HOMEWORK ON 11/25 AND 28/14 1. The report on your survey is due next week 12/5 /14 F & 12/9/14 T. 2. Finish reading Chapters 6 and 5. 3. Finish working on your outlineDue December 19 CLASS SURVEY
You now have 4-5 minutes to pass out your survey to you classmate. You can collect your results after class. DO YOUR SURVEY: 4-5 MINUTES
Pass out your survey to 9-10 people in class to help you analyze your audience for the next speech. Know, this report is due next week. TONGUE TWISTER: B AND BL A big black bug bit a big black bear
and the big black bear bled blood. This black bug bled blue-black blood while the other black bug bled blue. TONGUE TWISTER: S SH AND MIDDLE S Sister Suzys sewing shirts for soldiers Such skill at sewing shirts
my shy young sister Suzy shows Some soldiers send epistles usually Saying theyd sooner sleep on thistles Than the short serge shirts for soldiers shy young sister Suzy sews usually. TONGUE TWISTER: S SH AND MIDDLE S
Sister Susie went to sea To see the sea, you see. The sea she saw was a saucy sea, Since she sells sea shells by the sea shores A sort of saucy sea saw she. LESSON 12 WEEK
13 CHAPTERS 5 & 6 PUBLIC SPEAKING PROF.: MS. K. CASIMIR 12/2 -6/14 OBJECTIVE Today we will have a quiz, then finish evaluating the Anti
-Microbial Bubble speech in more detail. Then we will finish unit 14 on building credibility, the three method of building credibility, evidence and reasoning. And then begin chapter 5 on audience analysis. Students will complete a survey in class. Speak for 1 minute: giving the introduction and conclusion of that speech. Watch a DVD on persuasion and then discuss their speech outline: the Main points and evidences in small group and do a class
IV. BIBLIOGRAPHY Book: Lucas, SE (2009, March 3rd) The Art of Public Speaking (10th edition). Beijing: Mc Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. and Foreign Language Teaching Press. Article: Lucas, SE ( 2012, December 13) Speaking confidently and with power. Beijing Review: 52, 34-36 Website:
Lucas, SE (2013, January 2). Speaking ethically. Beijing: Rennin University Data base (page 12-15) retrieved from http://www.Ruc.edu/index html If there is no author: Beijing Reviews (2012, December 2013) Speaking confidently and with power. Retrieved from www.beijing reviews.com/index.html. INTRODUCTION
A. B. C. D. Attention getter: Relevance to audience/why listen:
Establish credibility: Preview the speech/statement: CONCLUSION: 1. Restate the main point or central Idea, then 2. End with a quote or
Make a dramatic statement or Refer to the introduction (for policy speech on passive agreement: You dont have to appeal, but if you do , it is okay)
For the Motivated Sequence 1. Restate the main point or central idea 2. Appeal and call to action and 3. Call to action! SURVEY REPORT: Speech delivery for 1.5 minutes
PSYCHOLOGY OF PERSUASION Persuasion- is the process of creating , reinforcing and changing peoples mind (thinking), attitude, belief, or actions. When you speak to persuade, you are acting as an advocator.
Your goal is to convict, defend, or refute an action or idea etc.. METHOD OF PERSUASION In order to build your case you need to have a balance of these three elements in place: 1. Ethos: Credibility, your qualification, physical attractiveness, etc 2. Logos: The logical appeal:
using evidences (the supportive materials used ) reasoning (Drawing sound conclusion from evidences) 3. Pathos: The emotional appeal PSYCHOLOGY OF PERSUASION It is a mental dialogue between the speaker and the listener.
Mental Dialogue: it is the mental give and take between the speaker and listener during a persuasive speech. BUILDING CREDIBILITY Factors of credibility Enhancing your credibility Use specific evidence
Use novel evidence Use evidence from credible sources THE TARGET AUDIENCE While focusing your target audience, you must not neglect the whole mass. The target audience is the portion of the whole audience the speaker want persuade the most.
Remember, you might not be able to convince your target audience in one speech THE PSYCHOLOGY OF PERSUASION The listeners will check your credibility, delivery, supporting material and reasoning to draw conclusion about your speech.
They may respond, either positively or negatively. So, anticipate and be prepared! BUILDING CREDIBILITY Credibility is also known as Ethos Ethos: the name used for credibility by Aristotle. Aristotle is a classic rhetoric. His
classic work on persuasive speech are still available today for appreciation and exploration. Htpp://classics.mit/edu/aristotle/rhetoric.m THE ETHOS: BUILDING CREDIBILITY There are many factors that affect credibility (such as sociability, attractiveness, appearance, similarity between the speaker and audience-however, there are two main factors: They are competence and character)
Two Main Factors of credibility: Competence- Refers to intelligence, expertise, knowledge Character- Refers sincerity, trustworthiness, concern THE ETHOS: BUILDING CREDIBILITY:
There are three ways to enhance your credibility: 1. Explain your competence 2. Establish common ground with your audience 3. Deliver your speech fluently, expressively and with conviction Video 14:3
THE ETHOS: BUILDING CREDIBILITY Explain your competence Knowledge Experience Expertise
page 206 BUILDING CREDIBILITY Establish common ground with your audience Stress common view on the problem, Show appreciation and respect for their value, opinions, etc
Show your competence and let them know why listen to you! page 209 BUILDING CREDIBILITY Deliver your speech fluently, expressively and with conviction
Moderate speed Vocal variation & Articulation Vocal intonation /poised and dynamic Using an outline Use non- verbal communication/gestures Strong eye contact Facial gestures How do you develop a positive spirit, enthusiasm and conviction about your
speech? THE LOGOS: USING EVIDENCE & REASONING According to Aristotle, evidence and reasoning are the two elements of Logos.
Logos - is the logical appeal of the speaker! The speaker must use evidence and reasoning to make persuasive claims! LOGOS: 1-USING EVIDENCE Evidence refers to supportive materials used to prove or disprove something.
Examples: Statistic, facts, examples, testimony In order to convince your audience, you will need to provide sufficient evidence from reliable sources LOGOS: 1-EVIDENCES Are supporting materials that you use to
prove, support or disprove your main points or key ideas. LOGOS: 1-SUPPORTING EVIDENCES: There are three kind of supporting evidences or materials: 1. Examples
2. Statistics 3. Testimonies EXAMPLE: Is a specific case used to illustrate or represent a group of people ideas s or condition or an experience.
Helps to clarify, analyze and reinforce a speakers idea EXAMPLE: 1. You can have a brief example - a specific case 2. You can have an extended example - a long story or a narrative.
3. You can have a hypothetical example - an imaginary or a fictitious situation. TIPS FOR EXAMPLES Make it vivid Add or combine statistics or testimony along with it.
See page 76 STATISTICS Are numerical data, usually from research or studies done by experts or professionals. Help strengthened a speakers idea
VIDEO: 14.6 Putting a Break On Teenage Driving STATISTICS 1. Single statistics: Use in passing to help clarify a speakers idea
2. Multiple statistics: Multiple statistics used together to show the seriousness of an issue. TIPS FOR STATISTICS Use representative statistics: Use statistics with accurate claims from experts. Sample size must represent the target group in question well. Identify the source of the statistic: tell the audience where you got the
information and who did the study. Use statistics from reliable sources: reputable organization and from professionals. Be aware of biases. Round off complicated numbers. i.e: 1,228.03---1228. Explain the statistic: you must interpret them to your audience. Use visual aids to clarify the statistic: use graph or pie charts TESTIMONIES
Are Quotations, or paraphrases used to support your main points. Peoples personal experiences. TESTIMONY 1. Expert testimony: from professionals , or
authorities in that field of study or topic. 2. Peer testimony: from ordinary peoples opinion, first hand experiences on the topic. See page 80-82 TIPS FOR TESTIMONIES Decide whether to quote or paraphrase: Word for word or you give a summary of what
was said Quote or paraphrase accurately: Do not misquote, do not change the meaning of the statement, do not quote out of context. Use testimonies from qualified sources: Recognized experts /professionals on the subject Use testimonies from unbiased sources: Self interest sources, not credible, not authoritative.
Tell the name of the people and qualification or title of the person you are quoting: Not the name of the magazine or book. SAMPLE SPEECH: Problem with Pennies Read page 83-85 Do the check list on pages 75, 79 & 82 for your evidences
MORE TIPS FOR GIVING EVIDENCE: CHAPTER 14, 208 There are 3 tips for evidences: 1.Use Specific evidence 2.Use novel evidence 3.Use evidence from credible sources
USING EVIDENCE: USE SPECIFIC EVIDENCE Use Specific Evidence means: Give specific information rather the general terms Use specific facts, details, quotes and statistical data with their sources.
USING EVIDENCE: USE NOVEL EVIDENCE Use novel evidence means: Give new or up to date information /evidence Go beyond what the audience already know Doing a good research is crucial for this type of speech USING EVIDENCE: FROM CREDIBLE SOURCES
Use evidence from credible sources: Competent and credible sources Experts views They are usually from not biased, nonpartisan and objective sources. LOGOS: 2-REASONING
Reasoning, the other element of Logos What is it? LOGOS: 2-REASONING: - The process of drawing conclusion on the basis of evidence.
Make sure your reasoning is sound & Be sure to get your audience to agree with your reasoning. LOGOS: REASONING Fallacies: Are errors made in reasoning. This is something every
speaker must avoid! There are four types LOGOS--5 TYPES OF REASONING: 1. 2. 3.
4. 5. Specific instances Principle Causal reasoning Analogical reasoning: Fallacies (errors): Red Herring, ad
hominem, bandwagon & slippery slope SPECIFIC INSTANCE Reasoning from Specific Instances moves from one particular fact to general conclusion. Exceptions always exist. This is not foolproof. Avoid generalizing too hasty! Hasty Generalization: An error in reasoning , whereby a speaker jumps t general
conclusion on the basis of insufficient evidence. Reinforce your reasoning with enough examples, statistics and testimony. PRINCIPLE REASON Is a type of reasoning that moves from general to specific conclusion. Page 211 Be careful with general evidences give
details, sound evidence to support your claims! CAUSAL REASONING Page 212 A type of reason that seek to establish the relationship between cause and effects. Be careful because the cause and
effects are not always clear. Avoid the following errors: 1.The fallacy of False cause an error in causal reasoning in which the speaker mistakenly assumes that because one event follows another, the first event is the cause of the second. 2.Assuming Events have one cause: most have several causes Be careful not to attribute complex events to only one cause ANALOGICAL REASONING
Page 212 Most common form for question of policy. It is a reasoning in which the speaker compares two similar cases and infer that what is true for the first is true for the second. The two must be essentially alike! Otherwise, it is an invalid analogy! Invalid analogy - is analogy in which two cases are being compared but are not essentially alike.
REASONING: FALLACIES Fallacy means an error in reasoning. You need to avoid fallacies in your speech. There are 125 fallacies: Fallacies: besides false cause , hasty generalization, Invalid analogy, here are 4 more fallacies you
should guard against at all costs: Red Herring, ad hominem, bandwagon, slippery slope FALLACIES: RED HERRING Red Herring A fallacy that introduces an irrelevant issue to divert attention from the subject under discussion
FALLACIES: AD HOMINEM Ad hominem a fallacy that attacks the person rather than dealing with the real issue in dispute. FALLACIES: BANDWAGON
Band wagon a fallacy that assumes that because something is popular, it is therefore good, correct and desirable. Coke, coca- cola FALLACIES: SLIPPERY SLOPE
Slippery slope a fallacy that assumes that taking the first step will lead to the subsequent steps that cannot be prevented. PATHOS: APPEALING TO EMOTIONS Pathos is the word used by Aristotle for Emotional Appeal. When you appeal, try to appeal to the heart head the head a the same
time! When you call to action, realize that your reasoning should be based on facts and logic. PATHOS: APPEALING TO EMOTIONS Is intended to create all kinds of feelings the listener may feel either sad, angry, guilty,
afraid, proud sympathetic, reverent and the like. Page215 PATHOS: APPEALING TO EMOTIONS These are normal reaction for the questions of or policy for immediate action.
Some emotions evoked by public speakers: Fear: Compassion: Pride: Anger: Reverence: Page215 SAMPLE SPEECH: WHAT TO OBSERVE FOR Speakers way of establishing /building credibility
How did she relate the topic to her audience Speakers use of evidence Speakers use of reasoning Speakers use of emotional Organizational order used WHERE DO YOU PLACE YOUR EVIDENCES?
Under your main points, specifically under your sub-points BODY OF YOUR TALK 1. Main point 1
2. Main point 2 3. Main point 3 A. Supporting idea A. supporting idea A. supporting idea (explain. details) 1. Supporting evidences 1.Supporting evidences 1. Supporting evidences ( testimonies, statistics)
B. Supporting idea (testimonies, statistics) (testimonies, statistics) B. Supporting idea B. Supporting idea
1. Supporting evidences (testimonies, statistics) C. Supporting idea C. Supporting idea C. Supporting idea 1.Supporting evidences (testimonies, statistics)
PERSUASIVE SPEECH: Sample Speech with Commentary Making a Difference Through Special Olympic CD #14.4 Page 217
VIDEO SAMPLE: Evaluate the use of the persuasive speech method: Appendix 7-8 Video 14:5 Teenage Driving HOMEWORK FOR 12/5/14
1. Your clear Revised Persuasive Speech Preparation outline is due on 12/12/14 Tuesday and 12/19/14 for Friday 2. Read chapter 15-16. 3. Be ready for your group oral presentation on the 19th. LESSON 11 WEEK 13 CHAPTER 5
PUBLIC SPEAKING PROF.: MS. K. CASIMIR WEEK 13: 11/25/14 OBJECTIVE During this session, each student will speak for I minute on a persuasive speech trying to sell something to your audience, do a class survey for the next speech. Review audience analysis and
bibliography. We will discuss how to build credibility, Supporting evidences (the three types of evidences from chapter 6), methods of persuasion from chapter 14: building credibility, using evidences, reasoning, appealing to emotion. Then watch a sample speech Making a difference through special Olympic Each student will conduct a survey in class for their next WATCH SAMPLE SPEECH AT HOME: 14.6
Bursting the Antibacterial Bubble Then, Read The Analysis BUILDING CREDIBILITY: ENHANCING CREDIBILITY There are three ways to enhance your credibility:
1. Explain your competence 2. Establish common ground with your audience 3. Deliver your speech fluently, expressively and with conviction Video 14:3
ANALYZING THE AUDIENCE Audience centeredness The psychology of audiences The factors in audiences analysis Getting information about the audience Adapting to the audience ANALYZING THE AUDIENCE
Audience centeredness The psychology of audiences The factors in audiences analysis Getting information about the audience Adapting to the audience ANALYZING THE AUDIENCE: AUDIENCE
CENTEREDNESS What does it mean to be audience centered? ANALYZING THE AUDIENCE: AUDIENCE CENTEREDNESS
Keeping the audience in mind at every step of the way in your speech preparation and delivery! You need to ask yourself questions as you prepare your speech! ANALYZING THE AUDIENCE: THE PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTOR
What is the psychology of the audience? THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THE AUDIENCE In the American culture, people are very much self - centered and individualistic! Normally, people will not listen to something
that does not concern them, or that bears their values, interests, beliefs, and wellbeing. People tend to be very selective to what they listen to. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THE AUDIENCE People are generally, egocentric! They are interested in themselves! Egocentrism means being concerned about themselves!
Their own value, belief, and wellbeing or interest or problem. If you learn about your audience first, you will be better prepared and make your idea more meaningful to them! ANALYZING THE AUDIENCE: FACTORS What are the factors to consider in audiences analysis?
FACTORS IN AUDIENCE ANALYSIS There are six factors you must consider: 1. Size 2. Physical setting 3. Demographic traits 4. Disposition toward the topic (interest, knowledge, attitude)
5. Disposition to the speaker 6. Disposition toward the occasion #1 FACTORS IN AUDIENCE ANALYSIS The size of the audience #1 FACTORS IN AUDIENCE ANALYSIS
The size of the audience: could be any sizes. The larger the audience, the more formal you need to be! FACTORS IN AUDIENCE ANALYSIS The Physical Setting
FACTORS IN AUDIENCE ANALYSIS The Physical Setting: How your room is set up! Is it crowed, or relaxed, well lighted and spacious? Is it too cold or hot? Can they see your visual?
FACTORS IN AUDIENCE ANALYSIS The Physical Setting: Ask question or take a tour to the site! Make adjustment as needed to take control of your setting. #3 FACTORS IN AUDIENCE ANALYSIS
The Demographic Traits #3 FACTORS IN AUDIENCE ANALYSIS The Demographic Traits Is the audience characteristic such as age, gender, race, educational background, economic status,
culture and the likes # 6 FACTOR: IN AUDIENCE ANALYSIS The Disposition Toward the Occasion #4 FACTORS IN AUDIENCE ANALYSIS
The Disposition Toward the Topic #4 FACTORS IN AUDIENCE ANALYSIS The Disposition Toward the Topic Interest: get them interested or pick one that suit them Knowledge: see how much they know
Attitude: the most important in persuasive speech. You need to take a special step to overcome skepticism /hostility. #5 FACTORS IN AUDIENCE ANALYSIS The Disposition to the Speaker
#5 FACTOR: IN AUDIENCE ANALYSIS The Disposition to the Speaker: the more knowledgeable you are or competent, the more they will listen to you! #6 FACTORS IN AUDIENCE ANALYSIS
The Disposition Toward the Occasion: The occasion dictate what you say and how long you speak. Very important to never exceed your time! ANALYZING THE AUDIENCE: GETTING INFO!
How can you get information about the audience? ANALYZING THE AUDIENCE: GETTING INFO! Observation Conversation Survey / Audience analysis questionnaire
(Fixed alternative, open ended, and scale) TIPS FOR SURVEYING YOUR AUDIENCE Plan the questionnaire carefully to get the precise answer you need for your speech Be sure to use all three types of questions in your survey: Fixed-alternative, scaled & open ended. Make sure your questions are clear and not confusing
Keep the question are brief and concise See the sample on page 64-66 ANALYZING THE AUDIENCE: ADAPTING What does it mean to adapt to the audience ?
ADAPTING TO THE AUDIENCE You must adapt to the audience: before, during and after the speech ADAPTING TO THE AUDIENCE: One must adapt to the audience in three ways:
Before the speech: During the speech: After the speech: ADAPTING TO THE AUDIENCE: BEFORE Before the speech: Assess
Adjust Anticipate Page 67-68 ADAPTING TO THE AUDIENCE: DURING During the speech: Adjust
Keep strong eye contact Explain and give example, clarify Seek feedback from the audience ADAPTING TO THE AUDIENCE: AFTER After the speech: Self - evaluate
Reflect on the speech on how you did Survey/post speech analysis/evaluation Journal your speech VIDEO # A-2, PAGE 47 Analyze how has Barbara Bush adapted her speech to her audience:
Barbara Bush Choices of Change SAMPLE SURVEY: See the handout provided to your group GROUP ACTIVITIES: 5 MINS.
Team 1: Do exercise 1 on page 220 Team 2: DO exercise 2 on page 220 Team 3: Do exercise 3 on page 221 Team 4: Do exercise Public speaking your career on page 221 EXERCISES FOR CRITICAL THINKING
Team 5: Exercise 3 on page 71 Team 6: DO exercise Public speaking your career on page 72 HOMEWORK ON 12/05/14 1. The Project on 12/19/14 2. Outline is Due on 12/19/14
2. Finish reading Chapters 6 and 15 HOMEWORK FOR 12/5/14 1. Your final Typed Persuasive Speech Outline is due on 12/16/14 Tuesday and 12/19/14 for Friday 2. Your survey report is due next week. I need a typed copy and you will give an oral report as well for 1.5 minutes.
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