Oral Language Development Kindergarten - Grade 3 Greeting: Hi - Definition Each participant will be handed a card with a descriptive word or a sentence using the word. Then mingle, and find the participant with the matching card. When you find your match, greet each other with a friendly Hello! and then sit down to decode the meaning of your word by using the context clues in the sentence. Now talk about how you might use this in your classroom to enriched vocabulary. Return to seats when finished. Greeting!!! The St. Johnsbury School
St. Johnsbury, Vermont Pre K - 8 680 Students 64.50 % Free/Reduced State Average: 42.50 % St. Johnsbury Population: 7, 600 Median Household Income: $33,100 State: $54,900 First school Race to the Top - What does that mean?
Edusnap and CLASS VELS - Vermont Early Learning Standards - Birth to Grade 3 - Uses the Common Core. First School - What is this? And why is it helpful? FRom Teaching With Poverty in Mind - Eric The quality, quantity, and context of parents speech matter a great deal (Hoff, 2003). Jensen Childrens vocabulary is influenced by mothers socio-demographic characteristics,
personal characteristics, vocabulary, and knowledge of child development (Bornstein, Haynes, & Painter, 1998). By the time children are school-aged they will Reading and writing float on a sea of talk. James Britton limits of your language are the
limits of your world. Oral Language Oral language is the system through which we use spoken words to express knowledge, ideas, and feelings. Developing oral language, then, means developing the skills and knowledge that go into listening and speakingall of which have a strong relationship to reading comprehension and to writing. Oral language is made up of at least five key components (Moats 2010): phonological skills, pragmatics, syntax, morphological skills, and vocabulary (also referred to as semantics). All of these components of oral language are necessary to communicate and learn through conversation and spoken interaction, but there are important distinctions among them that have implications for literacy instruction.
Phonological Skills A students phonological skills are those that give her an awareness of the sounds of language, such as the sounds of syllables and rhymes (Armbruster, Lehr, and Osborne 2001). Simple phonemic greetings or activities to be done in meeting from Responsive Activity: Syllable Drama classroom Greeting: Hickety Pickety Bumble Bee Post the chant and read it aloud for students. Hickety Pickety Bumble Bee Wont you say your name for me? Lets all say it. Lets all clap it.
1. Introduce activity: Our activity has a lot of movement, so youll need to show selfcontrol. Stay in your spots and move your hands and feet in safe ways, just as weve talked about and practiced. 2. State a verb and have the class clap out syllables and then act out verbs. 1 syllable Jump, jog, dance, march, bow, waltz, hop, stroll, drive, sway, freeze, tap, strut 2 syllable Wiggle, gallop,
curtsey, giggle, shuffle, tiptoe, waddle, zigzag, moonwalk, balance, dribble, saunter 3 syllables Exercise, meander, concentrate, celebrate, irritate, decorate, unfasten syntax Syntax refers to an understanding of word order and
grammatical rules (Cain 2007; Nation and Snowling 2000). Morphology Morphology refers to the smallest meaningful parts from which words are created, including roots, suffixes, and prefixes (Carlisle 2000; Deacon and Kirby 2004). pragmatics Pragmatics refers to an understanding of the social rules of communication (Snow and Uccelli 2009). This includes what we say, how we say it, and our body language. Simple pragmatic greetings or activities to be done in meeting from second step Name that
feeling Vocabulary knowledge Vocabulary knowledge is also a key part of oral language, not to mention comprehending and communicating using print (Beck, McKeown, and Kucan 2013; Ouellette 2006). Vocabulary knowledge, also referred to as semantic knowledge, involves understanding the meanings of words and phrases (aka receptive vocabulary) and using those words and phrases to communicate effectively (aka expressive vocabulary). Teach the Meaning of Critical, Unknown Vocabulary Words Childrens vocabulary in the early grades related to reading comprehension in the upper grades. Preschool Childrens vocabulary correlated with reading comprehension in upper elementary school. (Tabors, 2001)
Kindergarten Vocabulary size was an effective predictor of reading comprehension in middle elementary years. (Scarborough, 1998) First Grade Orally tested vocabulary was a proficient predictor of reading comprehension ten years later. (Cunnningham and Stanovich, 1997) Third Grade Children with restricted vocabulary have declining comprehension scores in later elementary years. (Chall, Jacobs, & Baldwin, 1990) Reading First National Conference, 2008 Simple Vocabulary greetings or activities to be done in meeting from Responsive Greeting: Hi - Definition Activity : Say It! classroom 1. Give each student a card on which 1. Begin by saying one word, for example youve written a vocab word or a
sentence using the vocab word. 2. Students mingle, trying to find the student with the matching card. tree 2. The students to your right says he associates with the word tree, perhaps brown. 3. When students find their match, they greet each other with a friendly Hello! and then sit down to decode the meaning of their word by using the context clues in the sentence. 3. The next students in the circle says a word she associates with the words
brown, such as chocolate. 4. Students explain their word and meaning. Sharing how they know. 5. Invite observations from the class. What kind of words did we choose? 4. Continue this pattern around the circle. Continued... Activity: Shades to meaning 1. Introduce the group activity Many words have similar meaning. For example chilly and freezing both mean cold, but they represent different degrees of cold. Today we
are going to use our bodies to rank some words with similar meanings. 2. Extend your hands out in front of you, horizontal to the ground. This is the starting point for ranking words. For example, this is where we would put our hands to rank with word cold right in the middle. If the next word was colder we would move our hands closer to our feet, if the next word was warmer, we will move our hands up. 3. Say freezing and move your hands down towards your feet. Say chilly and move your hands up. Explain that its ok if people rank the words differently.
Flow, gush, flood, trickle Run, race, zoom, speed Small, itsy, bitsy, teeny, tiny Quiet, silent, noiseless, hushed Loud, earsplitting, noisy, booming What is Oral Language? Information Sharing Telling Others How You Feel Advice Persuading Others Entertaining Sharing Ideas Remembering Reading First National Conference, 2008
instruction that will close the language experience gap? YES! Teachers can be instrumental in closing the language experience gap. Students who struggle with a language deficit will need many language-rich experiences, as well as Reading First National Conference, 2008 systematic and explicit
Kindergar ten Comprehension and Collaboration 1. Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about kindergarten topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups. a. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions b. Continue a conversations through multiple exchange 2. Confirm understanding of a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media by asking and answering questions (more). 3. Ask and answer questions in order to seek help, get information, or clarify something that is not understood.
Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas. Describe familiar people, places, things, and events, and with prompting and support, provide additional detail. Add drawings or other visual displays to describe additional details. Speak audibly and express thoughts, feelings, and ideas clearly. KINDERGARTEN Conventions of the English Language Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
Use frequently occurring nouns and verbs. Form regular plural nouns orally by adding /s/ or /es/ Understands and uses question words. Use the most frequently occurring prepositions (e.g., to, from, in). Produce and expand complete sentences in shared language activities. Vocabulary Acquisition and Use Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiplemeaning words and phrases based on kindergarten reading and content. a. Identify new meanings for familiar words and apply them accurately (e.g., knowing a duck is a bird and learning the verb to duck). b.
Use frequently occurring inflections and affixes. With guidance and support, explore word relationships and nuances in word meanings. c. Sort common objects into categories to gain sense of the concepts they represent d. Demonstrate understanding of frequently occurring verbs and adjectives by relating them. e. Identify real-life connections between words and their use. f. Distinguish shades of meaning among verbs describing the same general action, by acting out. g. Rhyming three of action Activity - You are jumping With this very simple activity children practice using action verbs in the present tense and the
auxiliary verb arewhile engaged in gross motor activities. At your tables you will find index cards. Each person will get one cards. Each person will have the chance to act out what is on the cards. While they are acting it out the other group members get a chance to guess what the other person is doing. You must say the full sentence you are _______. Assessment - Expressive language - Can the child use ing on the end of common action words? Can they complete the sentence frame? grade Comprehension and Collaboration 1. Participate in collaborative conversations
with diverse partners about grade 1 topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups. a. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions b. Build on others talk in conversations by responding to the comments of other through multiple exchange. c. Ask questions to clear up any confusion about a topic and texts under discussion. 2. Ask and answer questions about key details in a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media. 3. Ask and answer questions about what a speaker says in order to gather additional information or clarify something.
Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas. Describe people, places, things, and events with relevant details, expressing ideas and feelings clearly. Add drawings or other visual displays to descriptions when appropriate to clarify ideas, thoughts, and feelings. Produce complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation. First Grade Conventions of the English Language Demonstrate command of the conventions
of Standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. Use common, proper, and possessive nouns. Use singular and plural nouns with matching verbs in a sentence. Use personal, possessive, and indefinite pronouns (I, me, my) Use verbs to convey a sense of past, present, and future. Use frequently occurring adj. Vocabulary Acquisition and Use Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiplemeaning words and phrases based on grade 1 reading and content. a. Use sentence level context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
b. Use frequently occurring affixes as a clue to the meaning of a word. c. Use frequently occurring inflections and affixes. With guidance and support, explore word relationships and nuances in word meanings. d. Sort words into categories to gain sense of the concepts they represent e. Define words by category and by one or more key attributes. f. Identify Real-life connections between words and their uses. g. Distinguish shades of meaning among verbs differing in In partners, write your own version of the
song using the vowel pattern: I like to Eat, eat, eat ________ _____and ______________ I like to to Ate, ate, ate _____________and______________ I like to Eat, eat, eat ________ _____and ______________ I like to Ite, ite, ite _______________And______________ I like to Ote, ote, ote _______________AND______________ I like to Ute, ute, ute _______________And______________ Extensions: record versions, illustrate their song, perform to another class Assessment: Can students place a vowel sound in every syllable? Can students demonstrate an grade Comprehension and Collaboration
1. Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about grade 2 topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups. a. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions b. Build on others talk in conversations by linking their comments to remarks of others. c. Ask for clarification and further explanation as needed. 2. Recount or describe key ideas or details from a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media. 3. Ask and answer questions about what a speaker says in order to clarify comprehension, gather additional information, or deepen understanding of a topic or issue.
Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas. Tell a story or recount an experience with appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details, speaking audibly in coherent sentences. Create audio recordings of stories or poems; add drawings or other visual displays to stories or recounts of experiences. Produce complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation. to describe a hidden item (something they bring from home ie. stuffed animal) or something from the
classroom. It also promotes language development with other students, as they are asking specific questions. At your tables you will find Brown paper bags. Please Take something that you brought with you today and put it inside the bag. It can come from your pockets, purse, bag, or from the table. Decide who will go first. Go around the table one at a time using words that describe the missing item without naming it. Others listen to the words and ask questions that will help to identify the object. Assessment - Expressive language -Can students give grade Comprehension and Collaboration 1. Engage effectively in a range of
collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher led) with diverse partners on grade 3 topics and texts, building on others ideas and expressing their own clearly 2. Determine the main ideas and supporting details of a text read aloud or information presented in diverse media formats. 3. Ask and answer questions about information from a speaker, offering appropriate elaboration and detail. Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas. Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience with appropriate facts and relevant,
descriptive details, speaking clearly at an understandable pace. Create engaging audio recordings of stories or poems that demonstrate fluid reading at an understandable pace; add visual displays when appropriate to emphasize or enhance certain facts or details. Speak in complete sentences when appropriate to task and situations in order to provide requested detail or clarification. After reading a text students will work on some of the vocabulary words that are in the book. At your table you will find a pink index cards and green index cards. Please take one of each.
The person with the star on their card goes first (first letter of the word) The person with a heart on their card goes next (last letter of the word) Next is the person with the square (how many syllables the word has) Now, discuss with your tablemates about what word you think it is and why After a minute or two of discussing, the person with the triangle card reads the definition of the word. Does the word still make sense? If there are any members at your table that did not Always peruse the book before reading it aloud to your students. Select the words you want children to learn. Read the book aloud the first reading
should have minimal interruptions. During the second reading interrupt your reading to explain the meaning of targeted words. The teacher-student talk that surrounds a read aloud is valuable Supporting Oral Language Development and Vocabulary Growth Through Read-Alouds Reading First National Conference, 2008 Increases vocabulary. Teaches students to determine between important and unimportant points about the text. Especially important instructional strategies for ELL students during Read Aloud: Use of background knowledge will support comprehension and vocabulary retention.
Use of words students are already familiar with to define new words (fast-mapping & pre-teaching critical vocabulary) High Risk (HR): These students have not learned many of the prerequisite skills assumed by the grade level comprehensive reading program. ELL Students and Reading Aloud Reading First National Conference, 2008 what they say. Look at their faces Show you are listening
Talk about what they want to talk about Talk about what they are doing Use new words (excursion, expedition) Responsive Classroom: Four Engaging KeyAcademics Domains Teachers create learning tasks that are active, interactive, appropriately challenging, purposeful, and connected to students' interests. Positive Community
Teachers nurture a sense of belonging, significance, and emotional safety so that students feel comfortable taking risks and working with a variety of peers. Effective Management Teachers create a calm, orderly environment that promotes autonomy and allows students to focus on learning. Developmental Awareness Teachers use knowledge of child development, along with observations of students, to create a developmentally appropriate learning environment. The classroom Environment Furniture Learning Materials Learning Areas Displays of work
Anchor charts A List of Sites(Resources) That Help Develop Oral Language http://www.education.com/reference/article/strategies-language-learning/ This is a great article about how parents/teachers/caregivers can interact with children at a young age. This might be a great article to send home to parents. http://www.readingrockets.org/article/phonemic-activities-preschool-or-elementary-classroom Reading rocket has a lot of information and activities specifically around oral language development. This specific site talks about phonemic activities for preschoolers and elementary students. http://www.sedl.org/cgi-bin/mysql/framework1.cgi?element=syntax&andor=and&source=&sortby=element This resource has many activities around syntax. http://www.literacyconnections.com/orallanguage-php/ This resource is around oral language activities and strategies, that get students read https://www.teachingchannel.org/videos/build-language-skills-through-the-arts-getty https://www.teachingchannel.org/videos/middle-school-vocabulary-development These are two teaching channel videos around vocabulary. They are done with older students with ELL in mind, but there is a lot of great information and ideas for second and third grade, even first.
Linking Language: Simple Language and Literac (Kindle Edition) by Robert Rockwell, Debra Hoge This is a great book, with a lot of great oral language activities. These activities could be done whole group and/or in small A List of books that cover vocabulary, as well as, rhyming. Herd of Cows! Flock of Sheep! (Collective Nouns) Suddenly Alligator(Adverbs) Bullfrog Pops! (Verbs and Direct Objects) Around the House the Fox Chased the Mouse (Prepositions) Once There Was a Bull (Frog) (Compound Words) Pig Pigger Piggest (Comparing) Why the Banana Split (Idioms) Just Me and 6,000 Rats (Conjunctions)
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* Merkantilismus - zaměřen na praktické otázky růstu bohatství, jeho cílem bylo zejména nalezení způsobů a metod hromadění peněz v zemi. Pozornost je věnována především obchodu, kdy aktivní obchodní bilance je pojímána jako základní předpoklad růstu bohatství země.
Or , in other words, pleadings set the boundaries and define what is in issue. They "not only serve to define the issues but give the opposing parties fair notice of the case to meet, provide the boundaries and context...
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