The Late Seventeenth Century Opera in seventeenth-century France Absolute monarchy established by Cardinal Richelieu under Louis XIII Acadmies 1635 Acadmie franaise (for belles lettres) set up by Richelieu rationalistic, idealistic, classicistic in sense of restraint, balance Acadmie de musique (1669) Ballet de cour
social, participatory with courtiers as dancers danced in center space in open hall included instrumental music, spoken narrative and dialogue, airs Operas arrival in France Italian works during regency of Anne of Austria (16431653) nationalism exploited by librettist Pierre Perrin (ca. 16201675) under Louis XIV Jean-Baptiste Lully (1632 1687)
Florentine, moved to Paris 1646 Instrumental composer to Louis XIV from 1653 member of existing Vingt-quatre violons du roi Petits violons (sixteen, later twenty-one) under Lully from 1656 set new performance standards superintendent of music from 1661 Comdies-ballets with Molire 16631672, e.g., Le bourgeois gentilhomme 1670 fused music, dance, poetry developing style influence of Italian pastoral operas, French ballet de cour 1672 took over Acadmie de musique complete control of musical life in France
Tragdies lyriques Lully and Philippe Quinault (16351688) Mythological plots with allegorical allusions to France and king French style five acts Classic model from Greek antiquity emphasis on ballet derived from ballet de cour tradition more chorus than contemporary Italian opera spectacle machines, sets rcitatif carries action, carefully measured, simple air modeled on French air de cour nondramatic, often employs dance rhythms and
forms functions of instrumental music articulative especially overture dramatic accompaniment to singing English music in the late seventeenth century Isolation especially under Cromwell and Commonwealth 16491660 Restoration began to recover court following French model English church music in the seventeenth century Beginning of century continued music of
English Reformation Services full and verse anthems Church musicians abolished under Puritan regime Restoration recovered choral music tradition, including concerted compositions Instrumental music in England Keyboard tradition from sixteenth century dances variation sets
Ensemble music fantasy (fancy) for consort of viols later, Italian-style sonatas Musical drama during the Restoration period Theater music tradition of court masque recitatives songs
choruses dances Theater suppressed during Commonwealth concerts still permitted Opera after the Stuart Restoration still very limited Henry Purcell (16591695) Time of Stuart Restoration, worked in court and Westminster Abbey Sacred works associated with church employment anthems, services Dramatic music for court milieu opera Dido and Aeneas
semiopera, e.g., The Fairy Queen Odes and welcome songs royal welcomes, weddings, birthdays, St. Cecilias Day Songs Instrumental keyboard, ensemble (fantasies, sonatas, etc.) Spanish opera in the seventeenth century Based on pastoral court entertainment tradition use of mythical, allegorical plots Solo singing all female in leading parts except for
comic male peasant not separated into distinct style of recitative and aria but used strophic songs for both dialogue and affective moments Spanish instrumentation continuo uses harp and guitar Choruses in familiar style Neapolitan opera in the late seventeenth century Naples as focus of stylistic progress in Italy Sharp distinctions serious vs. comic scenes later to be
split away solo almost completely displaces chorus, mostly displaces ensembles recitative extremely differentiated from aria differentiated as simple, accompagnato; arioso Da capo aria design A Ritornello home key Solo modulating Ritornello contrast key Solo
modulating Ritornello home key B Solo modulating A da capo ornamented in performance Cantata Chamber vocal genre (cubicularis) for voice (possibly voices) continuo (possibly obbligato instruments)
Multiple movements Vocal styles of opera recitative aria Later seventeenth-century instrumental genres Organ music, Suite, Sonata, Concerto German organ music in the late seventeenth century German organ music in the late seventeenth century
Two classifications of organ compositions Frei figurational material; free from contrapuntal texture prelude, toccata, etc. Gebunden based on established melodic material, follows contrapuntal rules chorale-based pieces fugues Chorale settings for organ Chorale fugue chorale melody treated in fugal texture Chorale fantasia extended elaborations of
each phrase with repetitions and interruptions in c.f. Chorale prelude one more-or-less continuous statement of chorale melody as c.f. c.f. with or without ornamentation ornamentation usually only if c.f. is soprano accompaniment either independent or derivative Vorimitation Chorale partita series of short chorale settings in contrasting styles alternatim usage in service organ, choir, congregation Fugue Antecedents
sixteenth-century imitative pieces based on vocal models ricercar (from motet) and canzona (from chanson) early seventeenth-century monothematic fantasia or ricercar Theoretical and stylistic principles in mature fugue monothematicism subjects more instrumental in melodic and rhythmic profile, unlike ricercar and fantasia tonal answer countersubject
tonal unity and plan for entire piece pedal point especially approaching final cadence The French keyboard suite (ordre) Importance of dance court ballet tradition Harpsichord intimate style suited to taste of courtly amateurs Rhythm derived from dance styles Melody agrments; ornamented doubles Forms binary dance form variety of midpoint
cadence choices rondeau Standard order of dances in the late seventeenth-century suite Derived from publication of suites by Johann Jacob Froberger (16161667) Allemande duple meter, moderate
tempo Courante flowing triple meter (often with hemiola) Sarabande slow triple meter, emphasis on second beat 2 of the measure Gigue fast compound meter Two important French suite composers Elisabeth-Claude Jacquet de la Guerre (16651729) Franois Couperin "le grand" (1668 1733) often used descriptive titles rather than dance names, turning dance
movements into character pieces Sonata Scoring violin(s) or other melodic instruments and b.c. instrumental idiom, not vocal style Ensembles trio sonata duet and b.c. most popular combines clarity of b.c. texture with polyphonic interest
solo sonata solo and b.c. allows for more virtuosity Major composer Arcangelo Corelli (16531713) Sonata types Sonata da camera (chamber sonata) stylized dances actually a dance suite Sonata da chiesa (church sonata) abstract movements (at least ostensibly) alternating tempos, usually slow-fastslow-fast Concerto
Derived from sonata by reinforcing some passages with multiple instruments Two major composers Giuseppe Torelli (16581709) established structural principles Antonio Vivaldi (16781741) worked out types of material to exploit principles of form Concerto types Ripieno (full) concerto uses all instruments freely Solo concerto solo vs. ripieno group Concerto grosso concertino group
(often trio group) vs. ripieno Form in the Baroque concerto Three movements (usually) fast, slow, fast Ritornell Outer movements usually in ritornello Solo Ritornello Solo Ritornell o form: o
Tutti Solo and Tutti b.c. Solo and Tutti b.c. Home key
Contrast key Home key Questions for discussion How did political structures affect musical life and express themselves through musical style in the late seventeenth century? Why would it be appropriate to describe a large Italian opera aria as a concerto movement for voice? What significant differences are there between the two
structures? How did the idea of affective expression and of key center support large forms in instrumental and vocal music in the
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