First Law of Thermodynamics You will recall from Chapter 5 that energy cannot be created nor destroyed. Therefore, the total energy of the universe is a constant. Energy can, however, be converted from one form to another or transferred from a system to the surroundings or vice versa. Chemical Thermodynamics
Spontaneous Processes Spontaneous processes are those that can proceed without any outside intervention. The gas in vessel B will spontaneously effuse into vessel A, but once the gas is in both vessels, it will not spontaneously Chemical
Thermodynamics Spontaneous Processes Processes that are spontaneous in one direction are nonspontaneous in the reverse direction. Chemical Thermodynamics
Spontaneous Processes Processes that are spontaneous at one temperature may be nonspontaneous at other temperatures. Above 0C it is spontaneous for ice to melt. Below 0C the reverse process is spontaneous. Chemical Thermodynamics Reversible Processes
In a reversible process the system changes in such a way that the system and surroundings can be put back in their original states by exactly reversing the process. Changes are infinitesimally small in a reversible process. Chemical
Thermodynamics Irreversible Processes Irreversible processes cannot be undone by exactly reversing the change to the system. All Spontaneous processes are irreversible. All Real processes are irreversible. Chemical Thermodynamics Entropy
Entropy (S) is a term coined by Rudolph Clausius in the 19th century. Clausius was convinced of the significance of the ratio of heat delivered and the temperature at which it is delivered, q T Chemical Thermodynamics Entropy Entropy can be thought of as a measure
of the randomness of a system. It is related to the various modes of motion in molecules. Chemical Thermodynamics Entropy Like total energy, E, and enthalpy, H, entropy is a state function. Therefore, S = Sfinal Sinitial
Chemical Thermodynamics Entropy For a process occurring at constant temperature (an isothermal process): qrev = the heat that is transferred when the process is carried out reversibly at a constant temperature. T = temperature in Kelvin.
Chemical Thermodynamics Second Law of Thermodynamics The second law of thermodynamics: The entropy of the universe does not change for reversible processes and increases for spontaneous processes. Reversible (ideal): Irreversible (real, spontaneous): Chemical
Thermodynamics Second Law of Thermodynamics You cant break even Reversible (ideal): Irreversible (real, spontaneous): Chemical Thermodynamics Second Law of Thermodynamics
The entropy of the universe increases (real, spontaneous processes). But, entropy can decrease for individual systems. Reversible (ideal): Irreversible (real, spontaneous): Chemical Thermodynamics Entropy on the Molecular Scale Ludwig Boltzmann described the concept of
entropy on the molecular level. Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the molecules in a sample. Chemical Thermodynamics Entropy on the Molecular Scale Molecules exhibit several types of motion: Translational: Movement of the entire molecule from one place to another. Vibrational: Periodic motion of atoms within a molecule.
Rotational: Rotation of the molecule on about an axis or rotation about bonds. Chemical Thermodynamics Entropy on the Molecular Scale Boltzmann envisioned the motions of a sample of molecules at a particular instant in time. This would be akin to taking a snapshot of all the molecules.
He referred to this sampling as a microstate of the thermodynamic system. Chemical Thermodynamics Entropy on the Molecular Scale Each thermodynamic state has a specific number of microstates, W, associated with it. Entropy is S = k lnW where k is the Boltzmann constant, 1.38 1023 J/K.
Chemical Thermodynamics Entropy on the Molecular Scale Implications: more particles -> more states -> more entropy higher T -> more energy states -> more entropy less structure (gas vs solid)
-> more states -> more entropy Chemical Thermodynamics Entropy on the Molecular Scale The number of microstates and, therefore, the entropy tends to increase with increases in Temperature. Volume (gases).
The number of independently moving molecules. Chemical Thermodynamics Entropy and Physical States Entropy increases with the freedom of motion of molecules. Therefore, S(g) > S(l) > S(s)
Chemical Thermodynamics Solutions Dissolution of a solid: Ions have more entropy (more states) But, Some water molecules have less entropy (they are grouped
around ions). Usually, there is an overall increase in S. (The exception is very highly charged ions that make a lot of water molecules align around them.) Chemical Thermodynamics Entropy Changes In general, entropy increases when Gases are formed from
liquids and solids. Liquids or solutions are formed from solids. The number of gas molecules increases. The number of moles increases. Chemical Thermodynamics Third Law of Thermodynamics
The entropy of a pure crystalline substance at absolute zero is 0. Chemical Thermodynamics Third Law of Thermodynamics The entropy of a pure crystalline substance at absolute zero is 0. Entropy: Smiles for
stab wounds 2004 http://www.garageband.com/artist/entropy_1 No stereotypes, labels, or genres can rationalize this. Fueled by the decay of the world, order
and chaos unite, Entropy is born... Chemical Thermodynamics Music to make your head Standard Entropies These are molar entropy values of substances in
their standard states. Standard entropies tend to increase with increasing molar mass. Chemical Thermodynamics Standard Entropies Larger and more complex molecules have greater entropies. Chemical
Thermodynamics Entropy Changes Entropy changes for a reaction can be calculated the same way we used for H: S for each component is found in a table. Note for pure elements: Chemical Thermodynamics Practical uses: surroundings & system
Entropy Changes in Surroundings Heat that flows into or out of the system also changes the entropy of the surroundings. For an isothermal process: Chemical Thermodynamics Practical uses: surroundings & system Entropy Changes in Surroundings Heat that flows into or out of the system also changes
the entropy of the surroundings. For an isothermal process: At constant pressure, qsys is simply H for the system. Chemical Thermodynamics A phase change is isothermal (no change in T). For water:
Hfusion = 6 kJ/mol Hvap = 41 kJ/mol Entropysystem Link S and H: Phase changes If we do this reversibly: Ssurr = Ssys Chemical Thermodynamics
Practical uses: surroundings & system Entropy Change in the Universe The universe is composed of the system and the surroundings. Therefore, Suniverse = Ssystem + Ssurroundings For spontaneous processes Suniverse > 0 Chemical Thermodynamics Practical uses: surroundings & system
= Gibbs Free Energy Chemical Thermodynamics Practical uses: surroundings & system = Gibbs Free Energy Make this equation nicer: Chemical
Thermodynamics Practical uses: surroundings & system Gibbs Free Energy TSuniverse is defined as the Gibbs free energy, G. For spontaneous processes: Suniverse > 0 And therefore: G < 0 G is easier to determine than Suniverse. So: Chemical Thermodynamics
Use G to decide if a process is spontaneous. Gibbs Free Energy 1. If G is negative, the forward reaction is spontaneous. 2. If G is 0, the system is at equilibrium. 3. If G is positive, the reaction is spontaneous in the reverse direction. Chemical
Thermodynamics Standard Free Energy Changes Standard free energies of formation, Gf are analogous to standard enthalpies of formation, Hf. G can be looked up in tables, or calculated from S and H. Chemical Thermodynamics
Free Energy Changes Very key equation: This equation shows how G changes with temperature. (We assume S & H are independent of T.) Chemical Thermodynamics Free Energy and Temperature There are two parts to the free energy
equation: H the enthalpy term TS the entropy term The temperature dependence of free energy comes from the entropy term. Chemical Thermodynamics Free Energy and Temperature By knowing the sign (+ or -) of S and H,
we can get the sign of G and determine if a reaction is spontaneous. Chemical Thermodynamics Free Energy and Equilibrium Remember from above: If G is 0, the system is at equilibrium. So G must be related to the equilibrium constant, K (chapter 15). The standard free energy, G, is directly linked to Keq by:
Chemical Thermodynamics Free Energy and Equilibrium Under non-standard conditions, we need to use G instead of G. Q is the reaction quotiant from chapter 15. Note: at equilibrium: G = 0. away from equil, sign of G tells which way rxn goes Chemical
spontaneously. Thermodynamics Gibbs Free Energy 1. If G is negative, the forward reaction is spontaneous. 2. If G is 0, the system is at equilibrium. 3. If G is positive, the reaction is spontaneous in the reverse direction.
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