Messerschmitt vs Spitfire A love story Slide numbers

Messerschmitt vs Spitfire A love story Slide numbers

Messerschmitt vs Spitfire A love story Slide numbers Content 2 10 Introduction and context of Lottes childhood 11 19 Overview of WWII and of the air war

20 30 Details of air raids on Britain and Germany 31 42 Ethics of the air raids 43 49 Types of bombs used and their effects 50 52 Arthur Bomber Harris

53 57 Whose fault was the war? 58 59 Firestorms 60 63 Destruction and impact of the raids 64 71

Recovery after the war 72 79 Impact of war today and parallels with todays wars 80 84 The Angel of History discussion point 85 92 The performance, its style and Brecht 93

Final words Guten Tag. My name is Lotte Schffer I am seventy six years young. I am an artist who lives and works in Frankfurt and I am bringing my exhibition Families, Art and War to England. You see, I am old enough to have experienced the Second World War but too young to remember it. Teachers have played a big part in my life; my sister Ruth became a teacher and my father, who I do not remember well, was a teacher. I have asked a teacher in the UK to help me gather the facts to give you the whole picture. Hello.

And thats where I come in. My name is Mr. Lowe and Im the teacher that Lotte has asked to help her with this work. To make it easier to know whos speaking, all of my words and work will be in white type, like this. Drawing what I see and all of my words (Lottes) and work will be in red type, like this. As a child I experienced the air war from below. The only way I could make sense of it was to draw what I saw. Here is one of my drawings:

Pictures as therapy Hi, its Mr Lowe again. What Lotte did, was do what she did naturally she drew. But art is used nowadays as a form of therapy for young children. War can have devastating effects on children and when they are too young to talk about what theyve seen or experienced, therapists ask them to draw their experiences. Often, letting something out helps someone let something go. Here are some examples of drawings by children from wars that have happened after the Second World War: Childrens drawing of war What a terrible thing war is

Children draw what is in front of them, they see horrific events but they dont have the whole picture. I would like you to have the whole picture, there will be statistics, quotes from people involved and photographs. And amongst all of that there are some questions which you need to wrestle with. The first one is who started it? So who started World War 2?? Germany. And Britain.

Germany invaded Poland and so started a war. Germany didnt want to go to war with Britain. Britain and France declared war on Germany as a reaction to Germanys invasion of Poland. Germany started bombing raids in Poland and Russia and accidentally dropped some in London. Britain started air raids on Germany in retaliation. WW2 Timeline 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944

1945 Germany Great Britain Hitler invades Poland 1/9/39. Blitz of Polish cities begins. German Blitzkrieg defeats France, Belgium and Holland. Germany halted in GB invasion by loss of Battle of Britain. Hitler invades Russia. Japan attacks Pearl Harbour & US enters war. Germany held at Stalingrad. Killing of Jews in Auschwitz begins

Germany defeated at Stalingrad. Jewish ghetto of Krakov destroyed. Germans defeated at Leningrad. Enigma code broken by British. Britain & France declare war on Germany 3/9/39 Russians liberate Auschwitz and scale of atrocity revealed. Russians reach Berlin. Hitler commits suicide. Germany surrenders 7/5/45 Rationing starts. Churchill becomes PM. British victory in Battle of Britain. 1st air attacks on Germany on 15/5/40. Blitz on Britain begins 7/9/40

Blitz continues on major cities. Allied victory in North Africa US victory in Battle of Midway marks turning point in Pacific War. Allied invasion of Italy. Italy surrenders but Germans continue fight. Russians get stronger on Eastern Front. D-Day successful and Paris liberated. US drops atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki and Japanese surrender 14/8/45 So it was a complicated war The war raged for nearly 6 years and fighting took place all over the world. Many nations

were involved, not just Germany and Britain. But our play deals with Germany and Britain so lets examine the issue that the play focuses on: bombs dropped from aeroplanes. War in the air a summary For the first year of the war the Germans bombed mainly military targets in Poland, Belgium, Holland and France. Germany began the air war on British military targets in July 1940 German bombers accidentally dropped bombs in London in August 1940. Churchill ordered the RAF to bomb Berlin in retaliation After a decisive night on September 15th, Britain won the Battle of Britain in October 1940 to postpone Hitlers plan of a land invasion of Britain. Hitler ordered the Luftwaffe to begin the Blitzkrieg and Britains major industrial cities were bombed, but only at night, quickly and devastatingly.

Hitler moved his focus to USSR USA joined Britain after the attacks on Pearl Harbour in 1941 and together they continued to bombard Germany throughout the war Arthur Bomber Harris was appointed Commander-in-Chief of Bomber Command in 1942 and changed the focus of the bombing USA and Britain targeted not just military and industrial targets but civilian centres (area bombing) focusing on morale of the enemy civilians. RAF vs the Luftwaffe The British RAF took on the German Luftwaffe over the skies of Britain, France, Belgium, Holland and Germany. Thousands of planes made journeys and many from both sides were shot down. The most famous planes that came to

symbolise the war in the skies were the Messerschmitt and the Spitfire German Messerschmitt 109 British Spitfire Mark IV Is that a fair choice of photographs? I see these two photos so often. The Messerschmitt with its pilot invisible, a machine going about its ruthless business dropping bombs on Britain. And then theres the picture of the Spitfire, cockpit open and a smiling, friendly, British face for all to see. He looks harmless doesnt he? But he wasnt. I

remember the firestorms Thats a fair point, Lotte The Luftwaffe also contained a pilot who was just as capable of being a smiling, friendly face. In war, we tend to think of the opposition as other, foreign, the enemy. But, as Lotte points out, German and British pilots were all doing exactly the same job dropping bombs. And all of them were human beings. We must never forget that. But can we leave the firestorms until a bit later? Thank you That is important to remember. Our

government made the decisions, our fathers, brothers and sons had to do the work. Now, please carry on, Mr Lowe. But dont forget the firestorms I wont. Thank you. So, to the detail Its difficult to really understand the volume of attacks, bombs, journeys and casualties without looking at the air war in more detail. In Britain we often talk about the impact of the Blitz because it was the most concentrated attacks weve known in hundreds of years. However, the air raids from both sides continued throughout the war.

The Blitz in Britain 1940 Date Location Damage and casualties 07/09/40 London 335 tons explosives. 430 killed, 1600 injured 15/10/40

London BBC bombed. 430 killed. 250 000 made homeless 15/11/40 Coventry 449 bombers attack. 554 killed, 850 seriously injured 26/11/40 Bristol City is completely destroyed. 1229 killed

28/11/40 Liverpool 169 killed in a school. 30/11/40 Southampton 476 tons explosives. Much of city levelled. 15/12/40

Sheffield 2 nights bombing. 660 killed, 40 000 made homeless. 21/12/40 Wirral 365 killed many due to direct hits on air raid shelters 23/12/40 Manchester 684 killed. Hitler claims entire city was destroyed

30/12/40 London 2nd Great Fire of London. Major destruction. The Blitz in Britain 1941 Date Location Damage and casualties 11/01/41

London 111 killed in the ticket hall of Bank tube station 21/02/41 Swansea Swanseas 2nd air raid. 270 killed. 11/03/41 Portsmouth

750 killed. 13/03/41 Clydebank Worst losses in Scotland. 528 killed. 21/03/41 Plymouth 300 tons explosives, 2000 incendiary canisters 15/04/41

Belfast 180 bombers arrived, killing nearly 1000 people 16/04/41 London 29/04/41 Plymouth 712 bombers, 2000 tons high explosives, 9000 incendiary canisters, 2000 fires, 1000 people killed

8 nights bombs kills 1000, makes 30 000 homeless 07/05/41 Greenock 2 nights of bombing leaves 280 killed, 1200 injured 11/05/41 London Most destructive day. 1436 civilians killed 16/05/41

Blitz ends as Luftwaffe mainly reassigned to Russia Air raids on Britain 1941-43 Date Location Damage and casualties 01/06/41 Manchester 111 bombers attack in night raid

27/07/41 London 1st raid in 10 weeks, heavy bombing 21/01/42 London/ports 400 bombers attach ports in Southern England 24/04/42 24/06/42

Exeter 1st Baedeker raid Birmingham 1st of retaliation raids on historic towns and cities, following RAF bombing of Lubeck 1st of a series of night raids against Birmingham 20/01/43 London Daylight raid hits school. Kills 44 children, 1 teacher

17/05/43 Cardiff Luftwaffe carry out night raid 30/05/43 Torquay 20 children killed when bomb hits church 09/07/43 East Grinstead

12 die in hit and run bombing on cinema 15/08/43 Portsmouth Heaviest attack in 2 years by 91 German planes Air raids on Britain 1944-45 Date 21/01/44 24/03/44 13/06/44 16/06/44

02/08/44 Location Southeast England London Swanscombe, Kent England England 06/09/44 08/09/44 03/03/45 England RAF air fields

27/03/45 27/04/45 Orpington, Kent England Damage and casualties Heaviest Luftwaffe raid of 90 planes: Mini blitz 90 medium bombers attack 1st V1 flying bomb (doodlebug) launched 95 V1s launched 5340 Doodlebugs launched so far, killing 4735 and injuring 14000. 17 000 homes completely destroyed Battle of London won as V1 attacks cease

1st of V2 bombs launched from Holland 27 air fields attacked by 100 luftwaffe. Last air attack on Britain of war. 1115th and last V2 attack on England 2754 killed by V2 bombs, 6523 seriously injured Allied air raids on Germany 1940/41 Date Location Damage and Casualties 04/09/39

Rhineland First leaflet bombs dropped. 15/05/40 Bomber Command begins its air raids 24/07/40 British allow use of phosphorus fire platelets 13/08/40 Munster

Dortmund-Ems canal bridge destroyed 16/11/40 Hamburg Serious damage and 26 killed in harbour area 17/12/40 Mannheim 140 bombers destroyed 240 buildings. 34 killed

02/03/41 Cologne Heaviest raid yet by RAF bombers 09/04/41 Kiel Heavy raid to try to knock out port 15/05/41 Cuxhaven

Nights raids also on Hanover and Berlin 12/06/41 Ruhr 1st of 20 consecutive night raids 02/09/41 Bremen Only 19 nights missed in August & September raids

Allied air raids on Germany 1942 Date 23/02/42 28/03/42 23/04/42 31/05/42 06/06/42 25/06/42 28/08/42 11/09/42 Location Lubeck Rostock Cologne

Millenium raid Bremen Nuremberg Dusseldorf Damage and casualties Bomber Harris put in charge of Bomber Squadron Heavy raid on historic (not industrial) town 142 bombers 1046 bombers, dropping 1455 tons of explosive, destroys 600 acres of built-up area, 486 killed, 59 000 made homeless A bomb dropped 13 months ago explodes, killing 19 3rd 1000 bomber raid. 27 acres of inner city razed.

4000 killed, 10 000 homes destroyed Heavy raid Allied air raids on Germany 1943 Date 23/05/43 29/05/43 24/07/43 25/07/43 28/07/43 Location Dortmund Wuppertal Hamburg

Op. Gomorrah Essen Hamburg 23/08/43 07/10/43 03/11/43 22/11/43 03/12/43 11/12/43 Berlin Stuttgart Dusseldorf Berlin

Leipzig Emden Damage and casualties 2000 tons of explosives are dropped 719 bombers, 1900 tons explosives, 2450 killed 746 bombers, 2,300 tons, 48 minutes. Tonnage same as Germans dropped in 5 heaviest raids on London. 2000 tons explosives dropped. 722 bombers. 9 sq miles alight. Million evacuated. More bombs and same casualties (50 000) in Hamburg than on London in whole Blitz. 727 bombers drop 1700 tons. Smoke 20 000 ft high. 1700 killed, 18 000 made homeless 2000 tons of explosives dropped in 27 minutes

2300 tons of dropped in 30 minutes. 8-10 000 killed 1500 killed, 40 000 made homeless 1000 killed, 12 000 made homeless Allied air raids on Germany 1944 Date 27/01/44 19/02/44 15/03/44 22/04/44 18/07/44 08/08/44 16/11/44 21/11/44

Location Berlin Leipzig Stuttgart Brunswick Caen Aachen Merseburg Damage and casualties 13th raid on Berlin leaves 6000 dead 2300 tons of bombs dropped 3000 tons of bombs dropped from 863 bombers J Bomb used for 1st time liquid incendiary 4500 bombers drop 7000 tons on German defences

3462 tons dropped on the German lines A record 5689 tons dropped in one day Synthetic fuel producing plants destroyed Allied air raids on Germany 1945 Date 03/02/45 14/02/45 Location Berlin Dresden 02/03/45 12/03/45

14/03/45 Mannheim Dortmund Bielefield 23/03/45 Hildesheim 04/04/45 02/05/45 Kiel Kiel

Damage and casualties 937 bombers kill more than 25 000 civilians 1200 bombers over 2 nights create a fire-bomb holocaust killing between 35 000 135 000 people 300 bombers create a devastating firestorm Record set for 4851 tons dropped in a day 1st drop of 22 000lb Grand Slam bomb that destroys the Bielefield viaduct 300 bomber raid against small town with little military or industrial significance Over 2 nights, 1150 bombers attack the city Last ever Bomber Command attack launched. Bombing of Germany map

Bombing of Germany in summary In World War II, over half a million tons of high explosive, incendiaries and fragmentation bombs were dropped in area raids on German cities. The raids left: more than 7 million people homeless; approximately 600,000 civilians dead and approximately 850,000 civilians injured. Allied Air Forces raids also destroyed or heavily damaged 3,600,000 dwelling units Approximately 20 % of the total housing stock, and 45 percent of the housing stock in the large cities. Statistics of air raids

Civilian air raid deaths Cities attacked 1939-45 Homes destroyed People made homeless Worst affected cities Germany 543 000 61 3.6 million (20% of total) 7.5 million Berlin (70% destroyed) Dresden (75% destroyed) Britain

60 400 33 1.5 million No accurate info: at least 1.5 million London Liverpool Hull Coventry So why all the fuss? Most of the discussion about the air raids centres on the AIMS of the air raids. In modern warfare, air raids aim to destroy or disrupt industrial or military targets. So a successful raid will

interrupt the production of weapons, or damage the roads/trains so that resources cant get through. In WW2, air raids started to target civilian centres. So city centres were attacked so that morale was affected. Excuse me, Mr Lowe I hate to say it but, well, that doesnt sound very British. I thought you Brits were advocates of fair play, abiding by the rules, strong moral code. Thats certainly what we often say The British have always prided themselves on exactly these principles. So its worth having a

look at two quotations from the two British Prime Ministers who were in power during the war Neville Chamberlain Prime Minister of Great Britain at the start of the war It is against international law to bomb civilians as such and to make deliberate attacks on the civilian population 1939 Winston Churchill Prime Minister of Great Britain at the end of the war

To achieve the extirpation of Nazi tyranny there are no lengths of violence to which we will not go. 1943 Britains change of strategy In March 1942 Churchills War Cabinet adopted the Lindemann plan, whereby civilian targeting became official. Working-class homes were preferred to upper-class because they were closer together, and so a greater flesh-incineration-per-bomb could be achieved. The Jewish German migr Professor Frederick Lindemann, Churchill's friend and scientific advisor had by then become Lord Cherwell. He submitted a plan to the War Cabinet on March 30th urging that German working-class houses be targeted in preference to military objectives, the latter being

harder to hit. Middle-class homes had too much space around them, he explained. He was not prosecuted for a ghastly new war-crime, hitherto undreamt-of. Thereby all cities and town over 50,000 inhabitants could be destroyed, or at least brought to ruin. The War Cabinet realised that no inkling of this must reach the public. How Britain Pioneered City Bombing Targeting a historic city that was filled with refugees and injured "On 13th February 1945 I was a navigator on one of the Lancaster bombers which devastated Dresden. I well remember the briefing by our Group Captain. We were told that the Red Army was thrusting towards Dresden and that the town would be crowded with refugees and that the center of the town would be full of women and children. Our aiming point would be the market place. I recall that we were somewhat uneasy, but we did as we were told. We accordingly bombed the target and on our way back our wireless operator picked up a German broadcast accusing the RAF

of terror tactics, and that 65,000 civilians had died. We dismissed this as German propaganda. The penny didn't drop until a few weeks later when my squadron received a visit from the Crown Film Unit who were making the wartime propaganda films. There was a mock briefing, with one notable difference. The same Group Captain now said, 'as the market place would be filled with women and children on no account would we bomb the center of the town. Instead, our aiming point would be a vital railway junction to the east. I can categorically confirm that the Dresden raid was a black mark on Britain's war record. The aircrews on my squadron were convinced that this wicked act was not instigated by our muchrespected guvnor 'Butch' Harris but by Churchill. I have waited 29 years to say this, and it still worries me." [2001] TERROR BOMBING: THE CRIME OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY by Michael Walsh Thats quite a change in policy How could everything change so much in four years? Well, Lotte, I suppose we have always justified it by saying that we had to stop what the Nazis were

doing with the extermination of the Jews by any means necessary. But I was a little girl just trying to live her life. Why bomb me? Thats difficult to answer, Lotte. So lets have a look at the impact of this change in strategy. The impact of this change All German towns and cities above 50,000 population were from 50% to 80% destroyed. Dresden with a population larger than that of Liverpool was incinerated with an estimated 135,000 civilian inhabitants burned and buried in the ruins. Hamburg was totally destroyed and 70,000 civilians died in the most appalling circumstances. Cologne with a population greater than Glasgow's was turned into a moonscape. As Hamburg burned the winds feeding the three-mile high flames reached

twice hurricane speed to exceed 150 miles per hour. On the outskirts of the city trees three feet in diameter were sucked from the ground by the supernatural forces of these winds and hurled miles into the city-inferno, as were vehicles, men, women and children. [ 2001] TERROR BOMBING: THE CRIME OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY by Michael Walsh Thats very difficult for me to read I lost my mother in a bombing raid. She thought she would be safe in the air raid shelter, but no one is safe in a firestorm. Statistically I was now one of 13 million orphans in Europe at the end of the war, but in reality my sister Ruth took care of me, she brought me up like a mother. Every time I see a building being knocked down in the city, it reminds me

of the war. Nothing is permanent, thats what I learned. We can build cities and destroy them and build them again. But can we go from being civilised to becoming savages and then become civilized again? Its a question thats often asked, Lotte If we look around us at the world today, its difficult to say that yes, we have returned to being civilised. War is never far away. But we must keep going, the story must be told, the facts uncovered. Types of bombs There were 3 common types of bombs used in air raids:

Explosive bombs that blew up on impact Incendiary bombs that set fire to anything flammable where it landed Time-delayed bombs that could be set to any time after impact to explode. The Blockbuster bombs were huge explosive bombs that had the power to destroy whole streets or large buildings British stockpiles of 1000lb bombs Blockbuster bomb Sizes of Blockbuster bombs

Incendiary bomb How time-delayed bombs work Yes, and when they combined Thats what led to the firestorms. I know, Lotte, but lets just continue with the British bombing raids for a little while longer. I need to introduce everyone to one very important man Arthur Bomber Harris Arthur Bomber Harris

One man who is often blamed for the amount of destruction and suffering that the Germans suffered is Bomber Harris. He became Commander-in-Chief of Bomber Command in 1942 Under his command the bombing policy changed. He co-ordinated area bombing. Civilian centres were bombed to attack the infrastructure of towns and cities, and to attack morale His first major policy was The Thousand Bomber Raid where he used 1000 planes dropping a mix of explosives and incendiaries to devastate areas He was convinced that this would break German morale and decisively win the war. It didnt. It rarely destroyed weapons factories and is widely believed to have strengthened the Germans resolve to win. Bomber Harris on trial Bomber Harris: "Dresden? There is not such a place any longer." "I

want to point out, that besides Essen, we never actually considered any particular industrial sites as targets. The destruction of industrial sites always was some sort of bonus for us. Our real targets always were the inner cities. "The destruction of German cities, the killing of German workers, and the disruption of civilized community life throughout Germany [is the goal]. ... It should be emphasized that the destruction of houses, public utilities, transport and lives; the creation of a refugee problem on an unprecedented scale; and the breakdown of morale both at home and at the battle fronts by fear of extended and intensified bombing are accepted and intended aims of our bombing policy. They are not by-products of attempts to hit factories." So Britain did terrible things? It can be seen that way. But lets not forget.

Hitler invaded Poland to start the war. He wanted to expand his empire. Britain wanted to defend Europe. Hitler had already begun bombing civilian centres before Britain ever bombed a city. Hitler was responsible for the Holocaust: The Holocaust killed 11 million people, 6 million of which were Jews 2/3 of the Jewish people in the world were killed An estimated 1.1 million children were killed It has been claimed that Hitler didnt want to bomb Britain Nor do I accept the view that Hitler had a soft spot for the British and the British Empire. In 1945, while I was with an Intelligence Section of SHAEF [Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary

Force], I read the original German document of the plan for Operation Sea Lion the German invasion of Britain as well as the German directives for the occupation of Britain. These stipulated that anyone over the age of twelve who insulted a member of the German occupation forces was to be subject to the death penalty, and all males between the ages of 17 and 45 who were not working in war-related industries in the United Kingdom could be sent to Germany and Poland to work as forced labor [sic] in preparation for the German attack against the USSR. Doug Collins US prisoner-of-war in Germany So it was our fault? Finding fault is never easy and not always useful. Soldiers are bound by law to carry out the orders given to them by the commanding officers. These orders are given as a

way of carrying out the aims of the leaders of the country: Hitler and Chamberlain/Churchill Churchill saw Britains role as keeping the peace in Europe Hitler believed that he was making the world a better place for his countrymen and women In war, it is difficult to stay composed and rational There was fighting all over the world and orders got lost and misinterpreted And perhaps most importantly.. We need to consider the following: What do we mean when we say the Germans? There were 13 million orphans in Europe at the end of the war, many of them in Germany. Was it their fault?

Let he who is without sin cast the first stone War legitimises murder. Why do we accept some types of murder over others? What do you think is acceptable in war? They are very good points, Mr Lowe As a 76 year-old German, I know now exactly what my nation did. I know how many people it killed, exterminated. And I am deeply, deeply ashamed. But I didnt kill anyone. Neither did anyone I know. And I know how much I suffered. So was it my fault? Now they must know about the firestorms Yes, Lotte, they must. So, what is a firestorm?

Firestorms are caused when a number of small fires converge into a single blaze, creating a huge conflagration which in turn sucks in oxygen at high speeds and at very high temperatures. In Hamburg, the conflagration eventually enveloped 4 1/2 square miles, developed 100 mph winds, and reached temperatures of at least 600 to 800 degrees Centigrade (other firestorms have been said to generate temperatures of 1,500 to 2,000 degrees Centigrade). By way of comparison it should be noted that start-up temperatures for crematoria are between 600 and 700 degrees Centigrade. [I262] Defending Against the Allied Bombing Campaign: Air Raid She lters and Gas Protection in Germany, 1939-1945, by Samuel C rowell Those are the facts

But can you imagine what it was like to experience one? You probably cant and thats why we tell you about one in our play So lets show you now what the bombs and the firestorms actually did to my country. Frankfurt before and after Destruction of Frankfurt Christmas in Frankfurt That looks awful, Lotte But we could show you photographs of many English cities that were similarly destroyed.

Why do you think it was worse for you? Because we lost the war. We were broke, we were defeated, our leader was dead and we were discovering what had been done by our country. Because so many of us were orphans. So how did you all recover, once the war ended? My sister Ruth, never talked about the war after it ended. We were too busy trying to survive. When you have no shoes and shelter you dont have time to think about the past. Do you remember the UNESCO report? I do, Lotte.

The Children of Europe - UNESCO Straight after the war, the United Nations was formed to try to preserve world peace UNESCO was formed on November 4th 1946 UNESCO stands for United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation Its purpose is to encourage peace and justice through nations working together in educational, scientific and cultural work David Seymour (or Chim to give him his Polish name) was a war photographer. In 1948 he was asked to travel through Europe and take photographs of the 13 million war orphans. This became Children of Europe We, too, shall be grown-up people in a few years. Do not abandon us a second time and make us lose forever our faith in the ideals for

which you fought. With the love, help and understanding of grown-ups, some of us have already begun to build a secure and happy life to regain a part of our lost childhood in classrooms under the trees, in playgrounds among the ruins but still only some of us. We will even re-build or own schools Teachers do their very best. You can count on them and on us but you must give us a fair chance UNESCO report Children of Europe See the full report here 32/133216eb.pdf

Memorial to orphans, Hamburg So Lotte, how do you cope? How do you recover from the guilt, from knowing that whilst you did nothing wrong, your country certainly did? Its been difficult. After many years of finding it hard to even mention him, we started asking, can we joke about Hitler? The English can and maybe our younger generation feel distant enough to be able to do that. I think the biggest weapon against fascism is humour, it just doesnt sit comfortably with some people.

And can you still see the impact today? Yes, and in the most unlikely places. Such as? School uniforms . We are still cautious as a nation. Our children dont wear school uniforms because many people see it as an echo of the fascist doctrine to make everyone look the same. Thats fascinating. Does it still upset you? My war doesnt, not any more. But these new wars do. Why havent we learnt anything? Why does a new generation have to suffer? It still happens today Yes Lotte, it does. These are current wars:

As of May 2014, there are still 13 wars ongoing in the world. There are wars between: Israel/Palestine, Afghanistan/Pakistan, Iraq/Turkey, Sudan/South Sudan There are civil wars (where groups of people from the same nation fight each other) in: Syria, Yemen, Somalia, D.R. Congo, Nigeria, India, Burma, Thailand, Columbia Source: Unexploded WW2 bombs And this is what really upsets me. In Germany, an average of 15 bombs are discovered every day

but you know about that now. Thats where our story starts. And every time one of these bombs is found, there is danger, stress, upheaval. But once again, the world hasnt learnt anything. Because the amount of unexploded bombs in Germany is nothing compared to the number of unexploded land mines. Land mines Land mines are devices that are hidden under ground and that are triggered when something drives over it or someone or something steps on it. They lead to blindness, amputation, appalling shrapnel wounds and death Land mines from the 1st World War are still killing people

today but millions more have been planted since. Following campaigns by many charities, the use of antipersonnel land mines has been banned by a treaty since 1997. There are now calls for the end of anti-vehicle mines 150 countries have so far signed up to the treaty Casualties of land mines Between 1999 and 2009, there were 73 576 casualties of land mines. Of these, 17 876 were killed. However, this number only includes recorded cases so the true number will be much higher Land mines are indiscriminate they do not care whether its victim is a legitimate military target or a civilian. Between 70 85% of land mine casualties are civilians. 32% were children

Land mine statistics Estimates: 110 million mines still active across 70 countries Every month 2000 people are killed or maimed Anti-personnel mines cost between $3 - $30 They cost $300 - $1000 to clear Estimated cost of removing all the worlds mines is $33 billion Buried land mines can remain active for 50 years It has cost $750 million for amputations to the 250 000 victims so far So your paintings are lessons, Lotte?

You create art as a way of teaching people about the horrors of war? Often, yes. If we all suffered during World War 2, I can cope with that. Its gone, its history. But surely it should have taught us something. Taught us that there are no winners in a war. That the children, especially, are the biggest losers. I just keeping thinking about the Angel of History. Walter Benjamin: The Angel of History The Angel of History quotation Links (Childrens drawings of war) (US voiceover victory in Europe) (Hamburg Firestorm 1943 no sound) -devastating-bombing-campaigns-of-wwii / (10 most devastating bombings) (Footage of German city destruction) Thank you, Lotte. I teach my students every year about World War 2 and yet its always difficult for me to

understand how it impacted on the Germans. Theres that phrase again, Mr Lowe, the Germans. If theres one thing I would like you to remember when you teach in the future, its that theres no such thing as the Germans or the British. Its just people. Thank you Lotte, I will remember that. So now that Lotte has gone We can start to think in a little more depth about the performance itself and how it has been put together. The approach to theatre making that the company draws on is heavily influenced by a German theatre practitioner who was alive and

making work during the Second World War. Let me introduce him: The performance Was devised by The Blahs with Theatrehaus Ensemble from Frankfurt. Is a participatory performance. The audience are also a part of the cast and the story. Can be enjoyed from a number of perspectives: as a Drama student observing the storytelling techniques; as a German student trying to follow the German language used in the piece; as a History student understanding the perspective of the losing side; as a PSHCE student grappling with the ethical dilemmas within. Or as a human being enjoying a lifelong journey to explore and

understand a complicated world. Bertolt Brecht Bertolt Brecht (1898 1956) A German actor and director who grew up in the shadow of the 1st World War He was quick to spot the theatre of the rise of Nazism in 1930s Germany Believed theatre should be a place where debate and learning should take place. Saw theatre as a vehicle for social change Developed a style of theatre called Epic theatre Epic theatre

Episodic rather than linear Archetypal characters rather than fully drawn Often allegorical stories Realistic but not naturalistic Dealt with the political not the personal Had a social message at its heart Used Verfremdungseffekt

Verfremdungseffekt Verfremdungseffekt is often translated as making strange or sometimes alienation. Its purpose was to constantly remind the audience that they were watching a fiction and to not get emotionally involved with the characters By the end of his career, Brecht had developed an array of methods to achieve the effect Verfremdungseffekt techniques

Use of titles, placards and banners Use of song Multi-roling (an actor playing more than 1 role) Symbolic/representational costumes and set Breaking the 4th wall (talking directly to the audience, often out of character) Revealing the lights, wings and mechanics of the theatre An open-ended epilogue (asking the audience difficult questions before they leave) Brecht and our performance We did not set out to make a Brechtian performance

but Brechts influence was so great on European theatre that we now use some of his techniques without thinking. In fact we have used some of these techniques for different reasons. How many of his techniques can you spot in our show? Why do you think we might have used these techniques? What are the advantages and disadvantages of involving an audience? What are the challenges? Thats all folks! I hope you enjoyed the performance, getting involved, being a part of the story. And I hope that youve found this work, and Lottes contributions useful and interesting. Ive

certainly enjoyed meeting Lotte and learning from her.

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    : Life in the New Georgia colony. E.Q. Why were people relocating to the Georgia colony? What role did the Malcontents, Highland Scots, Salzburgers, and Spanish in Florida play in the growth and development of the Georgia colony?
  • Peraturan Presiden Nomor 16 Tahun 2018 Tentang Pengadaan ...

    Peraturan Presiden Nomor 16 Tahun 2018 Tentang Pengadaan ...

    Sanggah Banding merupakan keberatan dari penyanggah kepada KPA yang tidak setuju atas jawaban sanggah. Dalam hal tidak ada KPA, sanggah banding ditujukan kepada PA. Jaminan Sanggah Banding sebesar 1% (satu persen) dari nilai total HPS.
  • Goals for this Sermon Series: 1.) NOT to

    Goals for this Sermon Series: 1.) NOT to

    The date for Christmas was selected because of its connection with pagan festivals like Yule and Sol Invictus (the birthday of the Unconquered Sun), both of which commemorated the winter solstice or the longest night of the year. These festivals...
  • Organizing the Elements

    Organizing the Elements

    An element's properties can be predicted based on its location in the periodic table. ... Also called, "families" (i.e. - the lithium family) Elements in a family share similar characteristics. Valence Electrons (groups 1-2, 13-18)
  • Sedimentary Rocks The products of deposition and lithification

    Sedimentary Rocks The products of deposition and lithification

    Common minerals in detrital rocks. Clay: most abundant product of chemical weathering from feldspars (clay is a mineral name and a size term). Quartz: most resistant mineral -when granite is weathered, chemical weathering attacks the other minerals and the quartz...
  • 催化作用原理 - Ustc

    催化作用原理 - Ustc

    实验结果表明PH3在钨表面的分解可能按以上机理进行: 例2、设一反应机理模型为 总反应速率 (2)双分子反应 Langmuir-Hinshelwood机理:表面反应发生在两个吸附物种间,且此步骤为速控步骤。