Overview of the EU situation as regard the Landfill Directive and its specified targets Dr V.J.Inglezakis Chemical Engineer (MSc, PhD) TAIEX Workshop on Waste Sofia, 21-22 July 2009 Chemical Engineer, MSc and PhD in Chemical Engineering Resident Twinning Advisor (PAA/RTA) in Slovakia (2004-2005) and in Romania (2006-2007) for the implementation of the EU environmental legislation Short-term expert (STE) in other Twinning, TW Light, TA etc Projects (IPPC/China, ELVs/Romania, Hazardous Waste/Latvia, Domestic Waste/Romania, IPPC & SEVESO/Russia and others)
Research Staff of NTUA/UEST (Athens/Greece) Collaborator of Ministries (Romania/Greece) The framework in waste management Framework Legislation Waste Framework Dir. (Dir.2008/98) Hazardous Waste Directive Waste Shipment Regulation Dir.91/689/EEC (Reg. (EEC) 259/93, revised Reg. (EC) 1013/2006 Waste Treatment Operations Incineration Recycling
Landfill 89/369 & 429 (MW) 94/67 (HW) Replaced by 2000/76/EC EU Standards, , as part of Recycling Strategy 99/31/EC Waste Streams Waste oils Dir 75/439/EEC repeal with WFD revision Titanium Dioxide Dir 78/176/EEC Sewage Sludge Dir. 86/278/EEC
Up-date in Simplify in 2007 2006 Batteries and Packaging Accumulators and Packaging Dir. 91/157/EEC & 93/86/EEC Waste COM(2003)723 Dir. 94/62/EC New proposal in co-decision PCBs Dir.96/59/EC End-of-life Vehicles Dir 2000/53 EC Waste electric and electronic
equipment Restriction of Hazardous Substances Dir.2002/95EC Dir.2002/95EC Mining Waste Dir 2006/21/EC Solid Waste Legislation Timeline Packaging Waste, Waste Catalogue, Hazardous Waste List 1st Waste Directive 1975 Titanium Dioxide Directive 1980
TFS 2 WEEE RoHS Incineration Directive PRODUCER RESPONSIBILITY INATITIVES PRODUCER RESPONSIBILITY INATITIVES (PCBS, BATTERIES, ..) (WEEE, ELV, ..) Important Definitions (Directive 2008/98/EC) Recycling: means any recovery operation by which waste materials are reprocessed into products, materials or substances whether for the original or other purposes. It includes the reprocessing of organic material but does not include energy recovery and the reprocessing into materials that are to be used as fuels or for backfilling operations;
Reuse: means any operation by which products or components that are not waste are used again for the same purpose for which they were conceived Recovery: Disposal: means any operation which is not recovery even where the means any operation the principal result of which is waste serving a useful purpose by replacing other materials which would otherwise have been used to fulfil a particular function, or waste being prepared to fulfil that function, in the plant or in the wider economy. Annex II sets out a non-exhaustive list of recovery operations; This includes incineration facilities dedicated to the processing of municipal solid waste only where their energy efficiency is equal to or above 0.60-0.65. operation has as a secondary consequence the reclamation of substances or energy. Annex I sets out a non-exhaustive list of disposal operations; European Waste Hierarchy Municipal Solid Waste
Avoidance Reuse Recycling Recovery Disposal Number of existing landfills in EU-15 (as per 2006): 10.206 62% for non-hazardous waste (6.286) 33% for inert waste (3.416) 5% for hazardous waste (504) Waste Acceptance Criteria (Decision 33/2003) A simplified sketch of a waste management system and the objectives of landfill policy One of the organization schemes Inter-municipal waste management company New landfill
Legal acts County Cash flow Municipalities Closed landfills Waste flow Composting sites Bulky waste sites Waste collectors Waste producers The Landfill Directive 1999/31/EC and its targets General Targets To reduce biodegradable waste going to landfill to 75% of 1995 figures by 2010 and to 35% by 2020 (this included paper, card, food, garden waste and organic textiles)
The regulations aim to reduce the volume of waste and increase recycling rates. Composting and careful segregation of waste types for recycling will need to be encouraged to fulfill the targets. To ban the co-disposal of hazardous and non-hazardous waste. Three separate landfill types will be required for hazardous, non-hazardous and inert wastes. The requirement to treat most wastes before they are landfilled. To ban the disposal of whole tyres at landill sites by 2003, and by 2006 tyre granules will not be allowed in landfills. To ban landfilling of liquid wastes, certain clinical waste and certain hazardous wastes. Increase the level of control, monitoring and reporting at landill sites. 13 Key elements of the Landfill Directive Reduction targets for the landfilling of biodegradable waste (based on data for 1995):
75 % by 2006 50 % by 2009 35 % by 2016 Sewage sludge is not biodegradable municipal waste! The 2016 target already reached by AT, BE, DK, DE, NL and SE. The 2009 target reached by FR, IT and FI are close to it. The 2006 target has not been reached by ES, PT, IE, UK, GR Reduction targets for biodegradable municipal waste (Article 5) of amounts stated 1995 in EUROSTAT (or latest year before) 2006/ 75% 2010* 2009/ 50% FI, IT
2013* FR Reached aim already in 2003 2016/ 35% 2020* AT, BE (Flan.), DE, DK, NL,SE * Countries which put more than 80% of Municipal Waste (EUROSTAT 1995) into landfills may extend the period for maximal 4 years (Applies e.g. for: UK, ES, all 10 new MS) Targets to be re-examined by 2014 Commission works on Standards for Composting since 2007 Definition and strategies for biodegradable waste Any waste that is capable of undergoing anaerobic or aerobic decomposition Paper and cardboard Wood
Waste from kitchen, Textile materials food courts etc. Waste from gardens & parks Market waste MS shall develop national strategies for reduction of biodegradable waste using recycling, composting, biogas production and material/energy recovery EU Waste Composition (2004) The situation in Europe in numbers Overview
On average, the European citizen generated 10 % more waste in 2007 than in 1995 (Eurostat). On average the generation of waste is about 500 kg per capita ranging from 300 to 800 kg per capita (2007). In 1995, 62 % of municipal waste was landfilled on average and in 2007 this had fallen to 42 %. Thirteen countries had either no incineration or incinerated less than 10 % of their municipal waste in 2007. Eight EU15 Member States incinerated more than 20 % of municipal waste. According to recently published data, 22 % of municipal waste generated in 2007 has been recycled and 17 % composted (Eurostat, 2009). Biodegradable municipal waste (bio-waste, paper and cardboard, and biodegradable textiles) make up a considerable share of municipal waste approximately 6070 % in most countries. The generation of BMW has been relatively stable over the period 1995 2006 although its production varies between countries and regions (200-400 kg per capita). In 2005-2006 in the old Member States the level of MW recycling varies from 60 kilogram to 370 kilogram per capita. In the new Member States the level varies from 20 kilogram to 100 kilogram per capita. Overview (up to 2007)
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Total MW: 300-800 kg/capita Total BMW: 200-400 kg/capita Recycling rate: 20-370 kg/capita Paper/cardboard: 10-140 kg/capita Bio-waste: 10-130 kg/capita Plastic: 1-50 kg/capita Glass: 5-45 kg/capita Metal: 2-25 kg/capita Generation of municipal waste in the EU27, 1995 and 2007 Municipal Waste Landfilled per Capita Projections - ETC/RWM 2007 (EU 25) Projections - ETC/RWM 2007 (New and old MS) GDP and Waste Generation Generation of Municipal Waste in the EU (2006)
Waste per capita (kg/year) 900 800 CY 700 MT 600 EU-15 HU 500 BG 400 RO 300 ES LT LV
SK PL 200 SI CZ The New Member States, with about 26% of the total EU population, generate only 16% of the total waste. 100 0 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000
GDP per capita ('000 EUR) 30000 35000 GDP and Packaging Waste Index (1997=100) Generation of packaging waste and GDP in Europe 120 100 Packaging waste generation GDP 80 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
2002 Municipal waste, 2007 Municipal waste generated,kg per person EU27 Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Greece Spain France Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania
Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom 522 492 468 294 801 564 536 786 448 588 541 550 754 377 400 694 456 652 630 597 322 472 379
37 12 9 22 12 15 Landfill of Waste for Year 2007 (%) Romania & Greece Summary ROMANIA GREECE POPULATION 21.537.000 11.215.000 TOTAL WASTE (tn) 321.000.000 29.000.000 MUNICIPAL WASTE (tn)
9.000.000 (2.8%) 5.000.000 (17%) BMW (organic only) 47% of MW 44% of MW Directed to landfills (% of MW) 95% 85% HAZARDOUS WASTE (tn) 963.000 (0.3%) 330.000 (1.14%) NUMBER OF LANDFILLS 225 operating 65 operating (most non-comply <2012) 20 comply 32 under construction
78 under closure (2009) 41 preparatory studies 101 transition period (2017) 65 under preparatory studies/construction ILLEGAL LANDFILLS 2.500 180 Lessons learned from Europe The Netherlands, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, Austria: Have met targets of diversion of biodegradable waste Strong waste management infrastructure (incineration or MBT)
Ireland, the UK, France, Spain, Italy: still strong reliance on landfilling Strategy on biodegradable waste Distance to targets (2003) % landfilled 140% 120% 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Target 2006 Target 2009 Target 2016 Implementation of EU Landfill Legislation Strategy on biodegradable waste U Ita ly
(E ng Ire la la nd nd & W al es ) C at al on ia % Fi nl an d N or w ay Ba
de Fr nan W ce r tte m bu rg Be Au lg iu st m ri a (F la Th nd e er N s) et he rla nd
s D en m ar k K BMW: What happens to it? LANDFILL (2003) 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20
10 0 50 45 40 35 30 % 25 20 15 10 5 0 BMW: What happens to it? INCINERATION (2003) Fr an ce Fi nl an U d
K (E N ng or w la ay nd & W al es ) Ire la nd C at al on ia Ita ly % Th
e (F la nd er N s) et he rla nd s D en m ar k Ba de Au nst W ria r tte m bu rg
Be lg iu m BMW: What happens to it? COMPOSTING (2003) 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 g
Au st ria (F la nd er s) Fi nl an d N Th or e w ay N et he rla nd s D en m ar k
Ire la U nd K (E ng la Ita nd ly & W al es ) C at al on ia Fr an ce r tte m bu
r % Be lg iu m Ba de nW BMW: What happens to it? MATERIAL RECYCLING (2003) 40 35 30 25 20 15 10
5 0 Lessons learned from Europe good results countries have: Regime of certainty: strong planning, landfill bans, strict regulation, municipal (co-)ownership reducing financial risks; Partnership between government levels: transparant responsibilities, thorough consultation, local implementation; Public trust: separate local waste taxes (transparency), strict adherence to EU requirements; Integrated approach across waste streams: integration of household and industrial waste leads to cost reductions.
Lessons learned from Europe bad results countries have: Lack of certainty which creates difficulties in securing key waste management infrastructure; Poor strategic planning capability with little cooperation between tiers of government; Weak local accountability and ownership of waste related issues so that issues are repeatedly deferred; Politically inconsistent messages and fiscal incentives which contradict the promotion of the waste hierarchy. Implementation examples (2005) Biodegradable waste AT: Legal obligation for separate collection biowaste, packaging waste, biodegradable fraction C&D waste; landfilling only of wastes pretreated by incineration or MBT in order to obtain TOC <5% BE Flanders: Landfilling ban for unsorted MSW, waste collected for recovery and combustible fraction (TOC >6%)
DK: Landfilling ban for all combustible waste fractions (incineration) DE: General legal obligation for separation; biodegradable MSW composted, packaging waste recovered; general ban for landfilling of untreated waste (pre-treatment MBT or incineration) Implementation examples (2005) Biodegradable waste LU: separate collection kitchen, green waste, paper, wood; pre-treatment installations for MSW at landfills (sorting, shredding, homogenisation, organic stabilisation) NL: High share of incineration for MSW; targets for separate collection organic waste, ban on landfilling separately collected biowaste (composting, fermentation) SE: Landfiling ban for combustible and organic waste; high share incineration growing share biological treatment Landfill tax in 13 EU countries (/ton, 2004-2005) Euro/ton 100 80 60 40 20 0
Euro/ton A target in the bin Simple/cheap means huge impact: equip small and medium communities with separate collection bins Implement wide public awareness campaigns without the people we cannot have results whatever the legislation imposes
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