Malaria Symptoms Causes recurrent episodes of fever and can be fatal
Spread by Vectors (mosquitos) Pathogen that causes the disease = protist
Insect that carries the pathogen = vector Treated with Stopping vectors from breeding and using mosquito nets to avoid being bitten
Defence mechanisms Droplet infection and dust mucus, cillia Direct contact skin barrier Contaminated food and drink stomach acid Break in the skin scabs White blood cells of the immune system
Ingest microorganisms Produce specific antibodies destroying bacteria/virus Produce antitoxins - counteract toxins This is how vaccines protect you against dangerous infectious diseases
This is how vaccines protect you against dangerous infectious diseases This is how vaccines protect you against dangerous infectious diseases
This is how vaccines protect you against dangerous infectious diseases Describe differences in antibody production after infection compared with after vaccination. 1. Less lag time after
second infection 2. Faster rise in number of antibodies produced 3. Antibodies stay in the blood for
longer Discovery of traditional drugs Drug Where it originates
Digitalis (a heart drug) Foxgloves (type of plant) Aspirin (a painkiller) Willow (a tree)
Penicillin (an antibiotic discovered by Alexander Fleming) Penicillium mould What makes a good
medicine? Effective it must prevent or cure the disease it is aimed at, or at least make you feel better Safe the drug must not be toxic (poisonous) and there must be not unacceptable side effects Stable you need to be able to use the medicine under
normal conditions and store it for some time Successfully taken into and removed form the body a medicine is no use unless it can reach its target in your body. How do we test drugs? Preclinical
Testing done in laboratorys using cells, tissues and live animals to test toxicity and efficacy (does it work) Clinical trials Phase 1 Low doses given to a small number of healthy volunteers (to monitor side effects) Phase 2 Drug tested on small number of patients who have the illness (double blind trial with placebo) tests for efficacy Phase 3 Drug tested on larger number of volunteers with the illness to find optimum
dosage levels (double blind trial) Phase 4 Peer review of data and if successful, the drug is approved but continued testing happens 1 2
3 4 5 6
6 1 5 3
2 4 Mouse is injected with a specific pathogen. The mouses immune system
responds. Specific white blood cells called Lymphocytes produce antibodies.
lymphocytes are combined with tumour cells. Antibodies are harvested and purified
and used for a range of purposes. These antibodies are called Monoclonal antibodies (because they came from a single cloned cell).
Tumour cells are able to divide but cant make antibodies The Hybridoma Cells copy themselves and produce
antibodies. These cells are now called Hybridoma Cells and can make specific antibodies. They are screened to make sure they are producing the correct one.
Examples of monoclonal use Monoclonal antibodies can target cancer cell antigens Monoclonal antibodies are combined with anticancer drugs. The drug enters the cancer cells and block the chemical signals that cause their uncontrolled growth
Detect illness Prostate cancer produces a protein called prostate specific antigen (PSA), and levels rise on blood Monoclonal antibodies bind to this antigen and can be detected on blood tests
Pregnancy testing hCG produced Mobile monoclonal antibodies on wee stick These monoclonal antibodies are also attached to a coloured bead Immobilised unbeaded monoclonal antibodies in test strip window
Urine moves up stick Treating Cancer Monoclonal antibodies can be used to bind to cancer cells. Once bound, they trigger white blood cells to attack & destroy the cancer cells.
OR Some monoclonal antibodies can bind to antigens on the cancer cell that will stop the cancer cells from being able to grow & divide. OR other monoclonal antibodies can carry toxic
drugs or radioactive substances that bind to and kill the cancer cells.
Commitments of RBOs' Member Countries within the framework of the Paris Agreement, and willingness to pool means through climate investment priority plans and programs of cooperation institutions (NBA, G5-Sahel, LCBC, etc) to allow coordination of actions and avoid mis-adaptation at...
`Havisham` by Carol Ann Duffy is a poem about violence. Write about attitudes to violence in this poem, one poem by Simon Armitage and TWO from the pre-1914 bank. You should refer to: Why they committed (or tried to commit)...
External Anatomy of the Eye Lacrimal Apparatus of the Eye Anatomy of the Eyeball Divided into three sections Fibrous Tunic: (tough coat) Cornea Sclera Vascular Tunic Choroid coat Ciliary Body (Ciliary muscle, Ciliary process) Iris Nervous Tunic Retina Accessory structures...
allows the immune system to differentiate between body cells (called "self") and foreign cells or tissues (called "non-self"). Similar types of glycoproteins and glycolipids are found on the surfaces of viruses and may change frequently, preventing immune cells from recognizing...
playing baseball playing basketball bowling boxing biking fencing canoeing dancing playing golf racing rafting windsurfing waterskiing sailing swimming playing tennis playing table tennis playing volleyball skipping skateboarding playing rugby rollerskating rock climbing running playing football doing gymnastics playing hockey ice...
Definition of AT. AT, Assistive Technology: "Any item, piece of equipment or product system, whether acquired commercially off the shelf,modified, or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional capabilitiesof children with disabilities.
The placenta secretes human placental lactogen (hPL), stimulates the _ promotes growth of the fetus and exerts a maternal glucose-sparing effect. Human chorionic thyrotropin (hCT) _ Parathyroid hormone levels are high, ensuring a _
The country's slogan/motto. A summary of the county's war/military policy. A summary of the country's economic plan. Must be in color. Must be neat. 4th Block Groups. Mya, Sahvi, Jeremiah, Max. Joseline, Luis, Jada, Kirsten. Madisen, Johanna, Juan, Marci.
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