Possibilities of Virtual Technologies in Sciences for ODL System
POSSIBILITIES OF VIRTUAL TECHNOLOGIES IN SCIENCES FOR ODL SYSTEM OLOGIESIN SCIENCES FOR ODL SYSTEM PRESENTER/AUTHOR: SIDRA IFTIKHAR ([email protected]) CO/AUTHOR: DR. FARKHUNDA RASHEED CH. ([email protected]) SCIENCE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT, ALLAMA IQBAL OPEN UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD INTRODUCTION There are many genres of digital technologies and virtual technologies are amongst the latest one. Virtual technologies can be mainly classified into two broad categories, virtual reality and augmented reality technology. Virtual
reality technologies are particularly characterized by high degrees of immersion and interaction with making the learner engaged by physically present in the nonphysical world (Freina & Ott, 2015). Augmented reality technology that presents realtime view enhanced by synthetic objects (Carmigniani & Furht, 2011) with video display. It is highly interactive technology that combines real and virtual worlds and allows the user to view simultaneously real and virtual world. RATIONALE OF THE STUDY Open Distance Learning is one of the needs of this reckless era and there are many challenges to teach Sciences through distance learning. The teaching of science subjects demands conceptual and experiential learning with the provision of experimentation. The virtual technologies can bridge the gap between the learners physical pace, which is characteristically present in ODL and the conceptual, experiential learning and experimenting required in teaching of Sciences. Virtual Technologies can be considered as the effective medium for minimizing distraction, enhances retention, improve spatial abilities, develop interest, increase motivation, triggers academic achievement, and build creativity of the learners. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Most of our teaching and learning of science subjects is auditory which has no scope of imagination. Imagination is the key to human progress Alison & Brookfield, 2014). Virtual technologies by providing visualization, physically engaged and immersive
environment triggers the learning of sciences. By providing immense visualizing experience, virtual technologies can open new horizons for sciences particularly in ODL system. CURRENT SCENARIO OF VIRTUAL TECHNOLOGIES Modern education demands digital competence particularly open distance learning which bears the traditional segregation between the learner and the learning facilitator. This physical segregation demands extraordinary level of digital competence. In developed countries, there is the full provisions of virtual technologies in education from last two decades. In the context of Pakistan, we are now starting teaching with animations (Fayyaz Ahmad Ranjha, Muhammad Khalid Mahmood, Intzar Hussain Butt, 2019). Pakistan is too far for implementing virtual technologies in education. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY To find out the use of virtual technologies for sciences in ODL system. RESEARCH QUESTIONS What kinds of virtual technologies are being used in education around the world. What are the possibilities of the use of virtual technologies for science teaching and learning in Pakistan.
LITERATURE REVIEW Author/Year Title Count ry Types of Virtual tools Findings Adriana Soares Pereira, Sandra Dutra Piovesan (2012) Virtual Reality Applied in Distance Education Spain Plug-in Cortona, VRML The use of Virtual Reality enables conducting experiments with the interactively knowledge, enhance students creativity, motivation, Chris Lytridis, Avgoustos
Tsinakos, Ioannis Kazanidis, (2018) ARTutorAn Augmented Reality Platform for Interactive Distance Learning Greece ARTutor learning platform It is suitable for distance learning and promotes self-study and independent learning Mustufa H. Abidi, Abdulaziz M. El-Tamimi, Abdulrahman M. Al-Ahmari,(2012) Virtual Reality: Next Generation Tool For Distance Education Saudi Arabia VRML Better understanding and mitigate the feeling of isolation present in ODL, satisfaction with learning experience.
Sylvester J. Akpan, Paulinus J. Etim, Udom, Stella Ogechi, (2016) Virtual Classroom Instruction and Academic Performance of Educational Technology Students in Distance Education, Enugu State Nigeria Virtual classroom instruction Use of virtual classroom influence the academic performance of the ODL learners LITERATURE REVIEW Author/Year Title Countr y Types of virtual tools Findings
Matt Bower,Cathie Howe, Neida McCredie, Austin Robinson and David Grover, (2014) Augmented Reality in education- cases, places, and potentials Australia Phones and tablet devices Higher order thinking skills Hakon Swensen, (2016) Potential of Augmented Reality in Sciences Education A Literature Review Norway Mobile phone game based Motivation, situated learning, Inquiry based learning, cognitive effort, spatial ability. Xue-qin Chang, Dao-hua
Zhang, Xin-xin Jin, (2016) Application of Virtual Reality Technology in Distance Learning China A multi-user virtualcampus system based on VR technology Useful distance learning full operational. LITERATURE REVIEW Author/Year Title Country Virtual tools Findings Hsiu-Mei Huang,Ulrich Rauch, Shu-Sheng Liaw, (2010)
Investigating learners attitudes toward virtual reality learning environments:Based on a constructivist approach USA WVBS-ATS, Autodesk, VR4Max Collaborative learning, situated learning, role playing, problem based learning, creative learning Kuo-Ting Huang, Christopher Ball, Jessica Francis, Rabindra Ratan, Josephine Boumis, Joseph Fordham, (2019) Augmented Versus Virtual Reality in Education: An Exploratory Study Examining Science Knowledge Retention When Using Augmented Reality/Virtual Reality
Mobile Applications Michigan Smartphone based (Samsung S4 app) VR is more engaging and both technologies enhances knowledge retention of the learners. Gunver Majgaard, Lasse Juul Larsen, SEEING THE UNSEEN SPATIAL VISUALIZATION OF THE SOLAR Denmark Google cardboard Spatial learning LITERATURE REVIEW Author/Year Title Country/
City Types of Virtual tools Findings Kapil Chalil Madathil, Kristin Frady, Rebecca Hartley, Jeffrey Bertrand, Myrtede Alfred, Anand Gramopadhye, (2017). An Empirical Study Investigating the Effectiveness of Integrating Virtual Reality based Case Studies into an Online Asynchronous Learning Environment. South Carolina VR simulations The ability of VR Carlos Carbonell, Jose Saorin, (2018)
Virtual Learning Environments to enhance Spatial Orientation Spain VR 3-D Glasses Spatial skills training Martin-Gutierrez, Garcia-Dominguez, Roca-Gonzalez, Sanjuan-Hernan Perez, Comparative Analysis Between Training Tools in Spatial Skills for Engineering Graphic Students Based on VR, AR and PDF3D Spain VR, AR and PDF3D AR shows better spatial training outcome scores than others. to reduce costs, allow students to interact with unobservable phenomena, and to increase perceived learning
outcomes, student engagement, and usability. LITERATURE REVIEW Author/Year Title Country/ City MariaJose, Garcia Bonete, Maja Jensen, Gergely Katona (2019). A practical guide to developing virtual and augmented reality exercises for teaching structural biology Ivan Stojsic, Andelija Ivkov Dzigurski, Olja Maricic , Ljubica Ivanovic Bibic , Smiljana Dukicin Vukovic, (2016) Possible Application of Virtual Serbia Reality in Geography Teaching. Birgitte Lund Nielsen,
Harald Brandt, Hakon Swensen, (2016). Augmented Reality in Science Denmark Education-Affordances for student learning. Sweden Type of Virtual tools Findings Sketchfab Deep Learning of Biology Android and iOS applications Google Expeditions used with Google Cardboards Sandbox AR system Expeditions and other VR apps for Google Cardboard can enhance geography education Bridging formal and informal
learning, concrete science examples, presence and involvement. LITERATURE REVIEW Author/ Year Title Country/ City Virtual Tools Findings Steve Chi-Yin Yuen, Gallayanee Yaoyuneyong, Erik Johnson, (2011). Augmented Reality: An Overview and Five Directions of AR in Education Mississippi Mobile devices Medical, Military, AR books,
AR gaming, Skills training B Maleke, D Paseru, R Padang, (2017). Learning Application of Astronomy Based AR using Android Platform. Indonesia Android based devices Interest in Astronomy has developed. Phil Diegmann, Manuel SchmidtKraepelin, (2015) Benefits of Augmented Reality in Educational Environments-A systematic Literature Review Germany Mobile Devices and web based tools Motivation, Attention, Concentration, Satisfaction,
Creativity, Retention, DATA ANALYSIS After collecting the relevant literature, meta-analysis was done. The relevant literature was searched from different research journals. FINDINGS Virtual Worlds enable conducting experiments with the interactively knowledge, enhance students creativity, motivation, and knowledge retention. It is suitable for distance learning and promotes self-study and independent learning. It gives better understanding and mitigate the feeling of isolation present in ODL, satisfaction with learning experience. Use of virtual classroom influence the academic performance of the ODL learners. FINDINGS CONT.. It improves spatial abilities of the learners. Situated learning, Inquiry based learning, cognitive effort has been improved.
Collaborative learning, role playing, problem based learning, and creative learning of the students increases. Bridging formal and informal learning, provide presence and involvement. CONCLUSION It was concluded that there were various tools using in the educational context around the world. It is concluded from the literature that virtual technologies can provide seamless learning experience but unfortunately it is not implementing in Pakistan. Having immense visualization capabilities and with flexibility of time and space, it should be used in the educational context of Pakistan particularly for the teaching and learning of sciences in ODL system. Thank you
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