Poverty in African households: the limits of survey ...
Counting the population or describing society? A comparison of British and French censuses numrer la population ou dcrire la socit ? Une analyse compare des recensements britanniques et franais Ernestina Coast Department of Social Policy, LSE Alexandra Fanghanel University of Bedfordshire Eva Lelievre INED Sara Randall Department of Anthropology, UCL Paper presented at Chaire Quetelet 2013 Role of the census the most visible, and arguably the most politically important, means by which states
statistically depict collective identities Kertzer & Arel 2002, p.3 The effective use of man-power and the planning of land use, of housing, and of environmental, health and social servicesall these must begin with the latest figures about the population both as it is now and as it will be in the future. (Hansard House of Commons, 1963) C'est--dire que le recensement, lobjectif principal cest de compter les personnes sur le territoire et les compter une seule fois, cest pas forcment de reconstituer lchelle pertinente de dcision au sein dun logement. (fonctionnaire, INSEE) AIM: To understand the priorities of census commissioners and designers through the lens of the household PAPER addresses 3 research questions What are the implications of different national settings (England and France) for census design, conduct and analysis? In what ways, and why, does the unit of enumeration change
over time and space? What are the implications of national differences in census operations for understanding society, both within and across nations? Methods 1. Review of census documentation Census schedules Enumerators manuals Training manuals Associated paperwork and internal documentation 2. In depth interviews (UK N=24, France N=25) along chain of data production
Census / survey designers Census / survey interviewers Statisticians Policy makes Data users academics UN household: standardised definitions 1959: Statistical Office of the United Nations p. 74 A private household should preferably be defined as: (a) one-person household: ..(b) multiperson household: a group of two or more persons who combine to occupy the whole or part of a housing unit and to provide themselves with food or other essentials for living. The group may pool their incomes and have a common budget to a greater or lesser extent. The group may be composed of related persons only or of unrelated persons or of a combination of both 1980: Statistical Office of the United Nations p. 74 1.223 The concept of "household is based on the arrangements made by persons, individually
or in groups, for providing themselves with food or other essentials for living. 1.226. Households usually occupy the whole, part of or more than one housing unit but they may also be found living in camps, boarding houses or hotels or as administrative personnel in institutions, or they may be homeless. Households consisting of extended families that make common provision for food or of potentially separate households with a common head, resulting from polygamous unions, or households with vacation or other second homes may occupy more than one housing unit. UN household is both residential AND economic unit: economic dimensions focused around FOOD and other essentials Tension between: UN ideal household which would generate data on the ways people live and organise themselves Accurate census counting of the population once and once only avoiding double counting The census in England and France: Institutional arrangements and responsibilities INSEE
ONS Who funds National government: National government: direct via Ministry of the indirect via UKSA Economy, Finance and Industry Legislation Census enshrined in law Answerable to whom Ministry of the Economy, Finance and Industry Civil servants /
fonctionnaires Staffed by Census mission statement Chacun de nous compte Legislative independence UKSA (independent of Government) Civil servants / fonctionnaires Who we are. How we live. What we do. Counting people and/or understanding living arrangements - UK I think the topic of household composition
and household structure, and capturing it, is fundamental to how we understand relations across the life course and vital for policy and planning and vital for informing the assumptions of policy. (Academic, UK University, 2011) Decade Shared food primary Address Definition of household England and Wales 1961 Shared space
primary primary 2dary living together, partaking of meals prepared together and benefiting from a common housekeeping live together and benefit from common housekeeping,. living but not taking meals with a private household treated as a separate household unless on have one shared room. living at the same address with common housekeeping. unrelated persons sharing .count as one or as several households according to whether they maintained common housekeeping or provided their own meals separately. the same address with common housekeeping. Enumerators were told to treat a group of people as a household if there was any regular arrangement to share at least one meal a day, breakfast counting as a meal, or if the occupants shared a common living or sitting room.
primary One person living alone or a group of people (not same address with common housekeeping: ie sharing either a living/sitting room or at least one meal a day. necessarily related) living at the same address who share cooking facilities and share a living room or sitting room or dining area. . Differences between England and France in census household definitions England France Changing definitions to reflect changes in the way people manage their lives
The same definition over the whole period Only want to know the NUMBERS of people behind the front door NOT how they are organised / configured Eating patterns Co-residential patterns Budgets ie. Trying to capture the diversity of arrangements and economic units BEHIND the front door Je pense que quantitativement lattention se porte dailleurs plutt sur les mnages qui sont sur plusieurs logements que le
mme logement avec plusieurs mnages. (Academic Data Analyst, 2011) Households in French censuses 1962 lensemble des personnes, quels que soit les liens qui les unissent, qui habitent une unit dhabitation prive, c'est--dire, un local spar et indpendant Mnage=logement Household=dwelling Census is integral part of commune administration De jure encompassing those in residence principale (since 2004 residence habituelle) Census returns self completed since 1881 need a simple and straightforward unit in which everyone is counted. 
dans le recensement franais nous navons rien sur les revenus. Donc lide de partager le mme budget, de vivre sur le mme revenu, on ne peut pas lappliquer au recensement et les gens du recensement ne veulent pas mme quon pose une question sur le revenu, mme quon aborde le sujet des revenus, en disant quand mme que le recensement cest pour compter des personnes, donc il faut que les gens rpondent le mieux possible au recensement et donc nabordons pas les sujets qui pourraient tre jugs indiscrets, qui pourraient bref fcher donc  on est rest sur la notion de mnage logement. (INSEE Survey designer, 2011) Different conceptualisations of census household have other consequences France: cannot have a homeless household France: cannot have a mobile household excludes bargees, caravan dwellers, travellers etc Household structure Britain relationships collected and coded
France relationships and household structure just imputed Lobjectif principal du recensement cest compter et donner des informations qui intressent les communes  Donc par exemple dans le recensement on ne fait pas la diffrence entre une famille recompose et une famille traditionnelle, les liens sont donns mais comme cest du traitement de masse ils ne sont pas exploits. (fonctionnaire, INSEE, 2011) It seems that: England: census households are about describing society France : census households are about counting the population But. French changes towards describing society 1. residence principale changed to residence habituelle 2. Issues around household head Until 1975 self declared or assigned role because first person named on household list 1982+
Sil ny a aucune famille dans le mnage, on retient comme personne de rfrence du mnage la plus ge des personnes actives du mnage ou, sil ny a aucun actif dans le mnage, la personne la plus ge du mnage. Sil y a une famille dans le mnage, on retient comme personne de rfrence du mnage lhomme (ladulte de sexe masculin) dans le cas dun couple ou la personne adulte sans conjoint dans le cas dune famille monoparentale Note n52 des Rsultats du recensement gnral de la population de 1982 Englands movements towards counting the population 2011: option of web-based return change to simplest definition for 50 years One person living alone or a group of people (not necessarily related) living at the same address who share cooking facilities and share a living room or sitting room or dining area. Because of the changes that weve made of our definitions are for practical reasons, thats the ... its not because, its not because, the way people are living is changing but thats not really why were changing our definitions, were changing our definitions because we have to make them useful to us to actually be able to count people, thats really been the driver (ONS Survey designers, 2011)
Discussion Census inevitably a very crude tool Priority of avoiding double counting can distort some census data Need to understand institutional drivers and practical contexts such as data collection constraints Census data are not strictly comparable between countries Do censuses ever really allow description of society however the definitions are refined? Maybe description of society should be left to sample surveys France: recent changes to sample survey definitions DO take into account social change using units de vie - people who belong to several households - coresiding but separate budgets - closer to the UK nuanced definitions Acknowledgements ESRC and ANR funders of HH-MM research Other team members of HH-MM, especially Sadio
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