Kingdom Plantae Whisk ferns Multicellular Algae Bryophytes The
Kingdom Plantae Whisk ferns Multicellular Algae Bryophytes The nonvascular plants Club mosses Early vascular plants Ferns and Fern Allies Horsetails Tracheophytes True ferns
Vascular plants Gymnosperms Seed plants Angiosperms Tracheophytes Early vascular plants (Ferns and fern allies) Seed plants (Gymnosperms and angiosperms) may reach more than a meter in height contain vascular tissues
tracheids in xylem phloem lignin-reinforced cell walls with true roots, stems, and leaves http://yahyaaydin.edublogs.org/files/2012/06/vascular-system-1oiqdco.gif Corn root x.s. Corn leaf x.s. Corn stem x.s.
n_Leaf_Vascular_Bundle s_42-18708022.jpg , http://www.sbs.utexas.ed u/mauseth/weblab/webch ap7xylem/web7.2-1.jpg Early vascular plants Lycophyta (Club mosses) Sphenophyta (Horse tails) Ferns and Fern Allies
Psilophyta (Whisk ferns) seedless leaves with waxy cuticles sporophylls with spores arranged in sori (sing. sorus) depend on water for reproduction and nourishment dominant diploid sporophyte stage http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_ardEXc55Vv4/S8JwWU7xbQI/AAAAAAAAAH4/FtPJLKeifBo/ s1600/Fern_labeled_MC_%5B1%5D.jpg Pteridophyta (True ferns)
(Whisk ferns) Pteridophyta (True ferns) whiskferns have rhizoids with mycorrhizae, stems, and leaflike structures Psilotum http://www.redorbit.com/media/uploads/2004/10/45_0d6f53866162cdab6d2a37a3a3101ea9.jpg Taxonomy Lycophyta (Club mosses)
Sphenophyta (Horse tails) Ferns and Fern Allies Psilophyta (Whisk ferns) Pteridophyta (True ferns) abundant on early earth first forests grew to 35m tall fossilized remains coal extant species are club mosses
in moist places (Lycopodium) http://www.twofrog.com/images/lycopodium98.jpg, http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/33/Lycopodium_saururus.JPG Taxonomy Lycophyta (Club mosses) Sphenophyta (Horse tails) Ferns and Fern Allies Psilophyta (Whisk ferns)
Pteridophyta (True ferns) Equisetum (horsetail/scouring rush) only living genus can grow to a meter in length leaves arranged in whorls around stems contain abrasive silica http://www.friendsschoolplantsale.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/03/equisetum.jpg, http://www.irishwildflowers.ie/images/fern-allies/fa-07a1.jpg, http:// www.missouriplants.com/Ferns/Equisetum_hymenale_stems.jpg Taxonomy Lycophyta
roots, underground stems called rhizomes, large leaves called fronds shade plants found in wet habitats sporangia in clusters of sori producing haploid spores released spores carried by wind/water http:// www.friendsschoolplantsale.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/03/equisetum.jp g , http://www.irishwildflowers.ie/images/fern-allies/fa-07a1.jpg, http:// http://www.southtexascollege.edu/nilsson/4_GB_Lecture_figs_f/4_GB_22_Plantae_Fig_f/24_16_Fern_LifeCycle.GIF
Spermatophytes Gymnosperms naked seeds Angiosperms seed plants flowering plants with protected seeds water NOT required for gamete fertilization! gametes in sporophyte structures called flowers or cones
undergo pollination to transfer sperm from male gametophyte (in pollen grain) to female gametes embryos contained within seeds with stored food supplies http://biology.clc.uc.edu/graphics/taxonomy/plants/spermatophyta/gymnosperms/other%20pines/JSC%209805&06%20male%20&%20female%20pine%20cones%203.JPG, http:// growit.umd.edu/vegetableprofiles/VegetableProfileImages/squash.mf.petals.jpg http://www.uen.org/utahlink/tours/loadimg.cgi?p=/tour/14719/14719lr001135.gif Taxonomy naked seeds Gymnosperms
Gnetophytes Cycads Ginkgoes Conifers Welwitschia with vessel elements similar to angiosperms Gnetum wikipedia.org , http:// ephedraclaims.com/wp-content/themes/thesis_17/custom/rotator/ephedra1.jpg
Taxonomy naked seeds Gymnosperms Gnetophytes Cycads Ginkgoes Conifers Cycas revoluta grow very slowly and are long-lived (~1000 years)
palmlike plants with large cones plants are dioecious (plants have separate sexes) http://www.hear.org/starr/images/images/plants/full/starr-080716-9529.jpg Taxonomy naked seeds Gymnosperms Gnetophytes Cycads Ginkgos Conifers
living fossil with only one extant member http://www.arborday.org/trees/graphics/trees/162/162_md.jpg,, http://i.ebayimg.com/t/Spring-Valley-Herbal-Supplement-Ginkgo-Biloba-90-ct-/00/s/MzAwWDMwMA= =/$(KGrHqR,!jQE68o5+uJ1BO+Z!wKzwQ~~ Ginkgo biloba Taxonomy naked seeds Gymnosperms Gnetophytes
Cycads Ginkgos Conifers pine, spruce, fir, cedar, sequoia, redwood, yew, larch, cypress long and thin leaves with waxy cuticles and sunken stomates http://sharon-taxonomy2009-p3.wikispaces.com/file/view/Life_Cycle_GS.gif/95529336/Life_Cycle_GS.gif Characteristics Angiosperms Flowering plants with protected seeds
Monocots Dicots Appeared on land during the Cretaceous period 135 mya Dominant and most diverse form of plants Reproductive organs called flowers with ovaries that surround and protects seeds Ovaries fruits (tissue surrounding seeds) http://www.flora.dempstercountry.org/0.Site.Folder/Flower.terms.jpg http://www.biographixmedia.com/biology/tomato-flower-fruit.jpg
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