Persuasive Writing Nat 5 - Higher Learning Intentions To understand what structure is expected in a piece of persuasive writing. To understand which techniques are used to persuade.
To consider potential topics for a persuasive piece of writing. Lesson 1 - What is persuasive writing? Discuss: Where might we see persuasion being used? explores a controversial issue in depth uses research and supporting
evidence is carefully structured is a more emotional way of writing Argumentative Persuasive * writer remains neutral and detached from * writers personality and opinions are clear
the topic * all sides of the argument are treated equally (unbiased) * all sides of the argument are looked at, but one side is favoured more than others (biased) * points are listed sequentially with the most important points first * points are structured logically to build up a line of argument * uses information to inform the reader of all the relevant issues.
* uses information and persuasive language to persuade the reader of the writers opinion Planning your piece Before you write, you need the following: TOPIC: the issue you are writing about STANCE: what you are actually trying to persuade the reader of
POINTS: the arguments or opinions you will put forward to support your stance Choosing a TOPIC Your topic must be: controversial and open to debate topical and worth writing about now
interesting to you and the reader original and not an overdone topic allows you to research and develop deep knowledge and genuine insight Overdone Topics * Social media * Technologys negative
impact on society * Orcas in captivity * Euthanasia * Capital punishment * Cosmetic surgery * Reality TV/talent shows * Size zero models * Illegal downloading * Footballers wages * Legalising cannabis
* Gun laws in America * School uniform * Goal-line technology * Scottish independence * Animal testing/cruelty * Abortion Original Topics Overdue: libraries must evolve to survive Ex-rated: the BBFC is an anachronism Suckers in love: how Twilight creates
unrealistic expectations of men The apostrophes had its day Time of tragedy: the minutes silence is being over-used and undermined. Up the Amazon: why the worlds largest retailer doesnt deserve its bad Mirror, Mirror, on every wall: Disney rep princess cultures negative influence on young girls Lose the loose change: its time to scrap the penny Poor Odds: the lottery is statesanctioned exploitation of the poor Dont save the panda: classic overreactions to climate change
Who will Avenge us?: Hollywoods failure of female superheroes Note to selfie: the role of the selfie in the decline of youth The good fight: you can be a pacifist and still enjoy military gaming Glamazons at Glastonbury: since when were music festivals al fresco fashion shows? Task 1 In your groups, brainstorm some original topics.
Think about your interests or what annoys you. Try to come up with 5 or 6 good ideas. POINTS Some of the most common feedback given to students is: your line of argument is weak. This usually means the points have not been planned out. Points are the arguments or opinions you will put forward to support your stance. They should be written as brief statements when planning (not questions) Your points should flow logically, linking together, each building on
the last, to lead towards your conclusion. Example POINTS STANCE: we should get rid of the 1p coin 1) We are an increasingly cash-less society: debit cards, ebanking, etc. 2) When we do pay with cash, we rarely have the chance to use coppers - inflation means even penny sweets dont cost 1p any more! 3) So coppers build up in piggy banks and pockets and are never spent - so many coins out of circulation is pointless 4) Not only pointless, but also an expensive waste: costs the Royal Mint millions to produce them every year Task 2
Read your groups article and answer the following questions: 1) What is the writers topic and stance? 2) What are the writers 3 main points? 3) Does the writer oppose any counter arguments? LESSON 3 Researching your topic Supporting evidence This is information that backs up or emphasises your points. You should use a variety of types of evidence. Types of evidence include: * Facts * Statistics
* Anecdotes, case studies, examples, illustrations * Quotations from respected authority figures or experts. * Quotations from broadsheet newspaper articles on the topic. Referencing your sources The web links for the websites where you find your evidence should be written down in your bibliography. You should keep a note of these during the planning process as it will save you a lot of time and effort later on. You should also write down the date you accessed the information. You should set each web address like this: Author of website, Name of website, URL, [Accessed: give date] Footnotes
Footnotes are used to help the reader work out where particular pieces of evidence came from. They make your piece look a lot more professional and reduce the risk of you being accused of plagiarism. On a PC (Word) On a Mac (Pages) 1) Put the cursor after the piece of evidence. 2) Click the Insert tab at the top of the page. 3) Click on Insert footnote - NOT Insert endnote 4) Paste the URL of the webpage you got that bit of evidence from.
1) Put the cursor after the piece of evidence. 2) Click the Insert menu at the top of the screen. 3) Scroll down and select the Footnote option. 4) Paste the URL of the webpage you got that bit of evidence from. Create a skeleton plan 1) Write your stance as a heading. 2) Write your points (in simple statements) as subheadings 3) Underneath each point, bullet point your supporting evidence This will be the bones of your essay. Once you have your skeleton plan, youre 70% of the way there: all
you need to do is flesh it out with persuasive language and rhetorical devices! Lesson 4 Persuasive Techniques Word choice Word choice is the easiest way to make your writing more persuasive. By choosing particular words, you can portray your subject in a
negative or positive light. This shows your opinion/stance without having to tell the reader explicitly. Emotive language Words designed to convey emotion to the reader, or create motion in the reader, through their strong connotations. fleeing, destroyed, defenceless, vile, cheats, frail, thug, yob, victim, tragic, sick, cruel, barbaric, savage, lonely, vulnerable, beast, immoral, struggle, hate crime, ravaged, stranglehold, historic, monumental, inspirational, liberated, innocent, adored, sanctuary, idyllic, homely, cosy, joyous... Sentence Structures * should be varied to create interest and flow.
* should also be used for emphasis. * can also be used for balance or to show contrast. Simple sentences and minor sentences It is barbaric. It must be stopped. Now. A face so handsome. A voice so smooth. Ah, my hero! Yeah. Ok. Whatever you say. Compound sentences using conjunctions I have faith in our nation because history has shown that good usually triumphs over evil in these situations. The evidence was unclear yet the decision went ahead. Short sentence after a long one My daughter despite owning many dolls and books about ballerinas, many shiny and sparkly garments and other glittery, stereotypically girlish fare would much rather build a skyscraper
out of Legos or read about how to expand her game play on the coding app Hopscotch. And I, for one, couldnt be happier about it. Single sentence paragraph Sentential adverbs (a single word or phrase that interrupts the sentence for emphasis) But the weapons did not, in fact, exist. The evidence was, without doubt, a fabrication. In short, we were tricked. Rhetorical Devices Imagery Use of similes, metaphors, personification. If we are all soldiers in the war against drugs, we can force the army of drug pushers into retreat. Parenthesis
Interrupting a sentence to insert a further explanation or aside in dashes or brackets. Usually used to add extra information which helps convey tone. Triple Statements sound more powerful when put in threes. An increase in the numbers of policemen will lead to safer streets, safer cities and a safer society. Rhetorical Question A question which doesnt require an answer as it may be implied or known to the reader. Repetition These questions focus the reader to think about where they stand and hopefully agree with the point youre making. Use them sparingly and at a place were it is likely they will agree. Surely displaying respect to all faiths in The Land of the Free is the perfect retort to the intolerance, violence and limited world view of the jihadists?
Hyperbole/Exaggeration Overstating can be effective in creating humour while illustrating flaws in the opposing argument. While having a fleet of new and shiny massive aircraft carriers to sail around the worlds island or coastal hotspots is all well and good, we cannot have this at the expense of soldiers in Afghanistan making do with old tin trays in their Land Rovers as protection against road side bombs. Lesson 5 Writing your introduction Introduction Your intro should: * Show you can write with style. * Make it clear what your issue is and show your stance.
* Show the issue is important - topical/contemporary/of the moment/affects everyone/has been ignored/or is going unnoticed/under-the-radar/deserves attention * Show it is of intense personal significance to you Provocative Good types of intro? e.g."It is difficult to see how anyone can approve of fox hunting." Humorous Start by looking at the topic in a humorous way - either by mocking it or making fun of yourself. Quotation
e.g."Oscar Wilde once described fox hunting as 'The unspeakable in pursuit of the uneatable.'." Illustration e.g."On a glorious autumn morning a terrified, exhausted animal is savaged to death by a pack of baying dogs while a group of expensively dressed humans encourage the dogs in their bloody work." Anecdote e.g."I have always detested fox hunting since I was almost physically sick while watching a television film of the kill at the end of a hunt." What to avoid * Dont use a rhetorical question to introduce your topic. * Dont go into specific details about particular points or evidence keep it broad.
* Dont be wishy-washy by saying things like :This is a topic about which there are many different opinions on both sides. * Avoid the first person unless you are deliberately using a personal anecdote or conversational tone. * Dont talk about your own essay (In this essay Im going to) Task 1 You are about to read 8 introductions on a variety of topics. For each, your pair must tell me what the topic is and why the intro is effective.
Following her victorious second round match at the 2015 Australian Open tennis tournament, female tennis player Eugenie Bouchard was completing an interview when male presenter Ian Cohen demanded that she give us a twirl. Initially stunned by his request, she hesitated before reluctantly obeying him. Before this, Cohen had also asked Serena Williams for a twirl but did he ask Andy Murray for a twirl to show off his boxers? Even now, there is not a level playing field regarding gender. What is effective about this intro? Picture this: a peaceful countryside landscape with luscious green fields and woodland. Then, the tranquillity
is ruined by the sound of gunfire and the piercing scream of an animal in its dying breaths. This is the harsh reality of our countryside. Every day badgers lives are threatened due to the cull the government so imprudently enacted. Britain's MPs and population were deceived into approving a policy that could send a third of the nations badgers to their deaths: they were misled by the scientific case that backed the policy from day one. The same policy which Lord Robert May, a former government chief scientist, claimed simply "does not make sense". What is effective about this intro? We share 96% of our genomes with chimpanzees. A mere 4% separates us from them on a genetic level so why are we so massively different from them? We are the only species on the planet
that have the ability to not only use tools, but improve on those tools generation after generation. We have put a man on the moon, created plastics, computers, synthetic fibres and the Internet while our evolutionary cousins have contented themselves with the all-be-it impressive feat of using stones to crack open nuts. So what separates us from the animal kingdom? What gives us the ability to strive further and further away from them? Collective learning. The ability to gather and improve on information given to us by our ancestors is a gift given to us either by an evolutionary quirk or a divine being and should be treated as such. A gift. The education system here in Scotland is failing to treat this unique and aweinspiring feat with the respect it deserves. Education not only splits us from the rest of the animals, our future as a race depends on it to grow and possibly even survive. What is effective about this intro?
Its become a familiar experience to the 21st-century cinemagoer: that nagging feeling of deja vu in the multiplex, the sense that one is seeing the same movie over and over again. This is hardly surprising given seven of last years 10 highest-grossing films were either remakes, sequels or set in a pre-existing cinematic universe. Hollywood has become perhaps always has been a cultural Mobius strip, doomed to eternally travel the same path, only ever shifting its trajectory slightly; an old scratched, warped record that never plays quite the same way twice. What is effective about this intro? Picture this. Its the story of a family man, a man of science, a genius who fell in with the wrong crowd. He
slowly descends into madness and desperation, lead by his own egotism. With one mishap after another, he becomes a monster. Im talking, of course, about Friends and its tragic hero, Ross Geller. You may see it as a comedy, but I cannot laugh with you. To me, Friends signals a harsh embrace of anti-intellectualism in America, where a gifted and intelligent man is persecuted by his idiot compatriots. And even if you see it from my point of view, it doesnt matter. The constant barrage of laughter from the live studio audience will remind us that our own reactions are unnecessary, redundant. What is effective about this intro? What is it like to look at the very last of something? To contemplate the passing of a unique wonder that will
soon vanish from the face of the earth? You are seeing it. Sudan is the last male northern white rhino on the planet. If he does not mate successfully soon with one of two female northern white rhinos at Ol Pejeta conservancy, there will be no more of their kind, male or female, born anywhere. And it seems a slim chance, as Sudan is getting old at 42 and breeding efforts have so far failed. Apart from these three animals there are only two other northern white rhinos in the world, both in zoos, both female. Having lost so much already, the world cant afford to lose the white rhino. What is effective about this intro? I dont like white women. Whenever I say that, white women look at me like I just decapitated Taylor Swift. If Im being honest, their
reaction is part of the reason I say it. But rest assured, its not the only reason. I dont like white women because Im not particularly fond of the construct of whiteness or what it represents. I also dont appreciate those who are complicit in my oppression and benefit from it. When I say I dont like white women, its not in reference to any specific white woman. Its a declaration that white women pose a very real threat to my existence, and I dont have to embrace that threat with open arms. You have to earn my fondness. This goes for several other groups, obviously, but for some reason white women seem the most baffled by it. Whenever I meet a white woman whos not baffled by it, we instantly become friends. Those are the white women I like. What is effective about this intro? Task 1
Write an introduction for your topic. It should be at least 150 words long and use at least two of the techniques suggested. Lesson 5 Writing your main body Main paragraphs
There is no specific way of structuring your main paragraphs as the best pieces flow instinctively. However, its suggested that you loosely follow the following structure: Statement of your point Explain or expand on this point Evidence to back up your point Example from an essay entitled Ban the Burqa in Britain? No
thanks. Extremism aside, the veil is a garment that makes many Europeans uncomfortable , for the simple reason that it is not European. Fair enough. However, discomfort is not an adequate reason to ban something and alienate a culture, as Daisy Goodwin points out in her article Seeing through the burqa ban. For her, a ban cannot be justified simply because their adoption of a medieval style of tribal dress makes me feel uncomfortable. If that were the case, where would the bans stop? Facial piercings? Tattoos? Sure, criticisms of the veil can and definitely should be made, and under no circumstances should anyone be forced into wearing it. However, by the same token no one should be forbidden from choosing to wear it choosing being the operative word, as fundamentally it should be a choice. Britain prides itself on being a diverse and free society, and thus a ban would be utterly contradictory and in the words of Ed Balls not British.
Conclusion The conclusion is the climax of your whole argument. Its where all of your points have been leading. You should: * draw your points together into a final overview of the situation/issue * step back from the individual details and place the whole issue back in its wider context * consider the future: What will happen? Where are we headed? What should happen? * End it with a call to action, warning or ultimatum. * End on a powerful image or analogy (comparison between one thing and another to help clarify a point) * Address the reader directly. * End with a catchy phrase, quotation or pun. What to avoid in your
conclusion Dont just repeat the points you made in your essay. Zoom out and draw them together into a broader overview. Dont introduce new ideas or points. Dont be vague: Only time will tellwell have to see Dont end on a question. Dont talk about your own essay (As I have shown in this essay) Carrie Fisher and the character of Princess Leia, who Fisher confessed eventually melded into her, encapsulated the ideology of a modern woman who could think for herself and not bow to patriarchal agendas or stereotypes. The two broke the mould of feminine expectations, where Fisher, a strong champion of feminism taught young women that nothing should stop them from being themselves. Princess Leia delivered
immortality to Carrie Fisher. Her passing is a monumental loss not only to cinema, but to generations of women who were taught the importance of carving their own identities, distinct from men. In short, Carrie Fisher gave our gender something we can never repay: a new hope. Why is this an effective way of ending the piece of writing? Read a book. Learn something. Stop buying so much crap. Protect the nerds. A computer programmer from Seattle is doing more to alleviate world poverty, hunger, and disease through the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation than any other person in America right now. Nerds create vaccines. Nerds engineer bridges and roadways. Nerds become teachers and librarians. We need those
obnoxiously smart people, because they make the world a better place. We cant have them cowering before a society that rolls their eyes at every word they say. Ross needs better friends. Why is this an effective way of ending the piece of writing? So why do we continue with a cull: a cull which is foolish, ludicrous and senseless? To put it simply, we are too easily deceived by scientific facts that do not truly represent what we are led to believe. Not only is the government targeting the wrong species but it refuses to accept that an error was made - an error which is proving fatal for our countrys badgers. Unwilling to come to terms with the fact that there is a cheaper, more sustainable way to solve the colossal issue that is bovine
Tuberculosis, they turn a blind eye to the unimaginable pain that these animals suffer due to poor execution of the cull. All we must do is make a small change in our law that will save thousands of badgers from paying the ultimate price. Why is this an effective way of ending the piece of writing? Coming up with a title The title will be the first words the reader sees and needs to send a strong signal to them about the quality and content of your essay. A title can:
Common language techniques which gain the readers attention: * create immediate impact * show your intelligence * make the reader think * provoke emotions such as anger, shock, disgust * be humorous * convey your opinion * make your issue clear * * * *
* * * * * Alliteration Questions Rhyme Repetition Emotive language Creative punctuation Quote Unusual use of words Pun (a joke exploiting the different possible meanings of a word)
Examples Glamazons at Glastonbury Note to selfie Grade A Rubbish Universities should be Universal Lose the loose change Bent Business of the Banana Trade Mirror, mirror, on every wall Who will Avenge us? KO is not OK There Lies Sense in Defence The Toupee that runs the USA Rotten to the Core A Book a Day Keeps the Emojis away
An essay on how music festivals have become all about the fashion An essay on the selfies role in decline of todays youth An essay on the failings of Curriculum for Excellence An essay on removing tuition fees at universities An essay on why we should get rid of the 1p coin An essay on why we should encourage fair trade An essay on Disney princess cultures negative influence on young girls An essay on how Hollywood has let down female superheroes An essay on the negative side of boxing An essay on why we need to increase the defence budget An essay on the falsities of Donald Trump An essay criticising Apples imagination drought An essay on anti-intellectualism in todays youth
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