Part 2 Endocrine System for Website Growth Hormone (GH) GH release is regulated by Growth hormonereleasing hormone (GHRH) Growth hormoneinhibiting hormone (GHIH) (somatostatin) Actions of Growth Hormone* Direct action of GH Stimulates liver, skeletal muscle, bone, and cartilage to produce insulin-like growth factors
Mobilizes fats, elevates blood glucose by decreasing glucose uptake and encouraging glycogen breakdown (anti-insulin effect of GH) Homeostatic Imbalances of Growth Hormone* Hypersecretion In children results in gigantism In adults results in acromegaly Hyposecretion In children results in pituitary dwarfism
A teenager from India who stands at a tiny 1ft 11in (58cm) tall is the smallest girl in the world. Jyoti Amge, 14, is shorter than the average two-year-old child and only weighs 11lb (5kg). Doctors believe Jyoti is a pituitary dwarf but have never been able to pinpoint her condition.Such dwarfism is caused when the body fails to produce enough growth hormone. Robert Wadlow, the tallest man known to have lived (2.72 m) (8 ft 11 in)with his father, Harold Wadlow (1.82 m) (5 ft 11 1/2 in)
Robert Wadlows shoe, size 37AA beside a size 12. Inhibits GHRH release Stimulates GHIH release Inhibits GH synthesis and release Feedback
Anterior pituitary Hypothalamus secretes growth hormonereleasing hormone (GHRH), and somatostatin (GHIH) Growth hormone Direct actions (metabolic,
anti-insulin) Indirect actions (growthpromoting) Liver and other tissues Produce Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) Effects
Increased cartilage formation and skeletal growth Increased protein synthesis, and cell growth and proliferation Increased fat breakdown and release
Increased blood glucose and other anti-insulin effects Reduces, inhibits Initial stimulus Physiological response Result Figure 16.6
Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (Thyrotropin) Produced by thyrotrophs of the anterior pituitary Stimulates the normal development and secretory activity of the thyroid Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (Thyrotropin) Regulation of TSH release Stimulated by thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) Inhibited by rising blood levels of thyroid hormones that act on the pituitary and hypothalamus
Figure 16.7 Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (Corticotropin) Secreted by the anterior pituitary Stimulates the adrenal cortex to release corticosteroids Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (Corticotropin) Regulation of ACTH release Triggered by hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in a daily rhythm
Internal and external factors such as fever, hypoglycemia, and stressors can alter the release of CRH Gonadotropins Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) Secreted by gonadotrophs of the anterior pituitary FSH stimulates gamete (egg or sperm) production LH promotes production of gonadal hormones Absent from the blood in prepubertal boys and girls Gonadotropins Regulation of gonadotropin release
Triggered by the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) during and after puberty Suppressed by gonadal hormones (feedback) Prolactin (PRL) Secreted by lactotrophs of the anterior pituitary Stimulates milk production Oxytocin Stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth by mobilizing Ca2+ through a PIP2-Ca2+ second-messenger system Also triggers milk ejection (letdown reflex) in women producing
milk Plays a role in sexual arousal in males and females genetic differences in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) have been associated with maladaptive social traits such as aggressive behaviour. The Posterior Pituitary Contains axons of hypothalamic neurons Stores antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin ADH and oxytocin are released in response to nerve impulses Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
*Hypothalamic osmoreceptors respond to changes in the solute concentration of the blood If solute concentration is high Osmoreceptors depolarize and transmit impulses to hypothalamic neurons ADH is synthesized and released, inhibiting urine formation Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)* If solute concentration is low ADH is not released, allowing water loss Alcohol inhibits ADH release and causes copious urine output
Homeostatic Imbalances of ADH* ADH deficiencydiabetes insipidus; huge output of urine and intense thirst ADH hypersecretion (after neurosurgery, trauma, or secreted by cancer cells)syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH) Thyroid Gland Consists of two lateral lobes connected by a median mass called the isthmus Composed of follicles that produce the glycoprotein thyroglobulin Figure 16.8
Thyroid Hormone (TH) Actually two related compounds T4 (thyroxine); has 2 tyrosine molecules + 4 bound iodine atoms T3 (triiodothyronine); has 2 tyrosines + 3 bound iodine atoms Thyroid Hormone Major metabolic hormone Increases metabolic rate and heat production (calorigenic effect) Requires iodine Plays a role in
Maintenance of blood pressure Regulation of tissue growth Development of skeletal and nervous systems Reproductive capabilities Transport and Regulation of TH T4 and T3 are transported by thyroxine-binding globulins (TBGs) Both bind to target receptors, but T3 is ten times more active than T4
Peripheral tissues convert T4 to T3 Transport and Regulation of TH Negative feedback regulation of TH release Rising TH levels provide negative feedback inhibition on release of TSH Hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) can overcome the negative feedback during pregnancy or exposure to cold Hypothalamus TRH Anterior pituitary TSH
Thyroid gland Thyroid hormones Target cells Stimulates Inhibits Figure 16.7 Homeostatic Imbalances of TH Hyposecretion in adultsmyxedema; endemic goiter if due to lack of iodine
Hyposecretion in infantscretinism HypersecretionGraves disease Figure 16.10 Calcitonin Produced by parafollicular (C) cells Antagonist to parathyroid hormone (PTH) Inhibits osteoclast activity and release of Ca2+ from bone matrix Calcitonin Stimulates Ca2+ uptake and incorporation into bone matrix
Regulated by a humoral (Ca2+ concentration in the blood) negative feedback mechanism No important role in humans; removal of thyroid (and its C cells) does not affect Ca2+ homeostasis *Hormonal Control of Blood Ca2+ Calcium is necessary for
Transmission of nerve impulses Muscle contraction Blood coagulation Secretion by glands and nerve cells Cell division Hormonal Control of Blood Ca2+ Primarily controlled by parathyroid hormone (PTH) Blood Ca2+ levels Parathyroid glands release PTH
PTH stimulates osteoclasts to degrade bone matrix and release Ca2+ Blood Ca2+ levels BALANCE Calcium homeostasis of blood: 911 mg/100 ml BALANCE Stimulus
Falling blood Ca2+ levels Thyroid gland Osteoclasts degrade bone matrix and release Ca2+ into blood. Parathyroid
glands PTH Parathyroid glands release parathyroid hormone (PTH). Figure 6.12 Hormonal Control of Blood Ca2+ May be affected to a lesser extent by calcitonin Blood Ca2+ levels
Parafollicular cells of thyroid release calcitonin Osteoblasts deposit calcium salts Blood Ca2+ levels Leptin has also been shown to influence bone density by inhibiting osteoblasts Parathyroid Glands Four to eight tiny glands embedded in the posterior aspect of the
thyroid Contain oxyphil cells (function unknown) and chief cells that secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH) or parathormone PTHmost important hormone in Ca2+ homeostasis Pharynx (posterior aspect) Thyroid gland Parathyroid glands
Capillary (b) Figure 16.11 Parathyroid Hormone* Functions Stimulates osteoclasts to digest bone matrix Enhances reabsorption of Ca2+ and secretion of phosphate by the kidneys Promotes activation of vitamin D (by the kidneys); increases absorption of Ca2+ by intestinal mucosa
Negative feedback control: rising Ca2+ in the blood inhibits PTH release Hypocalcemia (low blood Ca2+) stimulates parathyroid glands to release PTH. Rising Ca2+ in blood inhibits PTH release. Bone 1 PTH activates osteoclasts: Ca2+
and PO43S released into blood. Kidney 2 PTH increases 2+ Ca reabsorption in kidney tubules. 3 PTH promotes kidneys activation of vitamin D, which increases Ca2+ absorption from food.
Intestine Ca2+ ions PTH Molecules Bloodstream Figure 16.12 Adrenal (Suprarenal) Glands Paired, pyramid-shaped organs atop the kidneys Structurally and functionally, they are two glands in one Adrenal medullanervous tissue; part of the sympathetic nervous system
Adrenal cortex outer layer Adrenal Cortex* Mineralocorticoids Glucocorticoids sex hormones, or gonadocorticoids Capsule Zona glomerulosa Medulla
Cortex Cortex Adrenal gland Zona fasciculata Zona reticularis
Medulla Kidney Adrenal medulla (a) Drawing of the histology of the adrenal cortex and a portion of the adrenal medulla Figure 16.13a
Mineralocorticoids Regulate electrolytes (primarily Na+ and K+) in ECF* Importance of Na+: affects ECF volume, blood volume, blood pressure, levels of other ions Importance of K+: sets RMP of cells Aldosterone is the most potent mineralocorticoid * Stimulates Na+ reabsorption and water retention by the kidneys Primary regulators Blood volume and/or blood
pressure Other factors K+ in blood Stress Blood pressure and/or blood volume Hypothalamus
Kidney Heart CRH Renin Initiates cascade that produces
Direct stimulating effect Anterior pituitary Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) ACTH
Angiotensin II Inhibitory effect Zona glomerulosa of adrenal cortex Enhanced secretion of aldosterone Targets kidney tubules
Absorption of Na+ and water; increased K+ excretion Blood volume and/or blood pressure Figure 16.14 Homeostatic Imbalances of Aldosterone Aldosteronismhypersecretion due to adrenal tumors
Hypertension and edema due to excessive Na+ Excretion of K+ leading to abnormal function of neurons and muscle Glucocorticoids (Cortisol)* Keep blood sugar levels relatively constant Maintain blood pressure by increasing the action of vasoconstrictors Glucocorticoids (Cortisol) Cortisol is the most significant glucocorticoid Prime metabolic effect is gluconeogenesisformation of glucose from fats and proteins Promotes rises in blood glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids
Homeostatic Imbalances of Glucocorticoids* HypersecretionCushings syndrome Depresses cartilage and bone formation Inhibits inflammation Depresses the immune system
Promotes changes in cardiovascular, neural, and gastrointestinal function HyposecretionAddisons disease Also involves deficits in mineralocorticoids Decrease in glucose and Na+ levels Weight loss, severe dehydration, and hypotension Figure 16.15 Gonadocorticoids (Sex Hormones) Most are androgens (male sex hormones) that are converted to testosterone in tissue cells or estrogens in females
May contribute to The onset of puberty The appearance of secondary sex characteristics Sex drive Adrenal Medulla Chromaffin cells secrete epinephrine (80%) and norepinephrine (20%) These hormones cause
Blood glucose levels to rise Blood vessels to constrict The heart to beat faster Blood to be diverted to the brain, heart, and skeletal muscle Adrenal Medulla Epinephrine stimulates metabolic activities, bronchial dilation, and blood flow to skeletal muscles and the heart Norepinephrine influences peripheral vasoconstriction and blood pressure
Corticotroph cells of anterior pituitary To target in blood Preganglionic sympathetic fibers Adrenal medulla (secretes amino acidbased hormones) Catecholamines (epinephrine and
norepinephrine) Short-term stress response 1. Increased heart rate 2. Increased blood pressure 3. Liver converts glycogen to glucose and releases glucose to blood 4. Dilation of bronchioles 5. Changes in blood flow patterns leading to decreased digestive system activity and reduced urine output 6. Increased metabolic rate Adrenal cortex
(secretes steroid hormones) ACTH Mineralocorticoids Glucocorticoids Long-term stress response 1. Retention of sodium and water by kidneys 2. Increased blood volume
and blood pressure 1. Proteins and fats converted to glucose or broken down for energy 2. Increased blood glucose 3. Suppression of immune system Figure 16.16 Pineal Gland*
Small gland hanging from the roof of the third ventricle Pinealocytes secrete melatonin, derived from serotonin Melatonin may affect Timing of sexual maturation and puberty Day/night cycles Physiological processes that show rhythmic variations (body temperature, sleep, appetite) Pancreas* Triangular gland behind the stomach Has both exocrine and endocrine cells Acinar cells (exocrine) produce an enzyme-rich juice for digestion
Pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans) contain endocrine cells Alpha () cells produce glucagon (a hyperglycemic hormone) Beta () cells produce insulin (a hypoglycemic hormone) Pancreatic islet (of Langerhans) (Glucagonproducing) cells (Insulinproducing) cells
Pancreatic acinar cells (exocrine) Figure 16.17 Glucagon* Major target is the liver, where it promotes Glycogenolysisbreakdown of glycogen to glucose Gluconeogenesissynthesis of glucose from lactic acid and noncarbohydrates Release of glucose to the blood Insulin*
Effects of insulin Lowers blood glucose levels Enhances membrane transport of glucose into fat and muscle cells Participates in neuronal development and learning and memory Stimulates glucose uptake by cells Tissue cells Insulin Pancreas
Stimulates glycogen formation Glucose Glycogen Blood glucose falls to normal range. Liver
Stimulus Blood glucose level Stimulus Blood glucose level Blood glucose rises to normal range.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) Due to hyposecretion or hypoactivity of insulin Three cardinal signs of DM Polyuriahuge urine output Polydipsiaexcessive thirst Polyphagiaexcessive hunger and food consumption Hyperinsulinism: Excessive insulin secretion; results in hypoglycemia, disorientation, unconsciousness Table 16.4
Ovaries and Placenta Gonads produce steroid sex hormones Ovaries produce estrogens and progesterone responsible for: Maturation of female reproductive organs Appearance of female secondary sexual characteristics Breast development and cyclic changes in the uterine mucosa The placenta secretes estrogens, progesterone, and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) Testes
Testes produce testosterone that Initiates maturation of male reproductive organs Causes appearance of male secondary sexual characteristics and sex drive Is necessary for normal sperm production Maintains reproductive organs in their functional state Other Hormone-Producing
Structures Heart Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) reduces blood pressure, blood volume, and blood Na+ concentration Gastrointestinal tract enteroendocrine cells Gastrin stimulates release of HCl Secretin stimulates liver and pancreas Cholecystokinin stimulates pancreas, gallbladder, and hepatopancreatic sphincter Other Hormone-Producing
Structures Kidneys Erythropoietin signals production of red blood cells Renin initiates the renin-angiotensin mechanism Skin Cholecalciferol, the precursor of vitamin D Adipose tissue Leptin is involved in appetite control, and stimulates increased energy expenditure
Other Hormone-Producing Structures Skeleton (osteoblasts) Osteocalcin prods pancreatic beta cells to divide and secrete more insulin, improving glucose handling and reducing body fat Thymus Thymulin, thymopoietins, and thymosins are involved in normal the development of the T lymphocytes in the immune response Developmental Aspects* Hormone-producing glands arise from all three germ layers
Exposure to pesticides, industrial chemicals, arsenic, dioxin, and soil and water pollutants disrupts hormone function Sex hormones, thyroid hormone, and glucocorticoids are vulnerable to the effects of pollutants Interference with glucocorticoids may help explain high cancer rates in certain areas Developmental Aspects* Ovaries undergo significant changes with age and become unresponsive to gonadotropins; problems associated with estrogen deficiency begin to occur Testosterone also diminishes with age, but effect is
not usually seen until very old age Developmental Aspects* GH levels decline with age and this accounts for muscle atrophy with age TH declines with age, contributing to lower basal metabolic rates PTH levels remain fairly constant with age, but lack of estrogen in older women makes them more vulnerable to bone-demineralizing effects of PTH
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