetics

Human growth and development Human biological plasticity Bodys ability to change Primatology study of biology, evolution, behavior, and social life of primates 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, In 22 Linguistic Anthropology Study of language in its social and cultural context across space and time

Historical linguists reconstruct ancient languages and study linguistic variation through time Sociolinguistics investigates relationships between social and linguistic variation [anthropological linguistics:] to discover varied perceptions and patterns of thought and practice in different cultures 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, In 23

Anthropology and Other Academic Fields Anthropology is a science Systematic field of study or body of knowledge that aims, through experiment, observation, and deduction, to produce reliable explanations of phenomena with reference to the material and physical world 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, In 24

Anthropology and Other Academic Fields Anthropology is an art Encompasses study of and cross-cultural comparison of languages, texts, philosophies, arts, music, performances, and other forms of creative expression Form of knowledge is often intersubjective 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, In

25 Anthropology and Other Academic Fields Cultural Anthropology and Sociology Share an interest in social relations, organization, and behavior Originally, sociologists focused on industrial West Anthropology and Psychology Malinowski contended that cultural context

molds individual psychology 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, In 26 Science, Explanation, and Hypothesis Testing Scientists strive to improve understanding by testing hypotheses that suggest explanations of things and events Explains how and why the thing to be understood (the explicandum) is related to

other things in some known way Associations observed relationships between two or more measured variables 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, In 27 Science, Explanation, and Hypothesis Testing A theory is more general Explanatory framework, containing a series of statements, that helps us understand

why (something exists or happens in a particular way) Theories suggest patterns, connections, and relationships that may be confirmed by new research 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, In 28 Science, Explanation, and Hypothesis Testing Associations usually state probabilistically

with two or more variables that tend to be related in a predictable way, but there are exceptions Theories cannot be proved; we evaluate them through the method of falsification Theories that are not disproved are accepted because the available evidence seems to support them 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, In

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