What have we learned so far? Pyramid Building Simple Machines Rock Quarry Angles Wedges Cutting Stone You have stone, now
what? Transportation! Can you imagine how ancient engineers might have transported stone blocks from rock quarry to building site? Some stones were huge! The Great Pyramid in Egypt has 2.5 million stone blocks
Some pyramid blocks weigh as much as 9,000 kilograms (~10 tons) That means one stone could weigh as much as two elephants! Leve A simple machine thatr provides a mechanical
advantage A bar pivoted on a fixed point (fulcrum) to which force is applied to do work Makes lifting weight easier by using a fulcrum to redirect force over a longer distance Examples: see-saw, dump truck, broom, crane arm, hammer claw, crowbar, fishing pole, bottle opener Wheel and axle A simple machine that
provides a mechanical advantage Consists of a wheel and an axle Makes it easy to move things by rolling them, and reducing friction Examples: car, bicycle, office chair, wheel barrow, shopping cart, hand truck, roller skates Why use a wheel and
axle, or a lever? Mechanical Advantage! The trade off between longer time or distances traveled, for an easier way to do work An advantage that allows for greater work at the expense of less energy expended Makes life easier!
Everyday examples Can you think of any items at home or school that use a wheel and axle, or a lever? Historians and archaeologists believe that in ancient times Blocks of stone were rolled on
wooden logs and pulled with rope Once on site, stone blocks were hoisted up using multiple levers How would you design it? Today, youre going to build your own transportation system for moving rocks from a quarry to a building site What things will you consider in the design of your cart?
Engineering Design Process Understand the need: Gather information and research what others have done. What is the problem? What do I want to do? What are the project requirements? What are the limitations? Who is the customer? What is the goal? Brainstorm and design: Imagine and brainstorm ideas. Be creative. Investigate existing technologies and methods to use. Explore, compare and analyze many possible solutions. Select the
most promising idea. Plan: Draw a diagram of your idea. How will it work? What materials and tools are needed? How will you test it to make sure it works? Create: Assign team tasks. Build a prototype. Does it work? Talk about what works, what doesn't and what could work better. Improve: Talk about how you could improve your end product. Make revisions. Draw new designs. Make your product the best it can be.
References The crowbar and dump truck images (below) are Copyright 2004 Microsoft Corporation, One Microsoft Way, Redmond, WA 98052-6399 USA. All rights reserved. With notations by the ITL Program, College of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Colorado at Boulder. The pyramid building (below) is Copyright Nuffield Curriculum Centre UK, http://www.nuffieldcurriculumcentre.org/go/Default.html. Used with permission. The five images below are Copyright Luz Quinez, College of Engineering and Applied
Science, University of Colorado at Boulder. Used with permission. The rest of the images are Copyright 2004 Microsoft Corporation, One Microsoft Way, Redmond, WA 98052-6399 USA. All rights reserved.
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