Plato, Aristotle and Sparta - HKU Philosophy

Plato, Aristotle and Sparta - HKU Philosophy

Politics Book 2 Summary: Sparta and Crete PHIL 2011 2006-07 Ancient Greece, including Crete Views of the Outside World: Athens Yesterday I went down to the Pirus to worship the goddess and also because I wanted to see how they would conduct the festival on this, its

first performance (Rep., 327a). Plato refers to Bendis, the Thracians hunting goddess (like Artemis). Our city is open to the world, and we have no periodical deportation in order to prevent people observing or finding out secrets which might be of military advantage to the enemy (Thucydides, Pericles Funeral Oration, History of the Peloponnesian War).

Spartan Exclusion of Foreigners Dual purpose: Preserve Spartan way of life, laws and virtue; Discourage trade: Result of iron coinage prescribed by Lycurgus; Some foreign soldiers allowed, attested by Xen., Const. Lac. Aristotles critique of Sparta In relation to Crete Comparison of Institutions of Sparta & Crete Institution

Slavery Sparta Crete Helots ally w/ neighbors Neighbors dont ally w/ Perioeci b/c own serfs would rebel Women Too wealthy &

free, dominate men Presumably docile Common meals At private expense; not enough for poor Land Tribute & fruits of **public lands**

**Public and Too unequal, causes poverty private portions** Consequences of collective enslavement Its importance is generally accepted in a wellordered state; citizens should have leisure and not have to provide for their daily wants (49); Slave revolts occur when a class of serfs, e.g. Helots, can ally w/ masters neighbors, who are also enemies; when these are the results the citizens of a state have not found out the secret of managing their subject population (50); Cretan lawgiver gave Perioeci (serfs) same institutions as everyone else, but forbade them weapons and gymnastic (38).

Womens domination All warrior peoples, except the homosexual ones (Celts), are dominated by women; Men at war; women rule at home; Spartan women especially unruly due to their considerable wealth, own 2/5 of the country; half the city may be regarded as having no laws (50); Wealthy due to their dowries and ability to inherit under Spartan law (51); Wealth is valued where women dominateis there any justification for such a claim? Spartas citizen deficit Xenophon reports that Sparta is powerful despite its low population;

Aristotle diagnoses a severe dearth of citizens a few decades later; From 10,000 in past to 1,000 citizens; Better to equalize property so that all may have minimum support (see common meals); Law encourages large families, but inheritance practices lead to unequal land distribution, so many receive nothing; Crete: law separates men from women, lest they should have too many children (55). Common meals: a democratic institution? This institution is directly related to the land distribution; Spartan land is entirely private, providing the food;

Result: the poor cannot contribute, leading to loss of citizenship (53-4, 55); Crete: common meals better managed than the Lacedaemonian, and of a more popular character; Source: Tribute of perioeci and produce from public lands. Social Consequences of Land Distribution Sparta: all property private; fruits are shared, but many are too poor to contribute; Crete: Public land plays a significant role in political institutions, which are model for those of Sparta (54);

one portion is assigned to the gods [meaning?] and the service of the state (55); Another portion of public land provides for the common meals; Rest is presumably privately held; Common meals and public land are discussed further in Book VII. High Office Feature Sparta (Ephors) Crete (Cosmi)

Accountability None None, except by means of expulsion by peers Tenure Life; tyranny leading to democracy (52) Life

Eligibility Everyone; poor men open to bribes (like Athens), but people support Ephorate Only some families, but rest do not object (why not?) Opportunity to Yes; see above No

A final word about Sparta The charge which Plato brings, in the Laws, against the intention of the legislator [Lycurgus], is likewise justified; the whole constitution has regard to one part of excellence onlythe excellence of the soldier, which gives victory in war. So long as they were at war, therefore, their power was preserved, but when they had attained empire they fell, for of the arts of peace they knew nothing (54). The telos of Sparta is misguided, according to Aristotle. Todays Question Despite Aristotle's criticisms, Sparta was a well- known and successful state; Aristotle did study it after all.

Sparta's success was due to its sole focus on, and expertise in, military. That seemed to be a large part of what was necessary for that time and place; however, on what would a small- or medium-sized state in current times need to focus in order to attain significant global presence? Using modern examples, discuss the ethical ramifications of such a state. Also discuss the possibility of success for such a potentially domineering state. If this question confuses anybody, feel free to ask.

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Working Group 1 HECRTF Workshop June 14-16,2003

    Working Group 1 HECRTF Workshop June 14-16,2003

    Working Group 1 Enabling Technologies Chair: Sheila Vaidya Vice Chair: Stu Feldman WG 1 - Enabling Technologies Charter Charter Establish the basic technologies that may provide the foundation for important advances in HEC capability, and determine the critical tasks required...
  • The Evolution of Management Thought

    The Evolution of Management Thought

    General Systems Theory (cont'd) Closed Versus Open Systems. Closed system: A self-sufficient entity. Open system: Depends on its surrounding environment for survival. New Directions in Systems Thinking. Organizational learning and knowledge management - Organizations are living and thinking open systems...
  • Preparing for Phase Delivery Chronos Technology: COMPANY PROPRIETARY

    Preparing for Phase Delivery Chronos Technology: COMPANY PROPRIETARY

    Why prepare for Phase? Phase must be supported… When TDD technology is deployed. When some LTE-A services are to be offered . Our industry does not expect this to be as trivial as supporting Frequency over PTP proved to be
  • Chapter 10 Cell Growth and Division

    Chapter 10 Cell Growth and Division

    Identify and draw stages of meiosis. Determine ploidy and chromosome number for different stages of meiosis. Distinguish between somatic cells and gametes, and give examples. Describe the phenomena of independent assortment and crossing over, and explain their significance. Compare and...
  • Contents Message from the Principal 3 Message from

    Contents Message from the Principal 3 Message from

    To complement the whole school planning documents students were tested using PAT Reading (PATR). This whole school test provided a baseline for student reading achievement. ... Baseline testing through ACER's Social-Emotional Wellbeing Survey from Years 2-6 was conducted to identify...
  • Software Engineering Lecture Slides

    Software Engineering Lecture Slides

    * Context Diagram: DVD Player eject (?) start stop eject load enable disable enable disable activate shut down Power button Play button Eject button Disc tray Display activate shut down notify notify Context diagram symbols: A box with a double...
  • Overview - University of Warwick

    Overview - University of Warwick

    The High Career Dream: A career counselling modelThe impact of a career counselling model and the implications for HE Guidance Services . Orlaith Tunney, [email protected] Careers Adviser. Trinity College Dublin. Warwick University, 22nd May 2014
  • Developing Resilience through PE - SASP

    Developing Resilience through PE - SASP

    Benefits may depend on mental features; such as planning, self-reflection and personal agency. Success in areas outside the family (such as schools) may foster these features. Individual differences in response to challenges are influenced by genetic factors. Resilience is not...