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Born in Dublin in 1882 Educated at Jesuit schools, rejected Catholic faith during last year of school Studied modern languages at University College, Dublin Taught himself Dano-Norwegian to read Ibsen Received his degree in 1902 To preserve his integrity, to avoid involvement in popular causes, to devote himself to the life of the artist, he felt that he had to go abroad. Norton

Anthology Moved to Paris but returned to Dublin when his mother fell ill Moved to Switzerland to teach in 1904 with Nora Barnacle, married in 1931 Underwent twenty-five operations for eye diseases

Settled in Paris in 1920, stayed until the war in 1940 Died in Switzerland in 1941 Joyces literary origins were in the main continental movements of the late nineteenth century, Naturalism and Symbolism. From the one he took the conviction that literature ought to present, relentlessly and exactly, the minute appearances of things, however banal or distasteful, from the other, the idea that the word and the world are separate, and that language ultimately offers not a representation of reality but reality itself

Joyce believed that life was one thing and art was another, and that it was the business of the writer to impose form and order on the chaos of raw experience. Oxford Illustrated History, 421-422 the Paterian moment is transformed into the image of Ezra Pound and the Imagist poets and the

epiphany of James Joyce. Oxford, 381 Paralysis Gnomon Epiphany (manifestation) Gnomonone that knows or examines

The young Joyce sought to transmute the daily bread of experience into art through the experience of epiphanies, moments of insight like those also described in works by Woolf, Eliot and Proust. Pericles Lewis, Modernism and Religion in The Cambridge Companion to Modernism, 192

Dubliners Published in 1914 sharp realistic sketches of what Joyce called the paralysis that beset the lives of people in thenprovincial Ireland. --Norton

He devised ways of expanding his accounts of Dublin, however, so that they became microcosms of human history, geography, and experience. Norton, 2164 about Dubliners: Many end abruptly, without conventional narrative closure, or they lack overt

connectiveness and transitions, leaving multiple possibilities in suspension. Norton Anthology, 2164 Every night as I gazed up at the window I said softly to myself the word paralysis. It had always sounded strangely in my ears, like the word gnomon in the Euclid and the word simony in the Catechism. But now it sounded to me like the

name of some maleficent and sinful being. It filled me with fear, and yet I longed to be nearer to it and to look upon its deadly work. The Sisters, 1 about Gabriel in The Dead: The view he attains at the end is the mood of supreme neutrality that Joyce saw as the beginning of artistic awareness.

Norton, 2164 He stretched himself cautiously along under the sheets and lay down beside his wife. One by one they were all becoming shades. Better pass boldly into that other world, in the full glory of some passion, than fade and wither dismally with agehis soul had approached that region where dwell the vast hosts of the dead. He was conscious of, but could not

apprehend, their wayward and flickering existence. His own identity was fading out into a grey and impalpable world: the solid world itself which these dead had one time reared and lived in was dissolving and dwindling. The Dead Joyces ambitionis to present the events in such a manner that depth and implication are given to them and

they become symbolic. The episodes in Ulysses correspond to episodes in Homers ancient Greek epic Odyssey. Joyce regarded Homers Odysseus, or Ulysses, as the most complete man in literature, shown in all his aspects coward and hero, cautious and reckless, weak and strong, husband and philanderer, father and son, dignified and ridiculous; so he makes his hero, Leopold Bloom, an Irish Jew,

into a modern Ulysses. Norton, 2165 We follow the lives of three lower-middle-class Dubliners during the course of one day, 16 June 1904; they are Leopold Bloom, his unfaithful wife, Molly, and the young poet Stephen DedalusJoyce moves intoHomeric legend, mulitple symbolism,

and a carnival of linguistic variety. Oxford History, 425 (the Laestrygonians) Discussing Ulysses in 1923 Eliot wrote: In using myth, in manipulating a continuous parallel between contemporaneity and antiquity, Mr. Joyce is pursuing a method which others must pursue after himit is

simply a way of controlling, of ordering, of giving a shape and a significance to the immense panorama of futility and anarchy which is contemporary history. Oxford, 425 Joyce presents the consciousness of his characters directly, without any explanatory comment that tells the

reader whose consciousness is being renderedhe may move, in the same paragraph and without any sign that he is making a transition, from a description of a characters actionto an evocation of the characters mental response to this actionpast and present mingle in the texture of the prose because they mingle in the texture of consciousness keeping the reader constantly in sight of the shifting,

kaleidoscopic nature of human awareness. Norton, 2166 Joyces final work, Finnegans Wake took more than fourteen years to write, and Joyce considered it his masterpiecethe whole book beinga dream, Joyce invents his own dream language, in which words are combined distorted, created by fitting together bits of other words, used with several different meanings at once, often drawn from several

different languages at once, and fused in all sorts of ways to achieve whole clusters of meaning simultaneously. Norton, 2167 To an even greater extent than Ulysses, Finnegans Wake aims to embrace all of human history. Norton, 2167 The title comes from an Irish American ballad about Tom Finnegan, a hod carrier who falls off a

ladder when drunk and is apparently killed, but who revives when during the wakesomeone spills whiskey on him. Norton, 2167 HCEFinnegans successor, Humphrey Chimpden Earwicker ALP, his wifeAnna Livia Plurabelle

The theme of death and resurrection, of cycles of change coming round in the course of history, is central to Finnegans Wake, which derives one of its main principles of organization from the cyclical theory of history put forward in 1725 by the Italian philosopher Giambattista Vico. Vico held that history passes through four phases: the divine, or theocratic, when people are governed by their awe of the supernatural; the aristocratic (the heroic age reflected in Homer and in Beowulf); the

democratric and individualistic; and the final stage of chaos, a fall into confusion that startles humanity back into supernatural reverence and starts the process once again. Joyce, like Yeats, saw his own generation as in the final stage awaiting the shock that will bring humans back to the first. Norton, 2167

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