OUR MOON - Hammer Science

OUR MOON - Hammer Science

Bell Ringer 1. Which two outer planets have the most moons in the Solar System? 2.

Why are Saturns rings so bright to us? 3. How many of the outer planets have rings?

OUR MOON Goals for today: 1. Understand the origin of our Moon 2.

What is the Moon made of 3. Understand what causes the phases of the Moon

Nearest Neighbor Earth-Moon distance 385,000 km 30 Earth diameters Exploration of the Moon

1959 |-- Luna 1 - Jan 2, 1959 - Flyby

|-- Pioneer 4 - Mar 3, 1959 - Flyby |-- Luna 2 - Sep 12, 1959 - Impact |-- Luna 3 - Oct 4, 1959 - Probe | 1962 |-- Ranger 4 - Apr 23, 1962 - Impact | 1963 |-- Luna 4 - Apr 2, 1963 - Flyby | 1964

|-- Ranger 6 - Jan 30, 1964 - Impact |-- Ranger 7 - Jul 28, 1964 - Impact | 1965 |-- Ranger 8 - Feb 17, 1965 - Impact |-- Ranger 9 - Mar 21, 1965 - Impact |-- Luna 5 - May 9, 1965 - Impact |-- Zond 3 - Jul 18, 1965 - Flyby |-- Luna 7 - Oct 4, 1965 - Impact

|-- Luna 8 - Dec 3, 1965 - Impact | 1966 |-- Luna 9 - Jan 31, 1966 - Lander |-- Luna 10 - Mar 31, 1966 - Orbiter |-- Surveyor 1 - May 30, 1966 - Lander |-- Lunar Orbiter 1 - Aug 10, 1966 - Orbiter |-- Luna 11 - Aug 24, 1966 - Orbiter |-- Luna 12 - Oct 22, 1966 - Orbiter

|-- Lunar Orbiter 2 - Nov 6, 1966 - Orbiter |-- Luna 13 - Dec 21, 1966 Lander 1967 |-- Lunar Orbiter 3 - Feb 4, 1967 - Orbiter |-- Surveyor 3 - Apr 17, 1967 - Lander |-- Lunar Orbiter 4 - May 8, 1967 - Orbiter |-- Lunar Orbiter 5 - Aug 1, 1967 - Orbiter |-- Surveyor 5 - Sep 8, 1967 - Lander

|-- Surveyor 6 - Nov 7, 1967 - Lander | 1968 |-- Surveyor 7 - Jan 7, 1968 - Lander |-- Luna 14 - Apr 7, 1968 - Orbiter |-- Zond 5 - Sep 15, 1968 - Return Probe |-- Zond 6 - Nov 10, 1968 - Return Probe Luna Program (space is hard)

|-- Apollo 8 - Dec 21, 1968 - Crewed Orbiter | 1969 |-- Apollo 10 - May 18, 1969 - Orbiter |-- Luna 15 - Jul 13, 1969 - Orbiter |-- Apollo 11 - Jul 16, 1969 - Crewed Landing

|-- Zond 7 - Aug 7, 1969 - Return Probe |-- Apollo 12 - Nov 14, 1969 - Crewed Landing | 1970 |-- Apollo 13 - Apr 11, 1970 - Crewed Landing (aborted) |-- Luna 16 - Sep 12, 1970 - Sample Return |-- Zond 8 - Oct 20, 1970 - Return Probe |-- Luna 17 - Nov 10, 1970 - Rover | 1971

|-- Apollo 14 - Jan 31, 1971 - Crewed Landing |-- Apollo 15 - Jul 26, 1971 - Crewed Landing |-- Luna 18 - Sep 2, 1971 - Impact |-- Luna 19 - Sep 28, 1971 - Orbiter | 1972 |-- Luna 20 - Feb 14, 1972 - Sample Return |-- Apollo 16 - Apr 16, 1972 - Crewed Landing |-- Apollo 17 - Dec 7, 1972 - Crewed Landing

| 1973 |-- Luna 21 - Jan 8, 1973 - Rover | 1974 |-- Luna 22 - Jun 2, 1974 - Orbiter |-- Luna 23 - Oct 28, 1974 Lander |-- Luna 24 - Aug 14, 1976 - Sample Return |-- Hiten - Jan 24, 1990 - Flyby and Orbiter |-- Clementine - Jan 25, 1994 - Orber

|-- AsiaSat 3/HGS-1 - Dec 24, 1997 - Lunar Flyby |-- Lunar Prospector - Jan 7, 1998 - Orbiter | 2003 |-- SMART 1 - Sep, 2003 - Lunar Orbiter | 2007 |-- Chandrayaan-1 - Sep, 2007 - Lunar Orbiter |-- Chang'e 1 - Sep, 2007 - Lunar Orbiter |-- Kaguya (Selene - )2007 - Lunar Orbiter

| 2008 |-- Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter - Oct, 2008 - Lunar Orbiter | 2011 |--GRAIL Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory Dec 2011 Lunar Orbiter By the numbers 3500 km diameter

0.01 Mass of Earth 1/6 Gravity 3.3 g/cm3 Moon versus Asteroids In what way is the Moon like a planet?

In what ways is it more like an asteroid? Two terrain types Highlands Lowlands-Maria

Lunar Highlands Geochemically different Crust is thicker about 100 km thick vs 40 km below near side. Lots of craters

Maria Dark Lowland s Nearside Thin crust

Lava plains Moons Topography Moons Internal Structure Asthenosphere

Moons Origin Moons Origin Hypothetical Models Fission (Just decided to

break off one day) Co-Accretion (Both formed in same area) Capture (A captured asteroid) Giant Impact (Blasted off of Earth)

Observations (Not inferences) Moon is Earths companion Moons composition is similar to Earths No water. No atmosphere. Moons bulk

Why? chemical composition is not exactly like Earth: Moon poor in volatiles (water, gasses, etc).

Small Lunar Core: Why? Moon rich in rocky material but iron poor.

Origin of the Moon Observations Models Hypothetical Moons Fission average composition is like Earths and meteorites unlike Co-Accretion

It is water and volatile poor Capture Moon is rich in most rocky elements Giant Impact But Moon is iron poor

Giant Impact Proposed by Hartmann and Davis, 1975 Cameron and Ward, Thompson and Stevenson

Debated in Kona, 1984 - most successful meeting in planetary science - Drake Modeled (Melosh, etc.) and

published 1986 Giant Impact A good example of science in action https://

www.youtube.co m/watch?v=c0FC E4H0Dro Earth, Sun, and Moon model Lunar Eclipses

Solar Eclpises Annular Vs. Total Moon = Only other body in Solar System besides Earth that Humans have been on.

OTHER MOONS IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM MARS MOONS 1.Mars has two moons. 2.We think both were asteroids captured by Mars. 3.Very small, very

insignificant. 4.Phobos will one day be ripped apart by Mars gravity, giving Mars a small ring. 5.Deimos will eventually escape Mars hold on it and fly away.

Jupiters Moons Callisto Ganymede Mercur

y Europa Io NASA: Galileo images of Jupiters Moons Ganymede

Ganymede . Biggest Natural Satellite in the Solar System . Cratered Light and dark terrain

tectonism Europa False color What do you notice? Upwellings?

Water seeping up through cracks. Next NASA flagship mission: Europa

Clipper Orbiter (maybe lander too) launch 2022 At Europa 2026! Europa has a liquid ocean under an icy shell

Io Io is covered in volcanoes Why? Layer of magma, globally, under crust.

Comparison of Jupiters Moons Moons of Jupiter Satellite Size

Density Composition Craters (km) (g/cm3) (Ice%) ____________________________________________

Io Europa 3630 3.57 0%

0 3138 2.97 10%

Few tens Ganymede 5262 1.94 50%

Many Callisto 1.86 55%

Saturated 4800 ________________________________________________ Why are they so different?

What are the two main differences? Composition Density Color Internal energy Affects surface features Surface age

Number of craters Active geologic processes Composition Ancient Frost Lines Gasses and water couldnt condense until Jupiter

Ancient Frost Lines Mini nebula at Jupiter?? Inner gas/water-poor, outer gas/waterrich Jupiter like a protosun?

Io 1000K Jupiter Europa 400K 300K

Ganymede 200K Callisto 100K Internal Energy Surface Features

Tides Mass pulls on other mass Think of Earths tides from the Moon pulling on water Ivaschenko Tides

If satellites are close enough, planets can even pull on the rocks and If interiors the distance changes, rocks slide

past each other, causing friction and heating Tidal Heating of Galileans JUPITER PULLS ON ORBITS KEEPS THEM

OVAL SHAPED Bodies sometimes close to Jupiter, sometimes far away Causes heating and melting SATURNS MOONS

20 Rs 60 Rs 216 Rs Ring Shepherd Satellites Epimetheus Janus

Ring Shepherd Satellites Pandora Methone Ring Shepherd Satellites

Pan-! Iapetus Mimas Tiny Enceladus Plasma Flow

Bright Enceladus In Greek mythology Enceladus was a Titan who was defeated in battle and buried under Mount Etna by Athena.

Enceladus Enceladus Water is gushing out of south polar fractures!

Tiny body should have a cold interior Water in contact with rocky core TITAN most like Earth? What did we know?

Nitrogen-rich atmosphere! Also lots of methane Erosion Rounded cobbles in river bed! Mountains

In long belts and isolated blocks Heavily eroded SIR-C/X-SAR of Tibetan plateau. Like linear dunes on Earth

Methane Seas of Titan Seas of Titan Glint off sea surface

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Developing a culture of blended learning innovation Graham

    Developing a culture of blended learning innovation Graham

    StudyNet Development group - 'bottom-up' input into functionality ... UH CETL bid . Which is the optimum level at which to foster the development of Blended Learning for staff and student benefit? Informal self-sustaining networks. ... PowerPoint Presentation Last modified...
  • MEMBERS Horizon - The Value of Risk Control

    MEMBERS Horizon - The Value of Risk Control

    Risk Control Accounts provide a new and innovative method to help manage - even control - investment risk in a portfolio. By leveraging an annuity chassis, we can provide the safety of guaranteed floors on investment performance tied to an...
  • OIS Model TCP/IP

    OIS Model TCP/IP

    Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model is the result of this effort. In 1984, the OSI reference model was approved as an international standard for communications architecture. History of OSI Model. ... OIS Model TCP/IP Last modified by:
  • Physics of Rolling Ball Coasters - Bates College

    Physics of Rolling Ball Coasters - Bates College

    Physics of Rolling Ball Coasters Cross Product Torque Inclined Plane Inclined Ramp Curved Path Examples Cross Product (1) The Cross Product of two three-dimensional vectors a = <a1,a2,a3> and b = <b1,b2,b3> is defined as follows: If q is the...
  • LIS 590 MDL -- OAI Part II (Service Providers)

    LIS 590 MDL -- OAI Part II (Service Providers)

    Timothy W. Cole ([email protected])University of Illinois at UC. The HathiTrust Research Center (1) HTRC is a collaboration between HT, Indiana Universityand the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
  • Interconnect and Packaging Chapter 2: Transmission Line Parameters

    Interconnect and Packaging Chapter 2: Transmission Line Parameters

    Arial SimSun Book Antiqua 01090290 1_01090290 Interconnect and Packaging Chapter 2: Transmission Line Parameters Outline Causality Transmission Lines for Digital Systems Transmission Line Structures Time Domain Reflectometer TDR Wave Propagation Wave Propagation LC Measurement Round-Wire Internal RL Internal Impedance of...
  • Concepts in Animal Welfare - Bichos Online

    Concepts in Animal Welfare - Bichos Online

    Três abordagens para avaliar o bem-estar animal After Appleby, M. C. (1999) e Fraser et al. (1997) Definições de bem-estar animal: 'físico' "O bem-estar de um animal é seu estado em relação a suas tentativas de adaptar-se ao seu meio...
  • Causes, signs and symptoms M1

    Causes, signs and symptoms M1

    Pain and illness in childhood can delay development in many areas, including language and cognitive development. Intellectual health and well-being. ... for each of the 4 PIES sections. Include at least 1 . uncommon. effects (can be internal or external)...