Overview of postprocessing with GLOBK M. A. Floyd Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA GPS Data Processing and Analysis with GAMIT/GLOBK and track GNS Science, Lower Hutt, New Zealand 26 February2 March 2018 http://geoweb.mit.edu/~floyd/courses/gg/201802_GNS/ Material from R. W. King, T. A. Herring, M. A. Floyd (MIT) and S. C. McClusky (now at ANU) GLOBK overview Here we review the main features of globk and glred Program flow Kalman filtering GLOBK files and estimation rules glorg program/function: Define origin plus other things
Output options Flow of programs 2018/02/27 Overview of post-processing with GLOBK 2 GLOBK purpose GLOBK is a suite of programs designed to combine geodetic results together. GPS phase processing can take a considerable time and GLOBK provides a fast method for make large network solutions, combining many days to years of data together and studying alternative parameterization and reference frames for the velocities of sites. GLOBK uses as data input, quasi-observation files called binary h-files which contain geodetic solutions with loosely constrained full covariance information. These files can generated from GAMIT solutions or SINEX files. GLOBK is a smoothing Kalman filter and can incorporate random walk process noise in its estimation (method for accounting for temporally correlated noise in time series). Its two main uses are to generate velocity field estimates and time series in
a well-defined and often different reference frames. (It can also be used to merge large networks of GPS sites). 2018/02/27 Overview of post-processing with GLOBK 3 Common applications of GLOBK Repeatability analysis (glred) individual sessions combine regional and global files for orbit control and reference frame (orbit control is not so important anymore; IGS orbits are very good apriori) Combine sessions to get average position over survey connects stations observed separately reduces number of h-files to be used for velocities Combine averaged positions to estimate velocities and/or earthquake offsets and post-seismic motion When globk is run in parallel in the same directory, care should be used in scratch file names (discussed later)
2018/02/27 Overview of post-processing with GLOBK 4 Processing stages htoglb generates input binary h-files. GLOBK has distinct modules that are used: Initialization: Header information from the binary h-files are read to determine the nature of the solutions i.e., parameters in the state vector, all site names accounting for offsets and earthquakes etc. Forward Kalman filter: Binary h-files are combined to generate solution. Normally most parameters are loosely constrained. Possible backwards smoothing filter (not that common) Simple output of the solution (program glout: generates .prt file) Reference frame realized solution and post-solution constraints. Generates .org file. Program glorg can be used separately for multiple realizations and constraints. Saving binary version of solution for additional processing (out_glb option in command file and glsave program). Modules in GLOBK can be called within GLOBK as subroutines or run
externally as stand-alone programs (program names are lower case) 2018/02/27 Overview of post-processing with GLOBK 5 Using non-GAMIT files in htoglb htoglb can convert other types of solution/covariance matrix files into GLOBK binary h-files. There are caveats when this is done because these other file formats dont contain the same meta data as the GAMIT h-files. For GAGE/PBO Frame resolved SINEX files: Use the -d=TR option to apply rotation and translation loosening -m=512 (allocate 512 Mb memory) is needed from more recent files There are loose SINEX files for which -d=TR is not needed except for CWU files which are not loose (these are the submitted AC files) IGS SINEX files Use -s option for name translation with point codes Variance-covariance matrix will need scaling depending on AC (scaling value supplied in .gdl file). COD solution of more difference from unity (~10 -4)
2018/02/27 Overview of post-processing with GLOBK 6 GLOBK function and file flow htoglb: Translate GAMIT h-files to (e.g., hemeda.10256 ) to GLOBK h-files (e.g. h1009131200_emed.glx [h-file list].gdl globk_comb.cmd itrf08_comb.apr itrf08_comb.eq comb.com glorg_comb.cmd Itrf08_comb.apr stab_site [list] G L
O B K G L O R G globk_comb.prt globk_comb.log [h-file list].com (binary solution file that can be used in glorg) globk_comb.org Names of files here can be chosen arbitrarily. 2018/02/27 Overview of post-processing with GLOBK
7 GLOBK command files GLOBK is controlled by a command file that instructs the program what to do. The command file contain the following classes of commands: Estimation command: Tells globk what to estimate and constraints on apriori values and temporal behavior of the parameters. apr_xxx and mar_xxx commands. a priori information commands: Coordinates, discontinuity times, selection of sites Output (types and files), and control commands (e.g., to run glorg) GLORG (post-processing program/module) also has its own command file. The simplest globk command can have one line: apr_neu all 10 10 10 0 0 0 but in general have several other commons commands (see examples in ~/gg/tables/globk_xxxx.cmd and ~/gg/tables/glorg_xxxx.cmd 2018/02/27 Overview of post-processing with GLOBK
8 GLOBK file name conventions GLOBK uses arbitrary file names but there are some conventions used: Binary h-files from htoglb: .glx is bias fixed, .glr is bias free (normally not used) List of binary h-files to process: .gdl extent GLOBK and GLORG command files: globk_.cmd and glorg_.cmd Output files: print file (no glorg reference frame) .prt (often not output); glorg output .org; log file .log Apriori coordinate files: .apr Earthquake and rename file: .eq Lists of stabilization sites (used with source command): .stab 2018/02/27 Overview of post-processing with GLOBK 9 Kalman filtering Equivalent to sequential least-squares estimation but allowing for
stochastic processes, usually a 1st-order Gauss-Markov process GLOBK allows a random walk for coordinates, EOP, network translation and scale, and satellite parameters; variance grows linearly with time Because a Kalman filter works with covariance matrices (rather than normal matrices), all parameters must have a priori constraints (usually loose) See Herring et al. (1990) and Dong et al. (1998) for a more thorough description as applied to geodetic analysis 2018/02/27 Overview of post-processing with GLOBK 10 GLOBK structural confusions globk and glred are the same program with (slightly) different ways of treating the h-file (.gdl) list: globk: all h-files in combined in a single solution glred: each h-file generates a separate solution (unless followed by a + in .gdl-file). glred is a small program that generates sub-set .gdl-files and runs globk.
Two types of solution files: h-files for saving and external exchange (backward compatible) com/sol file is internal, format changes with versions glorg called by globk/glred or run separately to apply generalized constraints to solution and estimate plate rotations. com_file command must be used in globk command file for glorg to run by itself. 2018/02/27 Overview of post-processing with GLOBK 11 GLOBK files User supplied
command files (may include source files) .gdl list of h-files binary h-files (created from SINEX or GAMIT h-files) .apr-file(s) (optional but recommended) EOP (in_pmu file, optional but recommended) eq_file (optional, but must appear at top) Generated by globk .srt, .com, .sol , .svs (all except .sol must be named and commands need to be top of GLOBK command file) Output files screen, log, prt, org and output h-file 2018/02/27 Overview of post-processing with GLOBK 12 GLOBK file handling
log-, prt-, org-files are concatenated, so should be removed or renamed unless you want them together (e.g. glred). The eras option can be used in the prt_opt and org_opt command in the GLOBK command file to erase these files (should not be used with glred). com-, srt-, sol-files are overwritten; com/sol should not be renamed since the original sol-file name is imbedded in the com-file. Automatic naming using wild-cards is available for com, srt, sol, org, and output h-files (i.e., name used depends on name of gdl-file; needed for parallel processing.) 2018/02/27 Overview of post-processing with GLOBK 13 Estimation commands rules For a parameter to estimated in GLOBK, apr_xxx command must be used where xxx is a parameter type (e.g., neu, svs, wob, ut1, atm) If a parameter is not mentioned, it does not appear in the solution, but if it appears in the h-file (i.e, estimated in GAMIT), its uncertainty is implicit in the GLOBK solution; e.g., if orbits are estimated in GAMIT
and you want them constrained in globk, use apr_svs. If apr_svs is not used, orbits are left constrained. If zero given as a priori sigma, then parameter is not estimated (effectively left unconstrained) To force a parameter to its a priori value, use F as the a priori sigma Parameters estimated in glorg must be kept loose in globk ; if rotation or scale is not estimated in glorg, it must be tightly constrained in globk 2018/02/27 Overview of post-processing with GLOBK 14 Earth orientation parameters (EOPs) Normally used in two forms: Global network of stations (allows rotation in glorg) apr_wob 10 10 1 1 apr_ut1 10 1 Regional network (constrained). When constrained this way system is not free to rotate so xrot, yrot, zrot should not be used in pos_org command (see pos_org in glorg)
apr_wob .2 .2 .02 .02 apr_ut1 .2 .02 In many analyses, the global form is used even for regional networks in order to allow rotation estimation in glorg Care is needed if network is not surrounded by stations with well defined motions 2018/02/27 Overview of post-processing with GLOBK 15 Data editing To account for temporal correlations in time series we typically use random-walk (RW) process noise with the mar_neu command (units m2/yr ) Typical values are 2.5 108 m2/yr (0.5 mm in 1 yr) to 4 106 m2/yr (2 mm in 1 yr) mar_neu all mar_neu chdu 2.5e8 2.5e8 2.5e8
4e6 4e6 4e6 0 0 0 0 0 0 sh_gen_stats can used to generate process noise estimates provided sufficiently large number of position estimates are available To down-weight noisy segments or equalize continuous and survey-mode data in a combined h-file, can add random noise (units are m) sig_neu all .001 .001 .003 sig_neu ankr .005 .005 .020 2002 10 01 00 00 2002 11 30 24 00 sig_neu EMED0504 .010 .010 .1 To remove an outlier, can down-weight severely or rename (in eq_file) sig_neu ankr .1 .1 .1 2002 10 01 00 00 2002 10 01 24 00 rename ankr_gps ankr_xcl 2002 10 01 00 00 2002 10 01 24 00 2018/02/27 Overview of post-processing with GLOBK
16 glorg Invoked by globk to apply generalized constraints after h-files are stacked and loose solution performed Can be run as a separate program using the com/sol files from globk Also allows linking of parameters and estimation of Euler poles Parameters estimated in glorg must be kept loose in globk Site coodinates EOPs (for estimation of rotation) Scale glorg is used to define and refine the reference frame for globk solutions 2018/02/27 Overview of post-processing with GLOBK 17
Invoking glorg from globk command file The globk command file contains commands that cause glorg to run when globk completes the solution combination: org_cmd < glorg command file name > ---invokes glorg org_opt < options for output > org_out < output file name >: Normally not used because name will be generated from prt file name in the globk runstring If org_out is not given then the extent on the print file name is replaced with .org 2018/02/27 Overview of post-processing with GLOBK 18 glorg commands apr_file Need not be the same as for globk; needs to contain values only for sites used for stabilization and sites for which coordinates or velocities are equated pos_org, rate_org Control what parameters are estimated in stabilization
xtran ytran ztran allows translation (apr_tran in globk if GAMIT BASELINE choice of experiment) xrot yrot zrot allows rotation scale allows rescaling of system (if used, estimate scale in globk; apr_scale and possibly mar_scale) cnd_hgtv Control relative weights of heights (variances, nominally 10 but increasing value will reduce heights effecting horizontal position estimates; 1000 is good for this) stab_ite # of iterations and sigma-cutoff to remove a site stab_site List of sites to use in stabilization 2018/02/27 Overview of post-processing with GLOBK 19 Controlling print output crt_opt, prt_opt, org_opt specify output options for screen, print and org files globk/glorg help gives all options, main ones are:
ERAS -- erase file before writing (normally files appended) NOPR -- Do not write output ( e.g., for globk when invoking glorg ) BLEN -- Baseline lengths BRAT -- baseline rates when velocities estimated RNRP -- generates reports on differences in parameter estimates after renames. FIXA -- makes apriori coordinates and velocities consistent when equates are used in glorg (can sometimes fail in complicated rename scenarios--best if apr_file is provided with consistent values) VSUM -- Lat/long summary of velocity (needed to plot velocities) PSUM -- Lat/long position summary GDLF --Include list of hfiles and chi**2 increments from run CMDS -- Echos globk command file into output file 2018/02/27
Overview of post-processing with GLOBK 20 Program flow Read all the h-file headers to determine their contents (sites, other parameters, epoch range) Apply renames as requested in the eq_file Sort the h-file list forward or backward in time (srt_dir) Initialize the Kalman filter with the a priori constraints (apr_xxx) Read in the h-files, one at a time, a run sequential Kalman Filter. Compute the chi2 increment, coordinate adjustment, and rotation implied by the new data; if within tolerance (max_chii), update the solution and write the 2 increment to the log file Write the solution to the sol_file and prt file (and optionally to a new h-file) Optionally invoke glorg to apply generalized constraints Apply the constraints (iterative stabilization)
Apply linkage of parameters (equate, constrain, force), computing the 2 increment for each Estimate plate rotations (plate command) Write the solution to the org file (glorg prt file) 2018/02/27 Overview of post-processing with GLOBK 21 Things GLOBK cannot do Repair mistakes in original analysis Cycle slips Wrong antenna phase center models Resolve ambiguities Would make files too large Overcome non-linear effects As in GAMIT, adjustments must be less than ~ 30 cm But GLOBK can delete stations Can help avoid contaminating solution
2018/02/27 Overview of post-processing with GLOBK 22 apr files in GLOBK processing GAMIT 10 m accuracy for all sites for cycle-slip repair < 30 cm final adjustment for linearity (1st solution guarantees) ~5 cm accuracy in constrained site(s) for ambiguity resolution globk If invoking glorg for reference frame, apr_file usually optional in globk If not invoking glorg, need accurate apr_file entries for constrained sites For complicated renames and equates, apr_file may be needed in globk glorg apr_file needs coordinates only for reference sites and equates 2018/02/27
Overview of post-processing with GLOBK 23 What can go wrong? globk h-files not used: removed automatically for high 2, coordinate adjustment, or rotation (max_chii command) High 2 increment: inconsistent data. Can be an issue when estimating orbits (RELAX mode) if MIT GLX file use different modelling (e.g. albedo, gravity field) Station missing: not present in h-file or renamed out (use glist) glorg Stabilization fails: too few sites in stabilization Large uncertainties: poor stabilization Uncertainties too small for some stabilization sites: rotation parameters absorbing coordinate adjustment High 2 in equate: inconsistent data Wrong velocity for equated sites: unmatched a priori 2018/02/27
Overview of post-processing with GLOBK 24 Associated programs htoglb: Translates various ascii solution files into GLOBK h-files (GAMIT h-files, SINEX) glbtosnx: Generates SINEX files from binary h-files glist: Lists the contents of a series of h-files hfupd: Updates binary h-files for changes in station.info or sinex header file (distributed by IGS) tssum, tsfit, tscon: Time series analysis (batch) Matlab-derived programs (interactive): velview: displays and analyzes velocity fields tsview: displays and analyses time series 2018/02/27 Overview of post-processing with GLOBK 25 Summary
GLOBK has many features and due to its evolution, there are often multiple ways of doing the same or similar things There is extensive help in the ~/gg/help/ directory and discussion in the documentation GLOBK is where all the major analysis decisions are made and hence can be quite complex for large analyses Experimentation and testing your ideas of how different options effect the results is one the best ways to learn the software, e.g. What happens to position/velocity estimates if the apr_tran command is added to the globk command file? How do my estimates and uncertainties change if the apr_neu and mar_neu commands are changed? 2018/02/27 Overview of post-processing with GLOBK 26
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