Diseases are spread in the following ways: Using

Diseases are spread in the following ways: Using

Diseases are spread in the following ways: Using insect repellents Using protection and

not sharing needles How can we protect ourselves against disease?

direct contact food and water Washing your hands, Cooking food properly and drinking

clean water insect bites Covering mouths when coughing

airborne droplets indirect contact Avoid touching infected people or objects

Pathogens disease causing micro-organsims Bacteria Reproduce rapidly inside the body Produce toxins that damage tissues and make us feel ill

Viruses Reproduce rapidly inside the body Live and reproduce inside cells Destroy cells and tissue Viral diseases

Disease Measles HIV Symptoms

Spread by Treated with Fever and a red skin rash

Inhalation of Vaccination to droplets from sneezes and coughs prevent illness Flu like illness, eventually attached bodys immune cells. Turns into AIDs

when the immune system is so badly damaged it cant deal with infections Sexual contact or exchange of body fluids

Antiretroviral drugs Direct contact Destroying the plant and soil

Tobacco Mosaic pattern of discolouration on mosaic virus the leaves which affects growth due to lack of photosynthesis (plants)

Bacteria diseases Disease Salmonella Symptoms

Fever, abdominal cramps, vomiting, diarrhoea Spread by Ingested food or food prepared un-hygenically

STD with a thick yellow of green Gonorrhoea discharge from the vagina or penis or Sexual contact pain when urinating Treated with

N/A Antibiotics, although many resistant strains now present

Fungal diseases Disease Symptoms Spread by

Purple or black spots develop on which turn yellow and Rose black leaves, By water and early. Affects growth of the wind

spot (plants) drop plant because photosynthesis is reduced Treated with Fungicides and removing and

destroying affected leaves. Protist diseases Disease

Malaria Symptoms Causes recurrent episodes of fever and can be fatal

Spread by Vectors (mosquitos) Pathogen that causes the disease = protist

Insect that carries the pathogen = vector Treated with Stopping vectors from breeding and using mosquito nets to avoid being bitten

Defence mechanisms Droplet infection and dust mucus, cillia Direct contact skin barrier Contaminated food and drink stomach acid Break in the skin scabs White blood cells of the immune system

Ingest microorganisms Produce specific antibodies destroying bacteria/virus Produce antitoxins - counteract toxins This is how vaccines protect you against dangerous infectious diseases

This is how vaccines protect you against dangerous infectious diseases This is how vaccines protect you against dangerous infectious diseases

This is how vaccines protect you against dangerous infectious diseases Describe differences in antibody production after infection compared with after vaccination. 1. Less lag time after

second infection 2. Faster rise in number of antibodies produced 3. Antibodies stay in the blood for

longer Discovery of traditional drugs Drug Where it originates

Digitalis (a heart drug) Foxgloves (type of plant) Aspirin (a painkiller) Willow (a tree)

Penicillin (an antibiotic discovered by Alexander Fleming) Penicillium mould What makes a good

medicine? Effective it must prevent or cure the disease it is aimed at, or at least make you feel better Safe the drug must not be toxic (poisonous) and there must be not unacceptable side effects Stable you need to be able to use the medicine under

normal conditions and store it for some time Successfully taken into and removed form the body a medicine is no use unless it can reach its target in your body. How do we test drugs? Preclinical

Testing done in laboratorys using cells, tissues and live animals to test toxicity and efficacy (does it work) Clinical trials Phase 1 Low doses given to a small number of healthy volunteers (to monitor side effects) Phase 2 Drug tested on small number of patients who have the illness (double blind trial with placebo) tests for efficacy Phase 3 Drug tested on larger number of volunteers with the illness to find optimum

dosage levels (double blind trial) Phase 4 Peer review of data and if successful, the drug is approved but continued testing happens 1 2

3 4 5 6

6 1 5 3

2 4 Mouse is injected with a specific pathogen. The mouses immune system

responds. Specific white blood cells called Lymphocytes produce antibodies.

lymphocytes are combined with tumour cells. Antibodies are harvested and purified

and used for a range of purposes. These antibodies are called Monoclonal antibodies (because they came from a single cloned cell).

Tumour cells are able to divide but cant make antibodies The Hybridoma Cells copy themselves and produce

antibodies. These cells are now called Hybridoma Cells and can make specific antibodies. They are screened to make sure they are producing the correct one.

Examples of monoclonal use Monoclonal antibodies can target cancer cell antigens Monoclonal antibodies are combined with anticancer drugs. The drug enters the cancer cells and block the chemical signals that cause their uncontrolled growth

Detect illness Prostate cancer produces a protein called prostate specific antigen (PSA), and levels rise on blood Monoclonal antibodies bind to this antigen and can be detected on blood tests

Pregnancy testing hCG produced Mobile monoclonal antibodies on wee stick These monoclonal antibodies are also attached to a coloured bead Immobilised unbeaded monoclonal antibodies in test strip window

Urine moves up stick Treating Cancer Monoclonal antibodies can be used to bind to cancer cells. Once bound, they trigger white blood cells to attack & destroy the cancer cells.

OR Some monoclonal antibodies can bind to antigens on the cancer cell that will stop the cancer cells from being able to grow & divide. OR other monoclonal antibodies can carry toxic

drugs or radioactive substances that bind to and kill the cancer cells.

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