Other Types of Interviews and Focus Groups Telephone Interviews Advantages: Reduced staff requirements Widespread geographic areas Economical Can be recorded Disadvantages: Subjects with no
telephone Unlisted numbers Caller ID Loss of visual cues Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2010 Computer Assisted Interviewing CATI By phone Can skip transcription Provides an added sense of anonymity Loss of visual cues
CAPI Face-to-face or remote Responses can be recorded directly into computer Type or use voice recognition software Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2010 Web-Based Interviews Synchronous Environments
extremely dynamic interactions among and between group members that can stimulate discussion Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2010 What is a Focus Group? Group discussion Should be manageable size Facilitated by a moderator who
Draws out information Monitors informal group discussion Encourages free speaking Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2010 Problems to Avoid Running a focus group without reason Vague objectives Using too few groups Over-reaching Too many individuals in each group Too much or not enough moderator influence Unprofessional moderators Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2010
Advantages Highly flexible Large amounts of information in short amounts of time Better understanding of group dynamics Complex sampling strategies not required Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2010 Disadvantages Quality linked to facilitator skill Limited number of questions Dominant personalities can steer
group response Data difficult to generalize Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2010 The Moderators Guide Systematic and procedural guide Introduction and introductory activities Basic rules or guidelines Question-and-answer Special activities or exercises Sensitive issues Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2010
Basic Focus Group Ingredients Clearly defined objective and/or research problem Nature of the group Environment and rapport Aware listening facilitator Well-organized and prepared facilitator Structure and direction Research
assistance Systematic analysis Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2010 Should you use a Focus Group? Will focus group data inform the research questions? Will you obtain the best data for the time and money? Is this the best technique for the population of interest? Will focus groups enhance a project through triangulation? Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2010 Analyzing Focus Group Data
Step 1: Transcription Transcribe the entire interview verbatim including all probes and any slang Step 2: Observer notes Interactionary Step cues of the group
3: Analyze discussion content Identify trends and patterns Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2010 Analysis Tips Avoid quantifying results Provide quotations to support your assessment Offer individual group member characteristics Make a point or state a pattern before offering quotes. Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2010
Online Focus Groups Advantages: Reduced costs Broad geographic scope Access to hard to reach participants Convenient and comfortable Disadvantages: Loss of moderator authority Loss of group atmosphere
Loss of group dynamics Loss of attentiveness Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2010 Non-Verbal Communication One study found 93% of communication determined by non-verbal cues Further study showed that the impact of a performance determined by Words used 7% Voice quality 38% Non-verbal behaviour 55%
Examples of Body Language NONVERBAL BEHAVIOR INTERPRETATION Legs crossed, foot kicking slightly Sitting, legs apart Arms crossed on chest Hand to cheek Touching, slightly rubbing nose Rubbing the eye Locked ankles Head resting in hand, eyes down Rubbing hands Hands behind head, legs crossed Boredom Open, relaxed Defensiveness
Evaluation, thinking Doubt, lying Doubt, disbelief Apprehension Boredom Anticipation Confidence, superiority More Examples. NONVERBAL BEHAVIOR Open palm Pinching nose, eyes closed Tapping fingers Steepling fingers Patting/fondling hair Tilted head Stroking chin Looking down and away
Biting nails Pulling or tugging at ear INTERPRETATION Sincerity, openness Negative evaluation Impatience Authoritative Lack of self-confidence Interest Trying to decide Disbelief Insecurity, nervousness Indecision How to tell when someone is.. Bluffing
Gestures are inconsistent with speech Angry Change in tone of voice, mannerisms (ie pacing, tapping fingers) even while smiling Lying Hiding mouth, touching nose, breaking off eye contact, blinking rapidly
Matching and Mirroring When two people on the same wavelength will start to mimic each others expressions, gestures Indicates rapport and can be used as a technique to increase rapport Consciously mimic body language When feels natural, take the lead Can be used in problem situation Eye Contact Good eye contact increases rapport But use caution
Too much eye contact feels intrusive, intimate Confine gaze to eyes and forehead rather than lips, upper body If hold gaze too long can be seen as hostility Limit to 2/3 of time (less than 1/3 seen as timid) Note: sunglasses, over the shoulder gaze, fluttering eyes are techniques used to break contact and avoid exposure Active Listening Difficult but a skill worth mastering
Builds rapport Demonstrates your interest and understanding Techniques Good eye contact Head nods Responses like I see, I understand Paraphrasing Asking open-ended questions like Can you tell me more about that? Significance of props and seating
Extending hand using pen, glasses, etc. makes personal space larger and shows confidence or power Preening patting hair, adjusting clothing is an attempt at endearment but can indicate nervousness Holding coffee cup tightly with both hands is a defense mechanism to close body off Taking seat at head of table shows control Leaning back, arms behind head = superiority Closed body position = disapproval, defensiveness, lack of interest
Boundaries Be careful not to invade personal space People will protect space by sitting at desk, behind chair or counter or by using briefcase or purse as barrier Gender differences can be seen in groups Males will shift weight from one foot to other to create space or define territory Or rock on balls of feet to look taller and show power or confidence Females will mirror to create lateral bridges
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