Biology Competency Test Review REVIEW OF IMPORTANT INFORMATION;
Biology Competency Test Review REVIEW OF IMPORTANT INFORMATION; STUDENT SHOULD REFERRED TO NOTES FOR MORE THOROUGH INFORMATION. Science (inquiry) A SEARCH FOR EVIDENCE IN ORDER TO ANSWER QUESTIONS OR PROBLEMS Observation, identification, description, and explanation of natural phenomena. SCIENCE Observable facts or events in the world around us. NATURAL PHENOMENA Since multiple possible solutions Observations ( using 5 senses-sight, touch, smell, sound &taste)
Collect data Ask questions Investigate Choose solution Research information from many sources Eliminate solutions that use data that cannot be verified or supported by evidence
Recognize data that is biased. Experimental Design/Scientific Method SCIENTIFIC METHOD steps in logically solving problems;may begin with clearly stating problem you are trying to solve. Once establish question-you can make "educated prediction"HYPOTHESIS. Established through reasoning Inductive reasoning-made based on observations (every time throw ball up, come down::every time throw ball up it will come down) Deductive reasoning-general truths (Newton's law of gravity, if
throws up up it it will come down) Process of testing-EXPERIMENTAL DESiGN Steps of the Scientific Method Observation- see or notice something no one else has Problem- identify the problem or ask a question (what is it you need to find out? Research the problem-check books, scientific papers, etc. (what is already know? Hypothesis- tentative explanation that can be formally tested. States how the independent variable (what testing) will affect
dependent variable (what you are measuring). Independent (manipulated variable) -the factor changed (variable testing) Dependent variable (responding variable)- variable measured Steps of the Scientific Method Experimental Design List procedures and material Identify experimental CONTROLS (unchanged factors)
Groups (who?) Experimental group-getting the variable tested Control group-group not getting the variable testing (comparison) Data-observe and record results with charts, lists,graphs, etc. Quantitative (numerical) verses Qualitative (observations) (Graph data- visual comparison between independent and dependent variables.
X axis-independent variable, Y-axis- dependent variable;title and labels Line(show how dependent responds by independent), bar (comparison), and pie(100%) Steps of the Scientific Method Analyze-predict trends and see if data supports hypothesis. CONCLUSION-based on data; describe how independent variable affected dependent variable Did you data support hypothesis
Report results Notes Valid results use multiple subjects and test trials Practice safety List of materials must include everything you need to complete experiment. Procedure must include every step Make table to organize and record data.
Use mathematics to interpret data and graph the results of data Math for science. Why are we integrating subjects ? Metric conversions Based on power of 10s Uses prefixes and symbols Same all over the world
1cc=1ml=1cm3 SI Measurements Length-distance from one point to another Mass-Amount of matter Weight-measurement of gravitational force Volume-amount of space occupied by an object. Graduated cylinder-measures volume of liquid
Meniscus-curve of liquid at its surface Water displacement-way to measure volume of irregular objects Density- measurement of how closely packed matter is within a given space (D= M/V) g/m3 or kg/m3 Temperature measure of how hot or cole Significant figures All non-zero are always significant
All zeroes between non-zeroes are ALWAYS significant Trailing zeros are significant ONLY if the number contains a decimal point Space holding zeroes for number less than one are NOT significant For numbers expressed in scientific notation, ignore the exponent and apply above rules. Characteristics of life Cellular organization
Unicellular- one called Multi-cellular-many cells Organized Cells( blood, brain, etc.)>Tissues(cardiac, bone marrow, etc.)>Organ(heart, femur, etc)>Systems (circulatory, skeletal, etc)>Organisms Reproduction Asexual-one parent;genetically identical
Sexual-two parents;genetic diversity Metabolism Energy required for life processes Autotrophs-self feeders (make own food) Heterotrophs- eat other organisms for energy Characteristics of life Homeostasis-body balance; regulation of body conditions Heredity
DNA (deoxyribose nucleic acid) genetic material that codes for proteins of all organisms; genetic code is universal Sensitivity- respond to stimuli- respond to biotic (living) and abiotic (non-living) factor in the environment. Growth-increase in the amount of living matter either by cell division or cell enlargement Development- any change from conception to deathembryonic, aging, puberty Adaptation-structures, behaviors or processes that aid in an organisms survival are passed from parent to offspring.
Evolution-change over time; descent with modification Life Processes Nutrition-use of nutrients by an organisms Digestion-process that breaks large food molecules into forms that can be used by the cell. Absorption-Ability of the cell to take in nutrients, water, gases and other substances from their surroundings. Transport-the movement of nutrients, water, gases and other
substances into and out of cell. Biosynthesis-the cellular process of building new chemical compounds for the purpose of growth, repair and reproduction. Secretion- release of substance from a cell Respiration-release of energy form chemical breakdown of compounds within cell. Life Processes Excretion-ability of cell to rid itself of waste products.
Response-the ability of a cell to react to stimuli from its environment. Reproduction- the process of fission in which one cell divides to from two identical cells. Photosynthesis-the cellular process in which a plant makes food from water and carbon dioxide, using energy from the sun. Cell Cell- structural and functional unit of all organisms Organelles (little organs) small, specialized cellular subunits, separated by membranes
Help cell move Create and store energy Store information Many other functions Cell theory All living things are made of cells All cells come from other living cells of the same kind
Cells are the basic units of all living things MODERN Cell Theory-Cells contain heredity information which passed on from cell to cell during division. Cell Types Prokaryotic-Cell does not have true nucleus (ex. Bacteria) Eukaryotic-has a nucleus surrounded by a nuclear membrane. (ex. Plant and animal cells) Specialize parts
Centrioles-Animal cells only-cell reproduction Cilia and flagella-Animal cells only-cell movement and movement of other material Cell wall Plants only-rigid membrane around cell (shape and support) Plastids- Plants only-chloroplasts, etc. Vacuole-majority of the cell. Storage, water Basic Chemistry
Element-matter composed of atoms that all have the same atomic number (protons); Naturally occurring approximately 92 Atom-the smallest component of an element that still has properties of the element; consisting of a positively charted nucleus surrounded by a charged cloud of electrons (+ and attracted) Proton (+) particle in the nucleus with a positive charge (+1) and an atomic mass number of 1 dalton Electron (-) negatively charged particle (-1) with a mass of 1/2000 that of a proton. Neutron (non-charged) particle with the same mass as a proton.
Isotope-atoms with the same number of protons and electrons, but different number of neutrons. Isomers-Same chemical formula, different arrangement of atoms Basic Chemistry Atomic Number = Number of protons Atomic Mass= Number of protons and Neutrons Valence electrons-Number of electrons surrounding the nucleus
Molecule-smallest unit of most compounds that displays all the properties of that compound Compound-substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in definite proportions Bonds-force that binds atoms together (how electrons are shared) Intramolecular Forces-forces found b/w atoms in single molecule Covalent-sharing electrons (caring is sharing, love in covalent); nonmetal to non-metal; form molecules Polar covalent bonds-attraction not equal (water)
Non-polar covalent bonds-atoms equal attract and share electrons Ionic-atoms become stable by giving up or gaining electrons (all about I); metals and non-metals; form ions Metallic bonds (metal and metal) Intermolecular Forcesforces found b/w molecules; weak Hydrogen bonds-bond between hydrogen of one molecule and an negatively charged end of a different molecule; cohesions Van der Waals Forces-attraction b/w molecules; adhesion
BONDS SINGLE-EACH ATOMS SHARES ONE OF IT ELECTRONS DOUBLE-EACH OF THE TWO BONDING ATOMS SHARES TWO OF ITS ELECTRONS TRIPLE-EACH OF THE TWO BONDING ATOMS SHARES THREE OF ITS ELECTRONS. WATER POLAR-UNEQUAL SHARING OF ELECTRONS; OXYGEN IS ATTRACTING MORE ELECTRONS THAT THE HYDROGEN ATOMS
OXYGEN SLIGHTLY NEGATIVE; HYDROGEN SLIGHTLY POSITIVE POLARITY COMES FROM HYDROGEN BOND (ATTRACTION OF POLAR ENDS OF WATER MOLECULES; NEGATIVE END ATTRACTS POSITIVE END) HYDROGEN BONDS ARE NOT CHEMICAL BONDS; THEY AR E ATTRACTION OF FORCES (ELECTRONS NOT TRANSFERRED OR SHARED) HEAT CAPACITY ENERGY REQUIRED TO RAISE THE TEMPERATURE BY 1 DEGREE CELSIUS WATER LARGE HEAT CAPACITY
RELEASE OR ABSORBS LOT OFHEAT W/O CHANGING TEMP ORGANISMS WITH LARGE AMOUNTS OF WATER HAVE MORE STABLE TEMPS. Unique-expands as it gets colder WATER COHESION-WATER ATTRACTED TO WATER CAUSED BY HYDROGEN BONDS RESPONSIBLE FOR SURFACE TENSION
IMPORTANT FOR PLANTS CAPILLARY ACTION-DESCRIBES HOW WATER MOVES UP XYLEM IN PLANTS KEEPS WATER MOLECULES INTACT ADHESION-WATER ATTRACTED TO OTHER SUBSTANCES RESPONSIBLE FOR MENISCUS IMPORTANT FOR PLANTS ATTACHES WATER TO XYLEM WALLS
WATER-OUR UNIVERSAL SOLVENT POLARITY ALLOWS IT TO DISSOLVE MOST SOLUTES MIXTURE-MATERIAL COMPOSED OF TWO OR MOVRE ELEMENTS OR COMPOUNDS THAT ARE PHYSICALLY MIXED TOGETHER BUT NOT CHEMICALLY COMBINED SOLUTE-SUBSTANCE DISSOLVED IN A SOLUTION SOLVENT-DISSOLVING SUBSTANCE SOLUTION-MIXTURE IN WHICH ALL COMPONENTS ARE EVENLY DISTRIBUTED
SUSPENSION-MIXTURE OF WATER AND NON-DISSOLVED MATERIALS Water transport medium Blood plasma is about 90 % water Minerals and ions are dissolved in blood, making water necessary for nutrient transport Necessary for nutrient transport in plants pH pH SCALE-Scale with values from 0-14, used to measure concentrations of H+ ions in a solution
Acid-compounds that form Hydrogen (H+) ions in a solution; pH less than 7 Base-compounds that form Hydroxide (OH-) ions in a solution; pH greater than 7 Buffer- Compounds that prevent sharp, sudden changes in pH All organisms are made of chemical compounds; All use chemical compounds for life processes CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS COMMON ELEMENTS IN ORGANISMS : 96% of life CARBON, HYDROGEN (most by number), OXYGEN (most by
weight) AND NITROGEN MOST COMMON (CHO FAMILY0 20-25% OF LIVING MASS ORGANISMS REQUIRE 25 OF 92 NATURALLY OCCURRING ELEMENTS TO SURVIVE HYDROGEN-FORMS ONE COVALENT BOND OXYGEN-FORMS TWO COVALENT BONDS CARBON-FORMS FOUR COVALENT BONDS; CHAINS, BRANCHES,AND RINGS
Organic Molecules/Compounds CARBON CONTAINING COMPOUNDS THAT CAN BE VERY LARGE MACROMOLECULES Forming Macromolecules Monomer-single sub unit; combine to form polymers Polymer-molecule formed by smaller subunits; macromolecules built by dehydration synthesis/condensation reactions (water formed, polymer formed) Hydrolysis-water splits to break polymers Classes of macromolecules found in living Carbohydrates (CHO, saccharides, 1:2:1 Ratio) things:
Sugars/glucose and starches; Quick energy Eg. Cellulose (plant cell wall) Lipids (CHO, fatty acids attached to glycerol) Fats, oils, waxes; store high energy Found cell membrane
Saturated (filled with hydrogens, no double bonds b/w carbons) and unsaturated (has double bonds-room for more hydrogens) Proteins (CHON, Amino Acids) Most structures of the body Eg. Hormones and Enzymes (work on specific areas called substrates to speed up chemical reactions; specific pH and optimal temperature range-outside conditions do not work) Nucleic Acids (CHON + P, nucleotides) Contain organisms genetic information for making proteins Eg. DNA (replication) and RNA( translation) Cell Transport
Passive transport (no energy required) Diffusion movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to area of lower concentration. Osmosis movement of water molecules from an area of high concentration to lower concentration. Isotonic water moves in and out of cell at equal rates
Hypotonic (O) water concentration higher outside;::moves into the cell; cell swells and can burst Hypertonic - water concentration higher inside cell:: move out of cell; cell shrinks Facilitated diffusion- movement of substance though the membrane via a transport protein channel. Active transport ( ATP Required); movement from an area of LOW concentration to high concentration Endocytosis (enter cell)- pinocytosis (liquids) and phagocytosis (solids) Exocytosis (exit cell) waste Energy Transfer Photosynthesis-plants only
Producers use sunlight to convert chemical energy into glucose 6CO2 + 6H2O > C6H12O6 + 6O2 Large number of chloroplast (site of photosynthesis) found in mesophyll cells Cellular Respiration- plants and animals
Process by which organisms break down glucose (food) and release its energy Energy stored in ATP (Adenosine triphosphate) Pigments absorb light energy Light Rxn Input- water and light Output- O2 , ATP, NADPH Dark Rxn
Input-ATP, CO2, and NADPH Output-Glucose Adenine (Nitrogen base) Ribose (5-C sugar) 3 phosphate groups (high energy) ATP/ADP cycle-when energy is needed to do work a phosphate group is released to form ADP
Overall equation- c6H12O6 + 6O2 > 6CO2 + 6H2O + 38 ATP Cellular Respiration Aerobic Anaerobic Oxygen required NO Oxygen required Most organisms
Few organisms (bacteria/yeast) 38 ATP 2 ATP 3 Steps 2 Steps Glycolysis (sugar splitting)
Glycolysis Kreb cycle Fermentation ETC (most energy made) Alcohol
Lactic Acid Chemosynthesis SOME FORMS OF BACTERIA MAKE ENERGY FROM INORGANIC CHEMICALS Rate of photosynthesis Affected by color and intensity of light and temperature Measured rate of photosynthesis by measuring the amount of oxygen bubbles given off in a test tube under light. Reproduction Fundamental characteristic of life
Propagates your species 2 forms asexual and sexual Asexual and Sexual Asexual Sexual reproduction 1 parent 2 parents (usually) No gametes
Fusion of gametes Offspring genetically identical to parents Genetic Diversity Slower, more energy , less efficient Fast, efficient, less energy
No variation Changing environment Stable environment Strategies Strategies Binary fission-Cell divides in half
Budding- New organism forms off side of adult and drops off. Internal fertilization External fertilizations (Spawning eggs and sperm released into the environment (aquatic) Cell Division Haploid (1 set of chromosomes), gametes, sperm/egg Diploid (2 sets of chromosomes), body cells, one from mom & one from dad
Cell Cycle Interphase- G1 , S Phase (DNA synthesized), G2 ; longest phase of cycle Mitosis (PMAT); tissue repair and growth Prophase-DNA Coils Metaphase-Lines up in middle
Anaphase- pairs separate and heading to poles Telophase-changes from prophase reversed Meiosis (PMAT2) Reproductive division; Fertilization occurs 2 sets of info Crossing over-creates genetic diversity Cytokinesis-cytoplasm division DNA, RNA, and Protein Synthesis DNA and RNA made of nucleotides (Nitrogen base, sugar and phosphate backbone) DNA
RNA Function Codes for proteins/RNA Copy's DNA information Structure Double Helix Single Helix Sugar Deoxyribose Ribose Nitrogen Bases
ACG and T ACG and U Replication Process used by cells to copy DNA-enzyme unzips DNA and each side of ladder acts as a template for the building of new half Base Pair rule AT GC EX
TACGGAC (old strand) ATGCCTG (new strand) Protein Synthesis Transcription-making RNA from DNA EX TACGGAC (template DNA strand) AUGCCUG (RNA built) 3 types of RNA involved in protein synthesis mRNA-MESSENGER- blue print for how to build a protein; transcription
tRNA-TRANSFER- carries amino acid to ribosome; translation rRNA-RIBOSOMAL- makes ribosomes when mRNA attaches to ribosome Translation-process of building a protein by matching Codons in mRNA to anticodons of tRNA Heredity-passing traits from parents to offspring. Genes-segments of the DNA in the chromosome that carry the information for the traits of an organisms such as eye color, height, etc.; genes in pairs (one mom, one dad)-each member of the pair is called allele.
Dominant-trait stronger/expressed; Recessive-trait weaker, masked (still carried) Genotype- Alleles carried Homozygous Dominant-2 dominant alleles (TT) Homozygous Recessive-2 recessive alleles (tt) ONLY WAY OFFSPRING WILL EXPRESS RECESSIVE TRAIT Heterozygous-1 dominant allele and one recessive allele (Tt) Phenotype-physically look like. Brown hair, tall, etc
Punnett Square-mathematical chart used to predict genetic crosses Phenotypic ratio for heterozygous x heterozygous is 9:3:3:1 Special Genetics Incomplete Dominance-intermediate blend Codominance - Both parental phenotypes show up. Sex linked - carried on sex chromosomes Multiple Allelism - traits with 3+ alleles (eg. blood type)
Pedigree charts-used to interpret patterns of inheritance within a family Mutation-change that occur in gene or chromosome Can be negative, positive or no effect. Change genotype and could alter phenotype form expected Internal causes-e.g mistakes during meiosis when crossing over External causes-UV light, X-Rays, drugs, alcohol etc.
Biotechnology/Alteration of DNA Biotechnology-used to describe field of science that specializes in changing the base sequence on DNA to change or improve traits in an organism. Genetic Engineering-changed the gene to produce better results (eg. Crops) Recombinant DNA- recombines DNA from two or more organisms to improve its characteristics. Gene Splicing uses enzymes to remove a gene from the section of DNA in one organism and placer in another organisms for beneficial reasons like the use of a bacterium to produce human insulin.
Cloning-making an exact copy of organism Ecology-Study of interactions between living things and their environment Abiotic factors- non-living things Biotic-living factors Energy Pyramids-show how energy is passed through the environment. All energy is pass from sun to green plants that trap energy through photosynthesis> Cellular respiration to get energy Trophic levels (feeding levels) are energy levels.
Eating Producers/Autotrophs (self energizing) energy from sun, used to produce glucose. Make up base of pyramid Consumers/Heterotrophs (others energizing) eats others; pyramid: Primary consumers-second level, eat plants (herbivores) Secondary Consumers- next level, eat primary consumers Carnivores- meat eaters
Omnivores-eat plants and animals Tertiary consumers third or forth level. Can be carnivores or omnivores. Decomposers-bacteria and funguses live off dead organisms; rot things and put nitrogen and other minerals back into the soil. Scavengers-feed off dead organisms Relationships b/w organisms Predator/Prey- one organism hunts and eats another organism Scavengers- organisms that feed off dead organisms
Symbiosis- permanent relationship among organisms Mutualism-both organism benefit from relationship Commensalism-one organism benefits other neither harmed or benefited Parasitism- one organism benefits other harmed Niche-job or role of organisms what it has to do to stay alive Competition"fight" b/w organisms in organisms in an ecosystem for food or
shelter. Ecosystem large area where organisms live; characterized by biotic and abiotic factors Population-organisms of same species live Community-different populations living together Habitat-specific place in the ecosystem where organisms lives Population Growth Exponential (J Shaped) growth utopia, unlimited resources
Logistic (S-Shaped) realist growth; impacted resources Density Dependent disease and competition'; more dense more affected Density Independent natural disaster; every affected regardless Carry capacity-logistic growth- maximum number organisms environment can support Levels of Organization Biosphere
Biomes Ecosystem Community Population Organism Cycles in nature Classification
Carolus Linnaeus- 7 categories of classification Binomial nomenclature naming using the genus and species to refer to organism Dichotomous key-classification tool using a paired statements that lead to name of organism Kingdoms placement Cell type, complex or simple Ability to make food
Number of cells in their body Kingdoms (5-7 modern) Monera,-prokaryotes; bacteria Eubacteria true bacteria Round (coccus) Rod (bacillus)
Spiral (spirillus) Archaebacteria extremist Protistia- unicellular, eukaryotic and aquatic Fungi- all eukaryotic heterotrophs that act as decomposer Plantae eukaryotic autotrophs Animalia all eukaryotic heterotrophs that must eat other organisms for food. Viruses small parasite that cannot reproduce by itself.
Not considered living; do not have all characteristics of life. Antibiotics WONT kill. Contain either DNA or RNA- single or double stranded Lytic or Lysogenic cycles Evolution Charles Darwin- proposed the organisms change over time (evolution)
Natural selection (survival of the fittest)process by which species derived from common ancestor; individual organisms or phenotype so that possess favorable traits are more likely to survive and reproduce. Descent with modification- change in populations over generations. Lines of evidence Fossils (geological time) Homologous structures similarity in structure of different parts and organs of different animals (human hand/dogs paw); inherited from common ancestors Analogous structure-save same function in different species, but
evolved independently (winds of bats, birds and butterflies. Vestigial-refers to parts and organs that, due to historical evolution and development, may no longer be necessary (tail bone, appendix) Embryology-embryos of various species all appear identical Lines of evidence Biochemistry- DNA and protein(amino acid) sequence comparison Adaptive radiation- an ancestral species radiates or diverges into many species (Galapagos finches) Evolution theories
Endosymbiosis-eukaryotic cells formed when prokaryotic cells began to live together permanently. Urey and Miller-simulated Earth's early environment and created organic compounds like amino acids. Biologist Robert Hooke-discovered and named cells Anton van Leeuwenhoek-Named living cells Gregor Mendel-father of genetics; patterns of inheritance with pea plants.
Charles Darwin-father of evolution theory; survival of fittest;natural selection James Watson and Francis Crick-Double helix structure-DNA Carolus Linnaeus- Classification and binomial nomenclature Louis Pasteur- disproved spontaneous generation (abiogenesis)
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