Power and Control Chapter 13: Section One

Power and Control Chapter 13: Section One

Power and Control Chapter 13: Section One Edo Period The Edo or Tokugawa Period lasted from 1600 to 1868. Edo, which is now the present city of Tokyo, was the Capital of Japan during this time and the Tokugawa Shogun were the rulers.

Before the Edo period, Japan was in almost constant warfare. Powerful land lords, or nobles, known as Daimyo, competed with one another for Territory and Power. A strong and clever leader is what it took to finally end the chaos and bring order to the country.

Unifying the Land Tokugawa Ieyasu became the most powerful man in Japan after he defeated rival Daimyo and generals in a great battle. 3 Years later, in 1603, the emperor made him the shogun. Although the emperor technically ruled the land, the shogun was the one who had the

power. Holding on to the Shogun Ieyasu had won the power through military strength but now he needed to hold on to his power. He was determined to create such a strong shogunate that no one would dare to challenge him or his descendants. His plan

was to create a long-lasting and stable government. Controlling the Daimyo The first step was to control the Daimyo, some of whom had fought against him before he became shogun. He had the Daimyo watched closely. He gave loyal land lords domains, that is,

areas if land, next to the domains of lords whose loyalty he questioned so they could watch over their every move. Alternate Attendance Alternate attendance was used as another effective measure in ensuring stability to Japan. This meant that every second year the daimyo

were forced to live in Edo. They other year they would live in their domain. The cost of keeping up two homes and moving every year meant that Daimyo would not have enough time or money to challenge the Shogun. The Daimyo were required to leave their family members in Edo during their absence. They were called Guests of the shogun, but

really they were hostages. If there were any uprisings or even rumors of a plot that involved an absent daimyo, his family members were killed. Sharing Power The Bakuhan system of two levels of government was established. The shogunate, the equivalent to our federal government, had

control over important matters such as foreign trade and relations. The Daimyo controlled local affairs in their territory. Strict Laws Laws established by the shogunate controlled many aspects of the Daimyos lives, such as dress and marriage.

They also required the Daimyo to pay for projects, such as road building in their territories. This restricted their wealth. A Feudal Society The story of the 47 Ronin illustrates three levels of Japanese Society: The Emperor

The Nobility The Samurai Japans Feudal system was based on land; local lords controlled domains and they supported themselves by collecting taxes from peasant farmers. The rigid social structure was intended to help the shogun to maintain control.

Membership in each class was Hereditary, that is determined by birth. Although people could not officially moved up in hierarchy, people in lower levels did manage to improve their situation through hard work, talent, or gaining wealth. Roles in Society Strict rules governed the behaviour of each

class. There were 216 rules regulating dress from everyone from the emperor to the lowest member of society. Upper class women had to wear 12 silk kimonos with an exact combination of colours showing. Peasants were not allowed to wear clothing made of silk, even if they were silk farmers.

There were also rules regarding houses and possessions. Rules that dictated to whom each person had to bow and how low. If you disobeyed the rules, harsh punishments were assigned. Complete the chart below using pages 289294 in your text. List the responsibilities of the different parts of Japanese society and two

facts about their role. Responsibility Fact Fact Samurai Peasants Artisans Merchants Women

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