Shadi Khalifa Database Systems Laboratory (DSL) [email protected] Who

Shadi Khalifa Database Systems Laboratory (DSL) khalifa@cs.queensu.ca Who

Shadi Khalifa Database Systems Laboratory (DSL) [email protected] Who is Amazon !! American international multibillion dollar electronic commerce company with headquarters in Seattle, Washington, USA. started in 1995 by Jeff Bezos as an online bookstore. but soon diversified, selling DVDs, VHSs, CDs, video and MP3 downloads/streaming, software, video games, electronics, apparel, furniture, food, toys, and jewelry. The company also produces consumer electronics: Kindle e-book reader and the Kindle Fire tablet computer. In 2006, Amazon officially launched the Amazon Web Services (AWS) to became a major provider of cloud computing services. 2 What is Amazon Web

Services ? Amazon Web Services (AWS) is a collection of remote computing services (web services) that together make up a cloud computing platform, offered over the Internet by Amazon.com. Website: http://aws.amazon.com AWS is located in 9 geographical 'Regions. Each Region is wholly contained within a single country and all of its data and services stay within the designated Region. Each Region has multiple 'Availability Zones', which are distinct data centers providing AWS services. Availability Zones are isolated from each other to prevent outages from spreading between Zones. However, Several services operate across Availability Zones (e.g. S3, DynamoDB). 3 What is AWS Offering? Low Ongoing Cost:, pay-as-you-go pricing with no up-front expenses or long-term commitments. Instant Elasticity & Flexible Capacity: (scaling up and down) Eliminate guessing on your infrastructure capacity needs. Speed & Agility: Develop and deploy applications faster Instead of waiting weeks or months for hardware to arrive and get installed. Apps not Ops: Focus on projects. Lets you shift resources away from

data center investments and operations and move them to innovative new projects. Global Reach: Take your apps global in minutes. Open and Flexible: You choose the development platform or programming model that makes the most sense for your business. Secure: Allows your application to take advantage of the multiple layers of operational and physical security in the AWS data centers to 4 ensure the integrity and safety of your data. The Amazon Web Services Universe Cross Service Features Management Interface Platform Services Infrastructure Services 5

Management Interface Management Interface CLI http://aws.amazon.com/cli/ SDK http://aws.amazon.com/tools/ Web http://aws.amazon.com/console/ 6 Infrastructure Services EC2 http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/ VPC http://aws.amazon.com/vpc/ Infrastructure Services

S3 http://aws.amazon.com/s3/ EBS http://aws.amazon.com/ebs/ 7 re u ct u tr s s ra ice f In erv S Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) A web service that provides resizable compute capacity in the cloud. EC2 allows creating Virtual Machines (VM) on-demand. Preconfigured templated Amazon Machine Image (AMI) can be used get running immediately. Creating and sharing your own AMI is also possible via the AWS Marketplace. Auto Scaling allows automatically scale of the capacity up

seamlessly during demand spikes to maintain performance, and scales down during demand lulls to minimize costs. Elastic Load Balancing automatically distributes incoming application traffic across multiple Amazon EC2 instances. Provide tools to build failure resilient applications by launching application instances in separate Availability Zones. Pay only for resources actually consume, instance-hours. 8 VM Import/Export enables you to easily import virtual machine re u ct u tr s s ra ice f In erv S EC2 Instances Micro instances (t1.micro): Micro Instance 613 MiB of memory, up to 2 ECUs (for short periodic bursts), EBS storage only, 32-bit or 64-bit platform.

Standard Instances provide customers with a balanced set of resources and a low cost platform. M1 Small Instance (Default) 1.7 GiB of memory, 1 EC2 Compute Unit (1 virtual core with 1 EC2 Compute Unit), 160 GB of local instance storage, 32-bit or 64-bit platform M1 Medium Instance 3.75 GiB of memory, 2 EC2 Compute Units (1 virtual core with 2 EC2 Compute Units each), 410 GB of local instance storage, 32-bit or 64-bit platform M1 Large Instance 7.5 GiB of memory, 4 EC2 Compute Units (2 virtual cores with 2 EC2 Compute Units each), 850 GB of local instance storage, 64-bit platform M1 Extra Large Instance 15 GiB of memory, 8 EC2 Compute Units (4 virtual cores with 2 EC2 Compute Units each), 1690 GB of local instance storage, 64-bit platform M3 Extra Large Instance 15 GiB of memory, 13 EC2 Compute Units (4 virtual One EC2 Compute Uniteach), (ECU) EBS provides the only, 64-bit platform cores with 3.25 EC2 Compute

Units storage 9 equivalent CPU capacity of a 1.0-1.2 GHz 2007 M3 Double Extra Large Instance 30 GiB of memory, 26 EC2 Compute Units re u ct u tr s s ra ice f In erv S EC2 High Performance Instances High-Memory Instances: High-Memory Extra Large Instance 17.1 GiB memory, 6.5 ECU (2 virtual cores with 3.25 EC2 Compute Units each), 420 GB of local instance storage, 64bit platform High-Memory Double Extra Large Instance 34.2 GiB of memory, 13 EC2 Compute Units (4 virtual cores with 3.25 EC2 Compute Units each), 850 GB of local instance storage, 64-bit platform High-Memory Quadruple Extra Large Instance 68.4 GiB of memory, 26 EC2

Compute Units (8 virtual cores with 3.25 EC2 Compute Units each), 1690 GB of local instance storage, 64-bit platform High-CPU Instances High-CPU Medium Instance 1.7 GiB of memory, 5 EC2 Compute Units (2 virtual cores with 2.5 EC2 Compute Units each), 350 GB of local instance storage, 32-bit or 64-bit platform High-CPU Extra Large Instance 7 GiB of memory, 20 EC2 Compute Units (8 virtual cores with 2.5 EC2 Compute Units each), 1690 GB of local instance storage, 64-bit platform High Storage Instances 10 High Storage Eight Extra Large 117 GiB memory, 35 EC2 Compute Units, 24 re u ct u tr s s ra ice f In erv S

EC2 Cluster Instances Cluster Compute Instances provide proportionally high CPU resources with increased network performance and are well suited for High Performance Compute (HPC) applications and other demanding network-bound applications. Cluster Compute Eight Extra Large 60.5 GiB memory, 88 EC2 Compute Units, 3370 GB of local instance storage, 64-bit platform, 10 Gigabit Ethernet High Memory Cluster Instances provide proportionally high CPU and memory resources with increased network performance, and are well suited for memory-intensive applications including in-memory analytics, graph analysis, and scientific computing. High Memory Cluster Eight Extra Large 244 GiB memory, 88 EC2 Compute Units, 240 GB of local instance storage, 64-bit platform, 10 Gigabit Ethernet Cluster GPU Instances provide general-purpose graphics processing units (GPUs) with proportionally high CPU and increased network performance for applications benefitting 11 re u

ct u tr s s ra ice f In erv S EC2 Payment methods On-Demand Instances let you pay for compute capacity by the hour with no long-term commitments. Reserved Instances give you the option to make a low, one-time payment for each instance you want to reserve and in turn receive a significant discount on the hourly charge for that instance. Spot Instances allow customers to bid on unused Amazon EC2 capacity and run those instances for as long as their bid exceeds the current Spot Price. 12 re

u ct u tr s s ra ice f In erv S Amazon Elastic Block Store (EBS) Provides block level storage volumes (1 GB to 1 TB ) for use with Amazon EC2 instances. Multiple volumes can be mounted to the same instance. EBS volumes are network-attached, and persist independently from the life of an instance. Storage volumes behave like raw, unformatted block devices, allowing users to create a file system on top of Amazon EBS volumes, or use them in any other way you would use a block device (like a hard drive). EBS volumes are placed in a specific Availability Zone, and can then be attached to instances also in that same Availability Zone. Each storage volume is automatically replicated within the same Availability Zone.

EBS provides the ability to create point-in-time snapshots of volumes, which are persisted to Amazon S3. These snapshots can be used as the starting point for new Amazon 13 EBS volumes, and protect data for long-term durability. re u ct u tr s s ra ice f In erv S EBS Volumes Standard volumes offer storage for applications with moderate or bursty I/O requirements. Standard volumes deliver approximately 100 IOPS on average. well suited for use as boot volumes, where the burst capability provides fast instance start-up times. Provisioned IOPS volumes are designed to deliver predictable, high

performance for I/O intensive workloads such as databases. You specify an IOPS rate when creating a volume, and EBS provisions that rate for the lifetime of the volume. Amazon EBS currently supports up to 4000 IOPS per Provisioned IOPS volume. You can stripe multiple volumes together to deliver thousands of IOPS per EC2 instance. To enable your EC2 instances to fully utilize the IOPS provisioned on an EBS volume,: Launch selected Amazon EC2 instance types as EBS-Optimized instances. EBS-optimized instances deliver dedicated throughput between 14 Amazon EC2 and Amazon EBS, with options between 500 Mbps and 1000 re u ct u tr s s ra ice f In erv S

Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3) Amazon S3 provides a simple web services interface that can be used to store and retrieve any amount of data, at any time, from anywhere on the web. Write, read, and delete objects containing from 1 byte to 5 terabytes of data each. The number of objects you can store is unlimited. Each object is stored in a bucket and retrieved via a unique, developer-assigned key. A bucket can be stored in one of several Regions. You can choose a Region to optimize for latency, minimize costs, or address regulatory requirements. Objects stored in a Region never leave the Region unless you transfer them out. Authentication mechanisms are provided to ensure that data is kept secure from unauthorized access. Objects can be made private or public, and rights can be granted to 15 specific users. re u ct

u tr s s ra ice f In erv S Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) Amazon VPC lets you provision a logically isolated section of the Amazon Web Services (AWS) Cloud. You have complete control over your virtual networking environment, including: selection of your own IP address range, creation of subnets, and configuration of route tables and network gateways. VPC allows bridging with an onsite IT infrastructure with an encrypted VPN

connection with an extra charge per VPN Connection-hour. 16 There is no additional charge for using Amazon Demo & Questions EC2 http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/ VPC http://aws.amazon.com/vpc/ Infrastructure Services S3 http://aws.amazon.com/s3/ EBS http://aws.amazon.com/ebs/ 17 Platform Services EMR http://aws.amazon.com/elasticmapreduce/

RDS Platform Services http://aws.amazon.com/rds/ Dynamo DB http://aws.amazon.com/dynamodb/ Beanstalk http://aws.amazon.com/elasticbeanstalk/ 18 at l P m r fo r e S

s e c vi Amazon Elastic MapReduce (EMR) Amazon EMR is a web service that makes it easy to quickly and cost-effectively process vast amounts of data using Hadoop. Amazon EMR distribute the data and processing across a resizable cluster of Amazon EC2 instances. With Amazon EMR you can launch a persistent cluster that stays up indefinitely or a temporary cluster that terminates after the analysis is complete. Amazon EMR supports a variety of Amazon EC2 instance types and Amazon EC2 pricing options (On-Demand, Reserved, and Spot). When launching an Amazon EMR cluster (also called a "job flow"), you choose how many and what type of Amazon EC2 Instances to provision. The Amazon EMR price is in addition to the Amazon EC2 price. Amazon EMR is used in a variety of applications, including log 19 analysis, web indexing, data warehousing, machine learning,

at l P m r fo r e S s e c vi Amazon Relational Database Service (RDS) Amazon RDS is a web service that makes it easy to set up, operate, and scale a relational database in the cloud. Amazon RDS gives access to the capabilities of a familiar MySQL, Oracle or Microsoft SQL Server database engine. Code, applications, and tools already used with existing databases can be used with RDS.

Amazon RDS automatically patches the database software and backs up the database, storing the backups for a user-defined retention period and enabling point-in-time recovery. Amazon RDS provides scaling the compute resources or storage capacity associated with the Database Instance. Pay only for the resources actually consumed, based on the DB Instance hours consumed, database storage, backup storage, and data transfer. On-Demand DB Instances let you pay for compute capacity by the hour with no long-term commitments. 20 Reserved DB Instances give the option to make a low, one-time payment for SQL Databases In relational databases (SQL Databases), ACID (Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, Durability) is a set of properties that guarantee that database transactions are processed reliably. Atomicity requires that each transaction is "all or nothing": if one part of the transaction fails, the entire transaction fails, and the database state is left unchanged. The consistency property ensures that any transaction will bring the database from one valid state to another. The isolation property ensures that the concurrent execution of transactions results in a system state that

would be obtained if transactions were executed serially,. Durability means that once a transaction has been committed, it will remain so, even in the event of power loss, crashes, or errors. 21 at l P m r fo r e S s e c vi Amazon DynamoDB DynamoDB is a fast, fully managed NoSQL

database service that makes it simple and costeffective to store and retrieve any amount of data, and serve any level of request traffic. All data items are stored on Solid State Drives (SSDs), and are replicated across 3 Availability Zones for high availability and durability. DynamoDB tables do not have fixed schemas, and each item may have a different number of attributes. DynamoDB has no upfront costs and implements a pay as you go plan as a. a flat hourly rate based 22 on the capacity reserved. NoSQL Databases A NoSQL database provides a mechanism for storage and retrieval of data that employs less constrained consistency models than traditional relational databases. NoSQL databases only support Eventual Consistency which is a consistency model used in distributed computing that informally guarantees that, if no new updates are made to a given data item, eventually all accesses to that item will return the last updated value. NoSQL databases are often highly optimized keyvalue stores intended for simple retrieval and appending operations, with the goal being significant performance

benefits in terms of latency and throughput. Keyvalue stores allow the application to store its data in a schema-less way. 23 The data could be stored in a datatype of a programming at l P m r fo r e S s e c vi Amazon Elastic Beanstalk

AWS Elastic Beanstalk provides a solution to quickly deploy and manage applications in the AWS cloud. You simply upload your application, and Elastic Beanstalk automatically handles the deployment details of capacity provisioning, load balancing, auto-scaling, and application health monitoring. Elastic Beanstalk leverages AWS services such as Amazon EC2, Amazon S3, . To ensure easy portability of your application, Elastic Beanstalk is built using familiar software stacks such as: Apache HTTP Server for Node.js, PHP and Python Passenger for Ruby, IIS 7.5 for .NET Apache Tomcat for Java. There is no additional charge for Elastic Beanstalk - you pay only for 24 the AWS resources needed to store and run your applications. Questions EMR http://aws.amazon.com/elasticmapreduce/ RDS

Platform Services http://aws.amazon.com/rds/ Dynamo DB http://aws.amazon.com/dynamodb/ Beanstalk http://aws.amazon.com/elasticbeanstalk/ 25 Cross Service Features SWF Cross Service Features http://aws.amazon.com/swf/ CloudWa tch http://aws.amazon.com/cloudwatch/ 26

ce i v er S ss res o Cr atu Fe Amazon CloudWatch Amazon CloudWatch provides monitoring for AWS cloud resources and the applications customers run on AWS. Amazon CloudWatch lets you programmatically retrieve your monitoring data, view graphs, and set alarms to help you troubleshoot, spot trends, and take automated action based on the state of your cloud environment. Amazon CloudWatch enables you to monitor your AWS resources up-tothe-minute in real-time, including:

Amazon EC2 instances, Amazon EBS volumes, Elastic Load Balancers, Amazon RDS DB instances. Metrics such as CPU utilization, latency, and request counts are provided automatically for these AWS resources. Customers can also supply their own custom application and system metrics, such as memory usage, transaction volumes,27 or error ce i v er S ss res o Cr atu Fe Amazon Simple Workflow Service (SWF) Amazon SWF is a task coordination and state management service for cloud applications.

Using Amazon SWF, you structure the various processing steps in an application that runs across one or more machines as a set of tasks. Amazon SWF manages dependencies between the tasks, schedules the tasks for execution, and runs any logic that needs to be executed in parallel. The service also tracks the tasks progress. As the business requirements change, Amazon SWF makes it easy to change application logic without having to worry about the underlying 28 state machinery and flow control. Questions SWF Cross Service Features http://aws.amazon.com/swf/ CloudWa tch http://aws.amazon.com/cloudwatch/

29 Watch out for unexpected Costs When you finish your work remember to make sure of the following to avoid unwanted costs: Delete your S3 objects. Stop or Shut Down instances. your EC2 and RDS The customer is responsible for the resources hes using. AWS declines any responsibility if the customer forgets to shut down resources. 30 AWS Free Usage Tier

http://aws.amazon.com/free/ 31

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