5 R E T P A H C

5 R E T P A H C

5 R E T P A H C T C I L F N O C CHANNEL Information Classification: General AGENDA LEARNING OBJECTIVES

INTRODUCTION TO CHANNEL CONFLICT THE NATURE OF CHANNEL CONFLICT CONSEQUENCES OF CONFLICT MAJOR SOURCES OF CONFLICTS IN CHANNELS CONFLICT RESOLUTION STRATEGIES TAKE-AWAYS Information Classification: General LEARNING OBJECTIVES OUTLINE INHERENT SOURCES OF CONFLICT IN CHANNEL RELATIONSHIP AND DEFINE ITS THREE MAIN CAUSES: GOALS, PERCEPTIONS, AND DOMAINS. RECOGNIZE THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF CONFLICT

RECOGNIZE WHY MULTIPLE CHANNELS REPRESENT THE NORM AND DESCRIBE WAYS TO ADDRESS THE CONFLICT THEY CREATE. EXPLAIN WHY MANY SUPPLIERS LIKE GRAY MARKETS (WHILE PROTESTING TO THE CONTRARY). DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF HOW CONFLICT CAN BE MEASURED UNDERSTAND THE WAYS IN WHICH PARTNER CONFLICT CAN BE RESOLVED. DESCRIBE THE NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF HIGH CONFLICT ON CHANNEL PERFORMANCE BUT ALSO IDENTIFY CIRCUMSTANCES IN WHICH CONFLICT IS NEUTRAL OR EVEN POSITIVE. Information Classification: General AGENDA LEARNING OBJECTIVES INTRODUCTION TO CHANNEL CONFLICT THE NATURE OF CHANNEL CONFLICT

CONSEQUENCES OF CONFLICT MAJOR SOURCES OF CONFLICTS IN CHANNELS CONFLICT RESOLUTION STRATEGIES TAKE-AWAYS Information Classification: General INTRODUCTION TO CHANNEL CONFLICT CHANNEL CONFLICT ARISES WHEN BEHAVIOR BY ONE CHANNEL MEMBER IS IN OPPOSITION TO THE WISHES OR BEHAVIORS OF ITS CHANNEL COUNTERPARTS. CHANNEL ACTOR SEEKS A GOAL OR OBJECT THAT ITS COUNTERPART CURRENTLY CONTROLS. ONE MEMBER OF A CHANNEL VIEWS ITS UPSTREAM OR DOWNSTREAM PARTNER AS AN ADVERSARY OR OPPONENT. THESE INTERDEPENDENT PARTIES, AT DIFFERENT LEVELS OF THE CHANNEL (UPSTREAM AND DOWNSTREAM), CONTEST WITH EACH OTHER FOR CONTROL. OMNI-CHANNEL CONTEXT CONFLICT CAN BE EXACERBATED IF THE FIRMS TREAT EACH CHANNEL SEPARATELY (RATHER THAN

ENSURING SYNERGY) THIS CAN CREATE NEW FORMS OF CONFLICT E.G. WHEN ONLINE CHANNELS CANNIBALIZE THE SALES OF IN-STORE CHANNELS Information Classification: General AGENDA LEARNING OBJECTIVES INTRODUCTION TO CHANNEL CONFLICT THE NATURE OF CHANNEL CONFLICT CONSEQUENCES OF CONFLICT MAJOR SOURCES OF CONFLICTS IN CHANNELS CONFLICT RESOLUTION STRATEGIES TAKE-AWAYS Information Classification: General THE NATURE OF CHANNEL

CONFLICT Some conflict can actually strengthen and improve the channel as long as the channel manager deals with it effectively and appropriately. Information Classification: General TYPES OF CONFLICT CONFLICT IMPLIES INCOMPATIBILITY AT SOME LEVEL. LATENT CONFLICT DESCRIBES THE INEVITABLE COLLISION BETWEEN CHANNEL MEMBERS THAT PURSUE THEIR OWN SEPARATE GOALS, STRIVE TO MAINTAIN THEIR AUTONOMY, AND COMPETE FOR LIMITED RESOURCES. PERCEIVED CONFLICT ARISES AS SOON AS A MEMBER SENSES ANY OPPOSITION: VIEWPOINTS, PERCEPTIONS, SENTIMENTS, INTERESTS, OR INTENTIONS.

FELT (OR AFFECTIVE) CONFLICT ARISES AS WHEN EMOTIONS ENTER THE PICTURE AND CAN ESCALATE INTO MANIFEST CONFLICT. INDIVIDUAL PLAYERS START MENTIONING CONFLICT IN THE CHANNEL, AS A RESULT OF NEGATIVE EMOTIONS THEY EXPERIENCE (TENSION, ANXIETY, ANGER, FRUSTRATION, AND HOSTILITY). ORGANIZATIONAL MEMBERS PERSONALIZE THEIR DIFFERENCES (I.E. THAT COMPANY IS SO RUDE. IT DOES NOT CARE HOW I FEEL.) MANIFEST CONFLICT IS EXPRESSED VISIBLY THROUGH BEHAVIORS (I.E. BLOCKING EACH OTHERS INITIATIVES OR GOAL ACHIEVEMENT, WITHDRAWING SUPPORT)

Information Classification: General TYPES OF CONFLICT LATENT CONFLICT LATENT CONFLICT DESCRIBES THE INEVITABLE COLLISION BETWEEN CHANNEL MEMBERS THAT PURSUE THEIR OWN SEPARATE GOALS, STRIVE TO MAINTAIN THEIR AUTONOMY, AND COMPETE FOR LIMITED RESOURCES. COMPANIES LINKED IN A CHANNEL ARE FUNDAMENTALLY INDEPENDENT. SO IGNORING ONE ANOTHER DOES NOT GET RID OF LATENT CONFLICT. ORGANIZATIONS WILL FOCUS ON FEW LATENT CONFLICTS AT A TIME WHILE LOOKING OVER OTHERS.

THE FAILURE TO ACCOUNT FOR LATENT CONFLICT MAY BECOME A PROBLEM IF THE PARTNERS DEVELOP NEW CHANNEL INITIATIVES THAT TRANSFORM THE LATENT CONFLICT AND SPARK OPPOSITION FROM CHANNEL PARTNERS. Information Classification: General TYPES OF CONFLICT PERCEIVED CONFLICT PERCEIVED CONFLICT ARISES AS SOON AS A MEMBER SENSES ANY OPPOSITION: VIEWPOINTS, PERCEPTIONS, SENTIMENTS, INTERESTS, OR INTENTIONS. IT IS COGNITIVE, EMOTIONLESS, AND MENTAL, RESULTING FROM THE RECOGNITION OF A CONTENTIOUS SITUATION.

MEMBERS EXPERIENCE LITTLE EMOTION OR FRUSTRATION FOCUSED ON KEEPING IT PROFESSIONAL MAINTAINS A PREFERRED, NORMAL STATE IN MARKETING CHANNELS THUS, MEMBERS MAY NOT CONSIDER THE SITUATION CONFLICT-LADEN, DESPITE OPPOSITION. Information Classification: General TYPES OF CONFLICT FELT (OR AFFECTIVE) CONFLICT FELT (OR AFFECTIVE) CONFLICT ARISES AS WHEN EMOTIONS ENTER THE PICTURE.

INDIVIDUAL PLAYERS START MENTIONING CONFLICT IN THE CHANNEL, AS A RESULT OF NEGATIVE EMOTIONS THEY EXPERIENCE (TENSION, ANXIETY, ANGER, FRUSTRATION, AND HOSTILITY). ORGANIZATIONAL MEMBERS PERSONALIZE THEIR DIFFERENCES (I.E. THAT COMPANY IS SO RUDE. IT DOES NOT CARE HOW I FEEL.) THE OUTCOMES ARE SIMILAR: ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS FADE INTO THE BACKGROUND ECONOMIC, SENSIBLE CHOICES ARE REFUSED TO PUNISH OTHER CHANNEL MEMBERS. ANTAGONISTS IMPUTE HUMAN FEATURES AND PERSONAL MOTIVES TO

CHANNEL PARTNERS Information Classification: General 12 Information Classification: General MEASURING CONFLICT (4 STEPS) COUNT THE ISSUES ASSESS IMPORTANCE DETERMINE DISAGREEMENT FREQUENCY MEASURE DISPUTE INTENSITY INDEX OF MANIFEST CONFLICT: Information Classification: General INDEX OF MANIFEST CONFLICT: NO REAL ARGUMENT EXISTS OVER ANY ISSUE IF IT:

IS PETTY (LOW IMPORTANCE) RARELY SPARKS A DIFFERENCE OF OPINION (LOW FREQUENCY) DOES NOT CREATE SUBSTANTIAL DISTANCE BETWEEN TWO PARTIES (LOW INTENSITY) IF ANY OF THESE ELEMENTS ARE LOW, THE ISSUE IS NOT A GENUINE SOURCE OF CONFLICT (I.E. MULTIPLYING BY 0 CREATES A PRODUCT OF 0) Information Classification: General AGENDA LEARNING OBJECTIVES INTRODUCTION TO CHANNEL CONFLICT THE NATURE OF CHANNEL CONFLICT CONSEQUENCES OF CONFLICT MAJOR SOURCES OF CONFLICTS IN CHANNELS CONFLICT RESOLUTION STRATEGIES TAKE-AWAYS

Information Classification: General CONSEQUENCES OF CONFLICT Despite a widespread (and sometimes accurate) view of conflict as dysfunctional, such that it harms relationship coordination and performance, on some occasions, opposition actually makes a relationship better. Information Classification: General FUNCTIONAL CONFLICT FUNCTIONAL CONFLICT IMPLIES THAT MEMBERS RECOGNIZE EACH OTHERS CONTRIBUTIONS AND UNDERSTAND THAT THEIR SUCCESS DEPENDS ON OTHERS, SO THEY CAN OPPOSE EACH OTHER WITHOUT DAMAGING THEIR ARRANGEMENT. AS A RESULT OF THEIR OPPOSITION, THEY:

COMMUNICATE MORE FREQUENTLY AND EFFECTIVELY, DEVELOP STANDARDIZED WAYS TO DEAL WITH FUTURE CONFLICT AND KEEP IT WITHIN REASONABLE BOUNDS. ESTABLISH OUTLETS FOR EXPRESSING THEIR GRIEVANCES, CRITICALLY REVIEW THEIR PAST ACTIONS, DEVISE AND IMPLEMENT A MORE EQUITABLE SPLIT OF SYSTEM RESOURCES, DEVELOP A MORE BALANCED DISTRIBUTION OF POWER IN THEIR RELATIONSHIP, AND CONFLICT IS FUNCTIONAL WHEN IT DRIVES CHANNEL MEMBERS TO IMPROVE THEIR PERFORMANCE.

Information Classification: General MANIFEST CONFLICT: REDUCING CHANNEL PERFORMANCE MANIFEST CONFLICT IS EXPRESSED VISIBLY THROUGH BEHAVIORS (I.E. BLOCKING EACH OTHERS INITIATIVES OR GOAL ACHIEVEMENT, WITHDRAWING SUPPORT) HIGH LEVELS OF MANIFEST CONFLICT CAN REDUCE AN ORGANIZATIONS SATISFACTION AND DAMAGE THE CHANNELS LONG-TERM ABILITY TO FUNCTION AS A CLOSE PARTNERSHIP PERCEIVED, FELT (AFFECTIVE), AND MANIFEST CONFLICT WILL INCREASE TRUST IS A CRITICAL FOUNDATION FOR DURABLE, WELL-COORDINATED RELATIONSHIPS

CONFLICT NEEDS TO BE MANAGED RATHER THAN MINIMIZED CONFLICT WILL INCREASE ITS ANTICIPATED DISAPPOINTMENT BY INFLATING THE FOCAL FIRMS BELIEF THAT THERE ARE BETTER ALTERNATIVES AVAILABLE CHANNEL MANAGERS NEED TO DETERMINE IF THE COSTS OF CONFLICT ARE WORTH THE BENEFITS THAT CONFLICT MIGHT INDUCE 18 Information Classification: General AGENDA LEARNING OBJECTIVES INTRODUCTION TO CHANNEL CONFLICT THE NATURE OF CHANNEL CONFLICT CONSEQUENCES OF CONFLICT MAJOR SOURCES OF CONFLICTS IN CHANNELS CONFLICT RESOLUTION STRATEGIES

TAKE-AWAYS Information Classification: General MAJOR SOURCES OF CONFLICTS IN CHANNELS ROOTED IN DIFFERENCES IN CHANNEL MEMBERS GOALS PERCEPTIONS OF REALITY PERCEIVED DOMAINS, OR AREAS IN WHICH THEY SHOULD BE ABLE TO OPERATE WITH AUTONOMY Information Classification: General SOURCES OF CONFLICT COMPETING GOALS EACH CHANNEL MEMBER HAS A SET OF GOALS AND

OBJECTIVES THAT DIFFER FROM THE GOALS AND OBJECTIVES OF OTHER CHANNEL MEMBERS THE INHERENT DIFFERENCE IN WHAT THEY WANT TO ACHIEVE AND WHAT THEY VALUE CAUSES PRINCIPALS TO SEEK WAYS TO MONITOR AND MOTIVATE AGENTS AGENCY THEORY UNDERSCORES HOW COMPETING GOALS CREATE CONFLICT IN ANY PRINCIPAL-AGENT RELATIONSHIP TENSION ARISES FROM PERCEPTIONS OF GOAL DIVERGENCE EXAMPLE: NIKE AND FOOT LOCKER 21 Information Classification: General NIKE & FOOTLOCKER COMPETING GOALS BOTH WANT TO MAXIMIZE THEIR OWN PROFITS BY INCREASING UNIT SALES. (Supplier) Ex: Nike

Wants supplier to: Accept lower gross margins Hold more inventory Spend more to support the product line Get by without allowances Information Classification: General (Reseller) Ex: Foot Locker Wants to: Achieve higher gross margins per unit Decrease inventory Reduces expenses Receive higher allowances

SOURCES OF CONFLICT DIFFERING PERCEPTIONS OF REALITY DISTINCT PERCEPTIONS OF REALITY INDUCE CONFLICT, BECAUSE THEY IMPLY THE LIKELIHOOD OF DIVERGENT RESPONSES TO THE SAME SITUATION. PERCEPTIONS DIFFER EVEN IN RELATION TO SEEMINGLY BASIC QUESTIONS SUCH AS WHAT ARE THE ATTRIBUTES OF THE PRODUCT/SERVICE? WHO IS THE COMPETITION?

WHAT APPLICATIONS DOES THE PRODUCT/SERVICE SUPPORT, AND FOR WHICH SEGMENTS? MISPERCEPTIONS ARE SO COMMON DUE TO FOCUS THE SUPPLIER FOCUSES ON ITS PRODUCTS AND ITS PROCESSES DOWNSTREAM CHANNEL MEMBERS FOCUS ON ITS FUNCTIONS AND CUSTOMERS IN DOMESTIC MARKETS, CHANNEL MEMBERS DISAGREE IN THEIR VIEWS OF THE SITUATION; IN INTERNATIONAL SETTINGS, CULTURAL DIFFERENCES EXACERBATE THE PROBLEM 23 Information Classification: General INTRACHANNEL COMPETITION

SUPPLIERS MAY SENSE CONFLICT IF THEIR DOWNSTREAM PARTNERS REPRESENT THEIR COMPETITORS AGENTS AND RESELLERS RELY ON THIS TACTIC TO PROVIDE HIGH COVERAGE AND LOWER PRICES INTRACHANNEL COMPETITION CAN SPARK DISPUTES, ESPECIALLY IF THE DOWNSTREAM AGENT APPEARS INSUFFICIENTLY DEDICATED TO MEETING ITS RESPONSIBILITIES TO THE SUPPLIER INTRACHANNEL COMPETITION IMPLIES THAT THE SUPPLIER RELIES ON VARIOUS DIRECT COMPETITORS TO SELL ITS PRODUCTS TO THE MARKET Information Classification: General

INTRACHANNEL COMPETITION EXAMPLE: CISCO (USA/GLOBAL) ~85% OF INTERNET TRAFFIC FLOWS THROUGH CISCOS SYSTEMS CISCO RELIES ON THIRD-PARTY DISTRIBUTORS DIRECT SALES MODEL FOCUSES ON ITS 30 LARGEST, ENTERPRISE CUSTOMERS AND 60,000 DISTRIBUTORS THAT SELL TO SMALLER BUYERS (WHICH ACCOUNTS FOR 85% OF ITS REVENUES) TIER PARTNER PROGRAM - OFFERS EXTENSIVE TRAINING AND CERTIFICATIONS TO PARTNERS WHO GAIN FAMILIARITY WITH CISCO PRODUCTS CISCO IS ON AN ACQUISITION SPREE IT ACQUIRED BROADSOFT TO GAIN A FOOTHOLD IN THE VOICE MARKETPLACE SOME PARTNERS ARE CONCERNED THAT CISCO WILL BEGIN TO COMPETE DIRECTLY WITH ITS PARTNERS THAT HAVE ALREADY INVESTED HEAVILY IN THEIR OWN VOICE OFFERINGS

25 Information Classification: General OMNI-CHANNELS OMNI CHANNEL STRATEGY CAN BE A BREEDING GROUND FOR CONFLICT THE USE OF MULTIPLE CHANNELS IS NOW THE NORM SUPPLIERS AND CUSTOMERS LIKE MULTIPLE CHANNELS AS THEY CAN EASILY FIND EACH OTHER AND FULFILL NEEDS USING THE MOST APPROPRIATE CHANNEL. SUPPLIERS

INCREASES MARKET PENETRATION BETTER VIEW OF MULTIPLE MARKETS RAISING ENTRY BARRIERS TO POTENTIAL CUSTOMERS CUSTOMERS INCREASES CHANCES OF FINDING A CHANNEL THAT MEETS THEIR CONSUMER DEMANDS CUSTOMERS CAN PIT ONE CHANNEL AGAINST ANOTHER (TO SEEK LOWER PRICES) Information Classification: General OMNI-CHANNELS (CONTINUED) DANGERS OF MULTIPLE CHANNELS

DOWN STREAM MEMBERS DOWNSTREAM MEMBERS MAY LOSE MOTIVATION AND WITHHOLD SUPPORT (PASSIVE RESPONSE) RETALIATE EXIT SUPPLIER CHANNEL STRUCTURE (ACTIVE RESPONSE) CUSTOMERS

FREE-RIDING GAINING SERVICES FROM ONE CHANNEL (AND THEN USING ANOTHER) REDUCTION IN BREADTH AND VIGOR OF MARKET REPRESENTATION SUPPLIERS ASSUME THAT ADDING CHANNELS HELPS TO SERVE DISTINCT SEGMENTS YET CUSTOMERS CAN MOVE ACROSS CATEGORIES, BEHAVIORS CAN CHANGE OR OVERLAP Information Classification: General OMNI-CHANNELS - IDEAL ENVIRONMENTS Growing markets, which offer opportunities to many players

Markets in which customers perceive the product category as differentiated (so channel members can distinguish their offerings) Markets in which buyers consistent purchasing style involves one type of channel (so customers are less likely to seek competing channels) Markets that are not dominated by buying groups Information Classification: General IDENTIFYING MULTI CHANNEL CONFLICT MULTIPLE CHANNELS DO NOT AUTOMATICALLY COMPETE. DIFFERENT CHANNELS CAN SERVE DISTINCT SEGMENTS AND PERFORM DIFFERENT TASKS. CHANNEL MEMBERS MAY ASSUME THEY ARE SERVING THE SAME CUSTOMERS EXAMPLE COCA COLA FACED OPPOSITION IN JAPAN AFTER INSTALLING VENDING MACHINES, YET MARKET RESEARCH REVEALED THAT CONSUMERS USED VENDING MACHINES ON DIFFERENT OCCASIONS AND OBTAINED DIFFERENT VALUE THAN THEY WOULD FROM A RETAIL SETTING. MULTIPLE CHANNELS CAN BUILD PRIMARY DEMAND FOR THE PRODUCT CATEGORY E.G. A STORE AND DIRECT MARKETING OPERATION SUCH AS CATALOGUES AND

WEBSITES CUSTOMERS ENCOUNTER BRAND IN BOTH CHANNELS AND CHOOSE WHICH ONE TO USE Information Classification: General IDENTIFYING MULTI CHANNEL CONFLICT (CONTINUED) MANY COMBINATION SELLERS REPRESENT THE SAME OWNER E.G. VICTORIA'S SECRET FOR LINGERIE, LANDS END FOR CLOTHING THESE OWNERS WILL BUNDLE BUSINESS OPERATIONS TO REDUCE CHANNEL CONFLICT SUCH AS A CORPORATE ACCOUNTANT TO ALLOCATE COSTS OR REVENUES AND A HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGER TO ADMINISTER COMPENSATION. WHEN CHANNELS ARE NOT INDEPENDENT, IT IS NOT AS EASY TO SETTLE DISPUTES IDENTIFYING MULTI-CHANNEL CONFLICT REQUIRES A CLEAR RECOGNITION OF THE VARIOUS BENEFITS OF THE MULTIPLE CHANNELS TO THE SUPPLIER BETTER COVERAGE IS AN OBVIOUS BENEFIT ONE CHANNEL MIGHT HELP THE SUPPLIER MANAGE ANOTHER DUAL DISTRIBUTION (VERTICALLY INTEGRATED AND OUTSOURCED PRACTICE) RARELY CAUSES CONFLICT, BUT IT CAN BE

HARD TO RECOGNIZE E.G. SERVING INDUSTRIAL CUSTOMERS BY SENDING MANUFACTURER REPRESENTATIVES WHILE RESERVING SOME CUSTOMERS (HOUSE ACCOUNTS) TO BE SERVED BY CUSTOMER EMPLOYEES AMBIGUOUS (PERFORMANCE AMBIGUITY PROBLEM) COMPLEX (LOCK-IN PROBLEM) Information Classification: General EXAMPLE: SAMSUNG/LENOVO/CANON (INDIA) IN INDIA, CONSUMER ELECTRONICS ARE MOSTLY DISTRIBUTED THROUGH BRICK-ANDMORTAR STORES, WHICH ACCOUNT FOR 80% OF RETAIL SALES VOLUME INDIAS E-COMMERCE GIANTS (SUCH AS FLIPKART, SNAPDEAL, AND AMAZON) ARE CHALLENGING THESE OFFLINE-STORES BY OFFERING COMPETITIVE PRICING SMALLER RETAILERS ARE ATTRACTED TO THE GROWTH OF E-COMMERCE AND ARE TAKING TO THESE E-COMMERCE CHANNELS TO SELL THEIR PRODUCTS AT A MUCH LOWER PRICE POINT THAN THEIR OFFLINE STORES MANUFACTURERS SUCH AS CANON AND LENOVO SOUGHT TO UNDERCUT ETAILERS BY

OFFERING LONGER WARRANTIES FOR PURCHASES THROUGH TRADITIONAL AUTHORIZED CHANNELS MANUFACTURERS MUST EMBRACE THE INEVITABLE GROWTH OF E-COMMERCE CHANNELS (RATHER THAN TRYING TO QUICKLY BUILD OFFLINE CHANNELS) 31 Information Classification: General MANAGING MULTIPLE CHANNELS SUPPLIERS MUST CONSIDER WHAT RESPONSIBILITY THEY HAVE TO PROTECT THEIR MULTIPLE CHANNELS FROM ONE ANOTHER (AFTER IDENTIFYING THE PRESENCE AND THREAT OF A CONFLICT). SUPPLIERS MAY ASSUME NO RESPONSIBILITY, TRY TO KEEP CHANNELS FROM COMPETING (E.G. TERMINATING DISCOURSE), OR DEVISE PRICING SCHEMES FOR DIFFERENT CHANNELS TO DIFFERENTIATE THEMSELVES, SUPPLIERS CAN OFFER MORE SUPPORT, SERVICE, PRODUCTS, OR EVEN DIFFERENT PRODUCTS IF THEY CAN SUPPLY DIFFERENTIATED PRODUCT LINES (FROM THE END-USER

PERSPECTIVE), SUPPLIERS GAIN MORE COOPERATION FROM THEIR MULTIPLE CHANNELS IN TERMS OF PRICING, STOCKING, AND DISPLAY E.G. OFFERING THE SAME PRODUCT UNDER DIFFERENT BRAND NAMES TO DIFFERENT CHANNELS (COMMON IN AUTOMOBILE AND APPLIANCE MARKETS) Information Classification: General MANAGING MULTIPLE CHANNELS (CONTINUED) DIFFERENTIATION THROUGH DIFFERENT BRANDS/PRODUCTS IN DIFFERENT CHANNELS NO LONGER ENTAILS A MULTI-CHANNEL STRATEGY E.G. WHEN THE SUPPLIER SELLS A FLAGSHIP SEGMENT OF ITS PRODUCT LINE THROUGH ONE CHANNEL AND PROVIDES SECONDARY OR PERIPHERAL PRODUCTS IN A SEPARATE CHANNEL SOME CHANNELS DEMAND ACTIVE INTERVENTION E.G. DURABLE PRODUCTS ARE DISTINCTIVE IN THAT THEY CAN BE RENTED OR SOLD, AND THEN RESOLD BY VARIOUS MEMBERS OF THE CHANNEL

IN THE 90S, US AUTOMAKERS KEPT FACTORIES RUNNING BY SELLING HIGH VOLUMES AT LOW PRICES TO RENTAL AGENCIES (MANY OF WHICH THEY PARTIALLY OWNED). THESE AGENCIES STARTED TO RESELL THE CARS AT ATTRACTIVE PRICES, HURTING AUTO DEALERS THAT EVENTUALLY TOOK TO THE COURT SYSTEM TO ADDRESS THE ISSUE. CARMAKERS LESSENED THE CONFLICT BY BUYING BACK THESE GENTLY USED CARS AND RESELLING TO DEALERS, ALLOWING THEM TO MAINTAIN PRODUCTION VOLUME AND PREVENT A WAR BETWEEN THESE TWO CHANNELS, BUT AT THE DETRIMENT OF THE CHANNELS AND THE SUPPLIERS THEMSELVES Information Classification: General UNWANTED CHANNELS: GRAY MARKETS ONE OF THE MOST PRESSING ISSUES FOR CHANNEL MANAGERS, ESPECIALLY IN GLOBAL MARKETS, IS THE EXISTENCE AND PERSISTENCE OF GRAY MARKETS GRAY MARKETING IS THE SALE OF AUTHORIZED, BRANDED PRODUCTS THROUGH UNAUTHORIZED CHANNELS NOT TO BE MISTAKEN WITH BLACK MARKETING OR COUNTERFEITING GRAY MARKETS ARE TYPICALLY LEGAL IN MOST SITUATIONS

COUNTERFEITING REFERS TO THE SELLING OF FAKE GOODS/KNOCK-OFFS, WHICH IS ILLEGAL AROUND MOST PARTS OF THE WORLD THE USUAL SUPPLIERS FOR GRAY MARKETS ARE AS FOLLOWS: 1.AUTHORIZED DISTRIBUTORS AND DEALERS (OFTEN FROM OTHER MARKETS) 2.PROFESSIONAL ARBITRAGERS, INCLUDING IMPORT/EXPORT HOUSES 3.PROFESSIONAL TRADERS, MANY OF WHOM LIVE NEAR MARKET BORDERS AND TRANSPORT LOWER PRICED GOODS TO SELL IN A HIGHER PRICED MARKET Information Classification: General GRAY MARKETS EXAMPLE: COSTCO (USA/GLOBAL) Costco offers its consumers a great place to obtain deals on designer clothing and goods, but it obtains many of these products through gray marketing, prompting some manufacturers to bring suit against this. Costco obtained Omega Seamaster watches from an authorized Omega distributor in Europe to resell in the US, buying the watches at a much lower price than sold by US Omega retailers.

After some legal setbacks brought by Omega, Costco eventually prevailed in the case based on the doctrine that a firm can resell anything acquired legally. Yakima has expressed frustration with Costco for selling gray market items in its stores, but the justification by the retailer remains the same. Information Classification: General RIPE ENVIRONMENTS FOR GRAY MARKETS DIFFERENTIAL PRICING TO DIFFERENT CHANNEL MEMBERS ONE CHANNEL OVER-ORDERS TO GET A DISCOUNT, THEN SELLS OFF THE EXCESS TO UNAUTHORIZED CHANNELS AT A NON-DISCOUNTED PRICE DIFFERENT PRICES CHARGED IN SEPARATE GEOGRAPHIC MARKETS, WHETHER BECAUSE OF TAXATION, EXCHANGE RATE DIFFERENCES, OR VARYING PRICE SENSITIVITIES WHEN DOMESTIC PRODUCTS ARE SOLD THROUGH HIGH-SERVICE, HIGH-PRICE CHANNELS IT CAN ENCOURAGE GRAY-MARKETED GOOD THROUGH DISCOUNT RETAILERS

ECONOMIC FUNDAMENTALS - THE DEVELOPMENT OF EMERGING MARKETS AND WORLDWIDE LIBERALIZATION OF TRADE CREATES INCENTIVES FOR FIRMS TO CAPITALIZE ON BRAND EQUITY AND VOLUME POTENTIAL BY OFFERING SIMILAR PRODUCTS ACROSS COUNTRIES THE MOMENT PRICE DIFFERENCES ARISE BETWEEN TERRITORIES, SUBSTANTIAL GAINS BECOME AVAILABLE THROUGH ARBITRAGE (BUYING/SELLING OF ASSETS) Information Classification: General PLAYERS IN THE GRAY MARKET Purchasers due to low prices, they gain the most value from a wide availability of gray goods, but others members of the channel may suffer from them Producers

complain that gray goods impair their ability to charge varying prices across markets brand equity suffers if service levels at gray market retailers are lower Authorized dealers Gray markets erode potential volume for authorized dealers and places severe pressure on after-sales service functions 37 Information Classification: General MANUFACTURERS IN GRAY MARKETS

DESPITE MANUFACTURERS LEGAL RECOURSE TO LIMIT THE PROLIFERATION OF GRAY GOODS, THEY RARELY DO SO, ESPECIALLY WHEN: VIOLATIONS ARE DIFFICULT TO DETECT OR DOCUMENT (E.G., IN DISTANT MARKETS, WHEN CUSTOMERS ARE GEOGRAPHICALLY DISPERSED) THE POTENTIAL FOR ONE CHANNEL TO FREE RIDE ON ANOTHER IS LOW ANYWAY (E.G. RESELLERS PROVIDE LITTLE SERVICE OR CHARGE SEPARATELY FOR SERVICES RENDERED). THE PRODUCT IS MORE MATURE THE DISTRIBUTOR SUPPLYING THE GRAY MARKET DOES NOT CARRY COMPETING BRANDS IN THE FOCAL PRODUCT CATEGORY MANUFACTURERS OFTEN LOOK THE OTHER WAY

SEEKING ENFORCEMENT COMES WITH HIGH COSTS AND LOW BENEFITS SOME MAY HAVE POSITIVE DISPOSITIONS TOWARDS GRAY MARKETS INCREASES THEIR MARKET COVERAGE (THEY CAN SERVE TWO SEGMENTS) PUTS PRESSURE ON AUTHORIZED DEALERS TO WORK HARDER Information Classification: General BALANCED RELATIONSHIPS IN A BALANCED RELATIONSHIP, EACH SIDE TENDS TO BE DIFFERENTIATED AND HAS MANY ALTERNATIVES TO THE CURRENT CHANNEL PARTNER. THUS, UPSTREAM AND DOWNSTREAM CHANNEL MEMBERS ARE BOTH POWERFUL (BALANCED POWER), SO THEY TEND TO BE INTOLERANT OF COERCIVE TACTICS. (E.G. INDUSTRIAL MARKETING CHANNELS IN DEVELOPED ECONOMIES)

ACTIONS THAT TRIGGER CONFLICT IN BALANCED RELATIONSHIPS MIGHT INCLUDE: ADDING A MASS MERCHANDISER ADDING A NEW DEALER TO THE EXISTING DEALERS TERRITORY WITHDRAWING A PRODUCT LINE IMPOSING AN OUTSIDE CREDIT AGENCY TO APPROVE THE DEALERS CREDIT APPLICATIONS DEALERS MAY REACT TO SUCH DESTRUCTIVE ACTIONS BY: PASSIVE ACCEPTANCE (SAYING OR DOING VERY LITTLE IN RESPONSE) VENTING BY COMPLAINING VIGOROUSLY WITHOUT TAKING ACTION NEGLECTING THE SUPPLIER BY RELEGATING THE LINE A LOWER PRIORITY AND CUTTING BACK ON RESOURCES THREATENING TO STOP SELLING THE LINE (EVEN IF IT MEANS CLOSING THE BUSINESS) 39 TO TRY TO WORK THINGS OUT AND ENGAGING THE SUPPLIER IN CONSTRUCTIVE DISCUSSION IMPROVE THE SITUATION Information Classification: General AGGRAVATING THE EFFECTS OF

CONFLICTS PERCEIVED UNFAIRNESS EXERTS THE GREATEST NEGATIVE IMPACT ON CHANNEL MEMBER COOPERATION AND FLEXIBILITY. WHEN CHANNEL MEMBERS PERCEIVE GREATER UNFAIRNESS, THEY OFTEN ATTRIBUTE NEGATIVE MOTIVES TO THE SELLER HOW DO CHANNEL MEMBERS COPE WITH CONFLICT? TRY TO KEEP CONFLICT FROM ESCALATING INTO A DYSFUNCTIONAL ZONE BY DEVELOPING INSTITUTIONALIZED MECHANISMS (E.G. ARBITRATION BOARDS, NORMS OF BEHAVIOR) TO DIFFUSE DISPUTES BEFORE THEY HARDEN INTO HOSTILE ATTITUDES ADOPT PATTERNS OF BEHAVIOR FOR RESOLVING CONFLICTS AFTER THEY MANIFEST Information Classification: General CONFLICT RESOLUTION STRATEGIES KEY IDEAS: FORESTALLING CONFLICT THROUGH INSTITUTIONALIZATION

INFORMATION- INTENSIVE MECHANISMS THIRD-PARTY MECHANISMS BUILDING RELATIONAL NORMS USING INCENTIVES TO RESOLVE CONFLICTS Information Classification: General FORESTALLING CONFLICT THROUGH INSTITUTIONALIZATION POLICIES BECOME INSTITUTIONALIZED WHEN CHANNEL MEMBERS INSTITUTE POLICIES TO ADDRESS CONFLICTS IN EARLY STAGES, OR EVEN BEFORE IT ARISES E.G. JOINT MEMBERSHIPS IN TRADE ASSOCIATIONS, DISTRIBUTOR COUNCILS, EXCHANGE-OF-PERSONNEL PROGRAMS SOME CHANNELS RELY ON BUILT-IN APPEALS TO THIRD PARTIES SUCH AS BOARDS OF ARBITRATION OR MEDIATION (AS IS PARTICULARLY POPULAR IN EUROPE)

THESE CHANNELS SERVE SUBTLE CONFLICT MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS Information Classification: General FOUR APPROACHES TO CONFLICT RESOLUTION Information Classification: General THE FOUR APPROACHES INFORMATION-INTENSIVE MECHANISMS THIRD-PARTY MECHANISMS BUILDING RELATIONAL NORMS USING INCENTIVES

44 Information Classification: General 1. INFORMATION-INTENSIVE MECHANISMS HEADS OFF CONFLICT BY CREATING A BETTER MEANS TO SHARE INFORMATION CAN BE RISKY AND EXPENSIVE SINCE BOTH SIDES DIVULGE SENSITIVE INFORMATION AND MUST DEVOTE RESOURCES TO COMMUNICATING TRUST AND COOPERATION HELP TO MAKE CONFLICT MANAGEABLE JOINT MEMBERSHIP IN TRADE ASSOCIATIONS ALLOWS MEMBERS TO CONTAIN CONFLICT THROUGH AN INSTITUTIONALIZED APPROACH E.G. A COMMITTEE FOUNDED BY THE GROCERY MANUFACTURERS OF AMERICAN AND THE FOOD MARKETING INSTITUTE DEVELOPED THE UNIVERSAL PRODUCT CODE PERSONNEL EXCHANGES AS AN INSTITUTIONAL VEHICLE SEEK TO TURN CHANNEL MEMBERS FOCUS TOWARD DEVISING SOLUTIONS RATHER THAN ENGAGING IN CONFLICT E.G. WALMART AND PROCTER AND GAMBLES CLOSE CONNECTIONS ARE FACILITATED THEIR PERSONNEL EXCHANGES, WHICH REQUIRE CLEAR GUIDELINES. PARTICIPANTS HAVE THE OPPORTUNITY TO MEET WITH CHANNEL COUNTERPARTS WITH SIMILAR TASKS RESPONSIBILITIES, PROFESSIONS, AND INTERESTS

Information Classification: General 2. THIRD PARTY MECHANISMS MEDIATION AND ARBITRATION, THE MOST WIDELY USED THIRD-PARTY MECHANISM, INTRODUCE THIRD PARTIES THAT ARE NOT INVOLVED IN THE CHANNEL MEDIATION IS THE PROCESS WHEREBY A THIRD PARTY ATTEMPTS TO SETTLE A DISPUTE BY PERSUADING THE PARTIES TO CONTINUE THEIR NEGOTIATIONS OR CONSIDER THE MEDIATORS PROCEDURAL OR SUBSTANTIVE RECOMMENDATIONS NEITHER PARTY IS OBLIGED TO ACCEPT THE RECOMMENDATIONS ARBITRATION ALLOWS THE THIRD PARTY TO MAKE THE DECISION, AND BOTH PARTIES STATE IN ADVANCE THAT THEY WILL HONOR THE FINAL AND BINDING DECISION. IN COMPULSORY ARBITRATION, THE PARTIES ARE REQUIRED BY LAW TO SUBMIT THEIR DISPUTE TO A THIRD PARTY IN VOLUNTARY ARBITRATION, THE PARTIES VOLUNTARILY SUBMIT THEIR DISPUTE, SUCH THAT RENEGING ON THE DECISION REPRESENTS A MAJOR BREACH OF CONFIDENCE

ARBITRATION OFFERS ALL THE BENEFITS OF MEDIATION, PLUS THE ADVANTAGE THAT DISPUTANTS CAN BLAME THE ARBITRATOR IS THEIR CONSTITUENTS OBJECT TO THE SETTLEMENT SOME FIRMS PRACTICE SEQUENCES OF MEDIATION AND ARBITRATION Information Classification: General 2. THIRD PARTY MECHANISMS (CONTINUED) MEMBERS WHO USE A SEQUENCE OF MEDIATION-ARBITRATION AGREE UPFRONT THAT IF THE MEDIATOR CANNOT SETTLE THE DISPUTE, IT WILL PASS TO AN ARBITRATOR USUALLY HE SAME PERSON WHO SERVED AS A MEDIATOR IN AN ARBITRATION-MEDIATION SEQUENCE, THE ARBITRATOR INSTEAD PLACES THEIR SECRET DECISION IN A SEALED ENVELOPE, AND THEN THE ISSUE PASSES ONTO MEDIATION. IF THE PARTIES CANNOT AGREE, THEY OPEN THE ENVELOPE, THEY OPEN THE ENVELOPE AND ABIDE BY THAT DECISION.

INSTITUTIONALIZING THE PRACTICE OF TAKING DISPUTES TO THIRD PARTIES CAN ALSO FORESTALL CONFLICT BECAUSE CHANNEL MEMBERS WORK TO SETTLE THEIR DISPUTES INTERNALLY AS THEY FACE THE PROSPECT OF OUTSIDE INTERVENTION. THE THIRD PARTY SERVES AS A SAFETY NET FOR DEALING WITH IT CLIMBS TOO HIGH Information Classification: General CONFLICT AFTER 3. BUILDING RELATIONAL NORMS RELATIONAL NORMS THESE PRECEDING MECHANISMS ARE POLICIES THAT CAN BE PROACTIVELY DEVISED, CONSCIOUSLY PUT INTO PLACE, AND CONTINUALLY MAINTAINED BY MANAGEMENT TO FORESTALL CONFLICT OR ADDRESS IT ONCE IT OCCUR. IN A CHANNEL, NORMS ENTAIL EXPECTATIONS ABOUT BEHAVIOR, SHARED BY ALL MEMBERS. IN ALLIANCE CHANNELS, COMMON NORMS INCLUDE: FLEXIBILITY: CHANNEL MEMBERS EXPECT EACH OTHER TO ADAPT READILY TO CHANGING CIRCUMSTANCES, WITH A MINIMUM OF OBSTRUCTION AND

NEGOTIATION. INFORMATION EXCHANGE: CHANNEL MEMBERS SHARE ALL PERTINENT INFORMATION NO MATTER HOW SENSITIVE FREELY, FREQUENTLY, QUICKLY, AND THOROUGHLY. SOLIDARITY: EVERYONE WORKS FOR MUTUAL, NOT JUST ONE-SIDED, BENEFITS. Management cant just decide one day to create relational norms. Norms emerge from the daily interactions of the people who constitute the marketing 48 channel. Information Classification: General 4. USING INCENTIVES ECONOMIC INCENTIVES WORK WELL, ALMOST UNIVERSALLY, REGARDLESS OF THEIR PERSONALITIES, PLAYERS, OR HISTORY OF THE RELATIONSHIP. APPEALING TO ECONOMIC SELF-INTEREST IS A HIGHLY EFFECTIVE WAY TO SETTLE DISPUTES GOOD NEGOTIATORS BASE THEIR ARGUMENTS ON ECONOMICS, THEN COMBINE THEM

WITH A STRONG PROGRAM OF COMMUNICATIONS IN A GOOD INTERPERSONAL WORKING RELATIONSHIP E.G. MANUFACTURER-SPONSORED PROMOTIONS AIMED AT RETAILERS MANUFACTURERS ACCUSE RETAILERS OF TAKING PROMOTION MONEY (FOR POINT-OFPURCHASE ADVERTISING AND DISPLAYS FOR IN-STORE USE) AND NOT MOUNTING IT. RETAILED ACCUSE MANUFACTURERS FOR NOT FULFILLING PROMISED SHARES OF PROMOTION ALLOWANCE. THIS CAN BE RESOLVED IF THE MANUFACTURER COMBINES APPEALING ECONOMIC INCENTIVES THAT ENCOURAGE PARTICIPATION IN A PAY-FOR-PERFORMANCE SYSTEM THAT PAYS THE RETAILER FOR THE ITEMS SOLD ON PROMOTION. Information Classification: General 4. USING INCENTIVES (CONTINUED) TO FUNCTION EFFECTIVELY, ECONOMIC INCENTIVES MUST DO MORE THAN OFFER A BETTER PRICE OR HIGHER ALLOWANCE, OPTIONS THAT ARE VISIBLE AND EASY FOR COMPETITORS TO MATCH. PERSUASIVE ECONOMIC ARGUMENTS FEATURE A PORTFOLIO OF ELEMENTS THAT COLLECTIVELY CREATE POSITIVE RETURNS FOR A CHANNEL PARTNER. FOR EXAMPLE, INDEPENDENT SALES AGENCIES STRONGLY APPRECIATE A PRODUCT THAT CAN GENERATE PROFITS BY:

COMPENSATING FOR LOWER VOLUME SALES WITH A HIGHER COMMISSION RATE, OR VICE VERSA. OVERCOMING LOWER COMMISSION RATES BY BEING EASIER TO SELL, SUCH THAT IT DEMANDS LESS SALES TIME (I.E. CUT COSTS). ESTABLISHING THE SALES AGENT IN A GROWING PRODUCT CATEGORY, TO CONTRIBUTE TO FUTURE PROFITS. INCREASING OVERALL SALES SYNERGY AND SPURRING SALES OF OTHER PRODUCTS IN THE AGENTS PORTFOLIO. Independent agencies respond to indirect, risk-oriented arguments. A principal should try50 to convince its agents that sales of products are not unpredictable but rather can be accurately forecasted. Information Classification: General APPROACHES TO CONFLICT MANAGEMENT

AND RESOLUTION: OMNI-CHANNEL VS. MULTI-CHANNEL BECAUSE THE DISTINCT ENTITIES IN AN OMNI-CHANNEL TRY TO COORDINATE THEIR ACTIVITIES TO DELIVER A SEAMLESS EXPERIENCE TO THE END USER, CONFLICT IS INEVITABLE. MUCH OF THIS CONFLICT IS LIKELY TO BE FUNCTIONAL. INTERDEPENDENCE AND COMMITMENT ARE GREATER SINCE COORDINATION AND TEAMWORK IS NECESSARY FOR A SEAMLESS EXPERIENCE IN CONTRAST, CONFLICT IN MULTI-CHANNEL SETTINGS MAY BE MORE DYSFUNCTIONAL; THESE PARTIES ARE CONCERNED ABOUT CANNIBALIZATION AND CONFRONT FRUSTRATED END-USERS, CONFUSED BY THE SEPARATE OFFERINGS IN THE VARIOUS CHANNELS (E.G. PROMOTIONS OFFERED IN ONE CHANNEL AND NOT THE OTHER). INTERDEPENDENCE AND COMMITMENT DIMINISH BECAUSE PARTIES HAVE LITTLE MOTIVE TO SYNCHRONIZE THEIR OFFERINGS EXPECT LESS FUNCTIONAL CONFLICT AND KNOWLEDGE SHARING DESTRUCTIVE CONFLICT IS LIKELY FIGURE 5.3. COMPARES THIS RELATIONAL LANDSCAPE. Information Classification: General

Interdependence Decreases Increases OmniChannel MultiChannel Decreases Increases Commitment Decreases Increases Function al Conflict Figure 5.3 The Relational Landscape in Omni-Channel Versus Multi-Channel Settings

Information Classification: General TAKEAWAYS A GOOD WAY TO ASSESS THE TRUE DEGREE OF CONFLICT IS TO INDEX, FOR EACH RELEVANT ISSUE, THE FREQUENCY OF DISAGREEMENT INTENSITY OF DISAGREEMENT IMPORTANCE OF THE ISSUE IF ANY ELEMENT IS LOW, THE ISSUE IS NOT A REAL SOURCE OF CONFLICT. Information Classification: General TAKEAWAYS CONFLICT IS INEVITABLE IN MARKETING CHANNELS BECAUSE OF THEIR BUILT IN VIEWPOINTS AND GOAL DIFFERENCES PERCEPTUAL VARIATIONS, WHICH ARISE BECAUSE CHANNEL MEMBERS SEE DIFFERENT PIECES OF THE CHANNEL ENVIRONMENT

CLASHES OVER DOMAINS (ROLES, RESPONSIBILITIES, TERRITORIES) Information Classification: General TAKEAWAYS DOMAIN CONFLICT IS ESPECIALLY PROMINENT IN MULTICHANNEL SITUATIONS, WHICH DEMAND CREATIVE SOLUTIONS, SUCH AS COMMUNICATION, CONCESSION, COMPENSATION, WIN-WIN APPROACHES, PRODUCT DIFFERENTIATION, OR ACCEPTANCE. GRAY MARKETS ARE GROWING RAPIDLY, BECAUSE BOTH UPSTREAM AND DOWNSTREAM CHANNEL MEMBERS HAVE REASONS TO PERMIT THEM, REGARDLESS OF THEIR COMPLAINTS. Information Classification: General TAKEAWAYS INSTITUTIONALIZED MECHANISMS TO CONTAIN CONFLICT EARLY INCLUDE INFORMATION-INTENSIVE STRATEGIES AND THE USE

OF THIRD PARTIES. CONFLICT ALSO CAN BE RESOLVED THROUGH ECONOMIC INCENTIVES, WHICH SHOULD BE LESS VISIBLE, COMBINE WITH GOOD COMMUNICATION, AND ENCOURAGE CHANNEL MEMBERS TO MAKE SOME INVESTMENT CONFLICT CAN BE MORE FUNCTIONAL IN OMNI-CHANNEL SITUATIONS Information Classification: General

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Early Tetrapods - Claremont Colleges

    Early Tetrapods - Claremont Colleges

    Axolotl. External "skin" gills unrelated to internal fish gills. 3 modern groups: frogs (anura = tailless) Urodela = salamanders Apoda (Gymnophiona) = legless salamanders All small, smooth skin, loss of armor, soft gelatinous egg Earliest reptiles Microsaurs a reptile because...
  • Labor clauses with institutionalized cooperation measures in FTAs:

    Labor clauses with institutionalized cooperation measures in FTAs:

    FTAs that are hortatory, or substantive but lacking in strong institutions and enforcement mechanisms, are unlikely to have much impact on worker rights . But neither does the mere presence of those mechanisms guarantee improvements in worker rights. The mechanisms...
  • E-Finance & Virtual Payments  Google Now  Mobile Banking

    E-Finance & Virtual Payments Google Now Mobile Banking

    Uber / Paytm Free Rides. We are leaving in a Digital world, how money and finance can be left alone. It is quite fascinating to see that how digitization of finance has shaped up in last few years. My UBER...
  • Do your systems talk business? Microsoft Platform for

    Do your systems talk business? Microsoft Platform for

    Vision & Scope for Integration - Like to start with a recap of vision for enterprise integration - Done a pretty good job of integrating enterprise applications with 8,000 plus customers globally using BizTalk
  • CHAPTER 12: THE AGE OF JACKSON Section 3: Rising Sectional ...

    CHAPTER 12: THE AGE OF JACKSON Section 3: Rising Sectional ...

    The 'Tariff of Abominations' (1828) In 1828, a new high tariff that angered Southerners was being debated in Congress. Since the tariff hurt the South but helped the North, Southerners felt the government was being unfair. Southerners hated the Tariff...
  • Presented by: ROBERTO V. GARCIA Chairman and Administrator

    Presented by: ROBERTO V. GARCIA Chairman and Administrator

    Full implementation of CUSA policy, allowing for cost recovery and sustained maintenance of quality municipal services Full implementation of increased admission fees for second-hand trucks and heavy equipment, allowing for cost recovery and sustained maintenance of quality port services
  • Vocabulary Chapter 1 - Zachary High School

    Vocabulary Chapter 1 - Zachary High School

    Vocabulary Chapter 1: Read the sentences carefully for context clues and choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. affinity Part of speech: Noun Definition: a natural liking for or attraction to a person, thing, idea, etc. Sentence:...
  • Standard Costing

    Standard Costing

    Standard Costs. Standard costs are benchmarks or norms used for accounting and/or measuring performance. They are the same as budgets, except that standard costs are a unit concept. Like budgets, standard costs are used for planning and control. The planning...