The Sesquicentennial of Canadian University Football A historical

The Sesquicentennial of Canadian University Football A historical

The Sesquicentennial of Canadian University Football A historical perspective on the changing role of varsity football in Canadian universities since Confederation Tom Fabian PhD student (Sociocultural Studies of Sport), Western University Dissertation focus History of the Universiade MA (Sport History & Culture), De Montfort University, Leicester, England Thesis title Alma Mater Wrapped in Pigskin: The role of varsity football in Canadian universities

BSc (Kinesiology), McGill University Varsity volleyball player Why football? What is the role of football in Canadian universities? Its hard to rally around a math class - Paul Bear Bryant Football coach, University of Alabama, 1958-1982

A Brief History of Canadian University Football 30 October 1867 First Canadian-style football game between U of T and Trinity College Early Canadian rugby- A Brief History of Canadian University Football 30 October 1867 First Canadian-style football game between U of T and Trinity College 1892 Formation of the Canadian Rugby Union (CRU) 24 November 1897 Canadian Intercollegiate Rugby Football Union (CIRFU) established McGill University

Queens University University of Toronto Big Three A Brief History of Canadian University Football 30 October 1867 First Canadian-style football game between U of T and Trinity College 1892 Formation of the Canadian Rugby Union (CRU) 24 November 1897 Canadian Intercollegiate Rugby Football Union (CIRFU) established 1898 Development of the Burnside Rules JTM Thrift

Burnside A Brief History of Canadian University Football 30 October 1867 First Canadian-style football game between U of T and Trinity College 1892 Formation of the Canadian Rugby Union (CRU) 24 November 1897 Canadian Intercollegiate Rugby Football Union (CIRFU) established 1898 Development of the Burnside Rules 26 May 1906 Founding of the Canadian Intercollegiate Athletic Union Central (CIAUC) McGill University Queens University University of Toronto Big Three

A Brief History of Canadian University Football 30 October 1867 First Canadian-style football game between U of T and Trinity College 1892 Formation of the Canadian Rugby Union (CRU) 24 November 1897 Canadian Intercollegiate Rugby Football Union (CIRFU) established 1898 Development of the Burnside Rules 26 May 1906 Founding of the Canadian Intercollegiate Athletic Union Central (CIAUC) 4 December 1909 First Grey Cup game 1931 Adoption of the forward pass 15 October 1961 Establishment of first truly national intercollegiate sport association (CIAU) 20 November 1965 First Vanier Cup game Why football? 1. One of the earliest sports to become established on campuses

Rugby Lacrosse Soccer Basketb all Hockey Curling Baseball Rowing Cricket Why football?

1. One of the earliest sports to become established on campuses FOOTBALL Right timing A Canadian game High team component Why football? 1. One of the earliest sports to become established on campuses 2. Early Grey Cup supremacy Grey Cup Champions (until 1926) Year

Winning Team Losing Team Score Location Attendance 1909 University of Toronto Toronto Parkdale Canoe Club

26-6 Rosedale Field, Toronto 3,807 1910 University of Toronto Hamilton Tigers 16-7 AAA Grounds, Hamilton

12,000 1911 University of Toronto Toronto Argonauts 14-7 Varsity Stadium, Toronto 13,687 1912*

Hamilton Alerts Toronto Argonauts 11-4 AAA Grounds 5,337 1913 Hamilton Tigers Toronto Parkdale Canoe Club

44-2 AAA Grounds 2,100 1914 Toronto Argonauts University of Toronto 14-2 Varsity Stadium

10,500 1915 Hamilton Tigers Toronto Rowing Association 13-7 Varsity Stadium 2,808 1920

University of Toronto Toronto Argonauts 16-3 Varsity Stadium 10,088 1921 Toronto Argonauts Edmonton Eskimos

23-0 Varsity Stadium 9,558 1922 Queens University Edmonton Elks 13-1 Richardson Stadium, Kingston

4,700 1923 Queens University Regina Rugby Club 54-0 Varsity Stadium 8,629 1924

Queens University Toronto Balmy Beach 11-2 Varsity Stadium 5,978 1925 Ottawa Senators Winnipeg Tammany Tigers

24-1 Lansdowne Park, Ottawa 6,900 1926 Ottawa Senators University of Toronto 10-7 Varsity Stadium

8,276 Why football? 1. One of the earliest sports to become established on campuses 2. Early Grey Cup supremacy 3. The composition of the CIAUC Board of Reference McGill University Queens University University of Toronto Big Three

Why football? 1. One of the earliest sports to become established on campuses 2. Early Grey Cup supremacy 3. The composition of the CIAUC Board of Reference 4. Gate receipts and commoditization A concrete recognition of the arrival of football as a money-making proposition. - Alan Metcalfe Renowned Canadian Sport Historian University of Windsor

Varsity Stadium Why football? 1. One of the earliest sports to become established on campuses 2. 3. 4. 5. Early Grey Cup supremacy The composition of the CIAUC Board of Reference Gate receipts and commoditization Transfer of university recognition from the classroom to the sports field

Fielding a football team is a quicker way of building a library - Sherwood Fox President, University of Western Ontario, 1927-1947 Why football? 1. One of the earliest sports to become established on campuses 2. 3.

4. 5. Early Grey Cup supremacy The composition of the CIAUC Board of Reference Gate receipts and commoditization Transfer of university recognition from the classroom to the sports field 6. Gridiron wars between World Wars Case Studies Old Cut

Nev er Ne w Old School Universities with Long-Standing Football Programs University of Toronto 1867 McGill University 1874 University of Ottawa 1881 Queens University 1882 Bishop's University 1884 McMaster University 1901 University of Alberta 1910*

University of Saskatchewan 1914* University of Manitoba 1920* University of British Columbia 1924 University of Western Ontario 1929 St. Marys University 1946 University of Guelph 1950 St. Francis Xavier University 1953 Mount Allison University 1955 Acadia University 1957 University of Waterloo 1957 Wilfrid Laurier University 1961 University of Calgary 1964 University of Windsor 1968 York University 1969 Concordia University 1974

* Football program was discontinued at a certain point, but has since been revived. UWOs First Game in Senior Cut Universities with Discontinued Football Programs Universit de Moncton (19491957)? Ryerson University (1949-1964) St. Thomas University (1949-1969) Laurentian University (1966-1971) Dalhousie University (1947-1976) University of Prince Edward Island (1957-1979)

Universit de Qubec Trois-Rivires (1970-1979) Brandon University (1950-1972) University of New Brunswick (1948-1980) Universit de Qubec Montral (1970-1972) Royal Military College (1883-1983) Cape Breton University (1990 only) ? Discontinuation date has not been confirmed (no response from the university and internet searches have been unsuccessful), although Moncton was no longer a member of the Maritime Intercollegiate Football League in 1958.

Takeaways from the Discontinued 1.Justifying expensive budgets 2.Unequal system yields philosophical debate 3.Negative branding of losing teams Sport involves a commitment to excellence, and the inability to be competitive, not only embarrasses alumni, students, and the university, but brings up the question of the role of sport - Colin Howell

Canadian Sports Historian St. Marys University The Alternative Universities without Football Programs Memorial University of Newfoundland 1959 University of Ontario Institute of Technology 2005 Lakehead University 1964 University of the Fraser Valley 2006

Brock University 1967 University of Winnipeg 1967 Algoma University 2008 University of Lethbridge 1969 Nipissing University 2009 University of Victoria 1969 UBC Okanagan 2010 Trent University 1977 Trinity Western University 1986

University of Northern British Columbia 2012 Thompson Rivers University 2005 Mount Royal University 2012 MacEwan University 2013 New School Universities with New Football Programs Universit Laval 1996 University of Regina 1999 Universit de Montral 2002* Universit de Sherbrooke 2003*

Carleton University 2013* Football program was discontinued at a certain point, but has since been revived. Telus Stadium, Conclusions Alma Mater Wrapped in Pigskin Canadas preeminent college game; an early symbiotic relationship Conclusions Alma Mater Wrapped in Pigskin

Canadas preeminent college game; an early symbiotic relationship Jelineks suggestion: From government to corporate involvement (1988) Risks of pursuing an NCAA model the consequences of overemphasizing sport in an educational framework and the trend towards professionalization Many Canadian university leaders concluded that professionalism was starting to displace the traditional approach to college sports as a means to the end of forming the whole student. - James Cameron

Author of For the People: A History of St. Francis Xavier University Produces a dependency relationship and subverts the educational mission of the university. - Jay Coakley & Peter Donnelly Acclaimed Sport Sociologists Authors of Sports in Society: Issues and Controversies Conclusions Alma Mater Wrapped in Pigskin Canadas preeminent college game; an early symbiotic relationship Jelineks suggestion: From government to corporate involvement (1988)

Risks of pursuing an NCAA model the consequences of overemphasizing sport in an educational framework and the trend towards professionalization Three phases and outcomes of organizational development theory 1. The organization will become absorbed by another, larger, organization 2. The organization will dissolve and restart operations 3. The organization will fragment into smaller organizations Conclusions Alma Mater Wrapped in Pigskin Canadas preeminent college game; an early symbiotic relationship Jelineks suggestion: From government to corporate involvement (1988) Risks of pursuing an NCAA model the consequences of overemphasizing sport in an educational framework and the trend towards professionalization

Three phases and outcomes of organizational development theory Educational value in competition against opponents with radically different skill levels In the end, football is the marker for the changing state of Canadian university sport

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