by Russell Krick Publisher The Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

by Russell Krick Publisher The Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

by Russell Krick Publisher The Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Tinley Park, Illinois Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only

Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only (9 Topics) Fasteners Washers Machine screws Sheet metal screws Nonthreaded fasteners

Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Torquing bolts and nuts Thread repairs Removing damaged fasteners Gaskets and seals Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Devices that hold the parts of a vehicle together Thousands of fasteners are used in vehicles Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only

Automotive Fasteners Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Bolts and Nuts Bolt metal rod with external threads on one end and a head on the other

when a bolt is threaded into a part other than a nut, it can also be called a cap screw Nut has internal threads and, usually, a sixsided outer shape Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Bolts and Nuts

When a nut is screwed onto a bolt, a powerful clamping force is produced Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Bolt Dimensions Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Bolt Dimensions Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Thread Types There are three basic types of threads used on fasteners:

Coarse threads UNC-Unified National Coarse Fine threads UNF-Unified National Fine Metric threads SI Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only

Thread Direction Bolts and nuts come in right- and lefthand threads Right-hand threads fastener must be turned clockwise to tighten Left-hand threads fastener must be turned counterclockwise to tighten letter L may be stamped on fastener

Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Bolt Grade Also called tensile strength Refers to the amount of pull a fastener can withstand before breaking Bolt head markings specify the tensile strength of the bolt U.S. customary bolts are marked with

lines Metric bolts are marked with numbers Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Bolt Description Gives information about the bolt Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Bolt Description Used when purchasing new bolts Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Bolt Description

Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Nut Types Common types of nuts used in vehicles Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only

Castle Nut and Cotter Pin Cotter pin keeps the nut from turning and possibly coming off Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Used under bolt heads and nuts Two basic types of washers are used:

flat washers lock washers Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Washer Types Flat washer increases the clamping surface under the fastener

prevents the bolt or nut from digging into the part Lock washer prevents the bolt or nut from becoming loose under stress and vibration Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only

Washer Types Lock tabs or lock plates perform the functions of both flat washers and lock washers increase clamping surface area and secure the fastener Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only

Washer Types A. Plain flat washer C. Toothed lock washer Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. B. Split lock washer D. Lock plate Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Similar to bolts, but they normally have

screw-type heads Threaded along their full length Used to secure parts when clamping loads are light Available in various head shapes Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Also called tapping screws

Commonly used on plastic and sheet metal parts, such as body trim, dashboard panels, and grills Use tapering threads that are widely spaced Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Sheet Metal Screws

Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Numerous types of nonthreaded fasteners, such as snap rings, clips, and adhesives, are used in the assembly of a vehicle Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Snap Ring Fits into a groove in a part and commonly holds shafts, bearings, gears, pins, and other components in place Snap ring pliers are needed to remove and install a snap ring special jaws grasp the snap ring

Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Snap Ring Types Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only

Keys and Set Screws Key prevents a part from turning on its shaft fits into a keyseat (slot) cut into a shaft and a keyway cut into the mating part Set screw normally used to lock a part onto a shaft not as strong as a key Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Keys and Set Screws A. Key B. Set screw Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only

Splines Series of slots cut into a shaft and a mating part Allow the gear or collar to slide on the shaft but still not rotate Used in manual transmissions, clutches, and drive shaft yokes Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only

Splines Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Adhesives Special glues widely used in vehicles Used to hold body moldings, rubber weather stripping, and body emblems

Some stay soft and pliable; others dry hard Some take hours to dry; others dry in seconds Observe all directions and safety precautions when using adhesives Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only It is very important that bolts and

nuts be tightened properlythis is called torquing Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Torque Specifications Tightening values given by the auto manufacturer Normally given for all precision

assemblies, such as engines, transmissions, and differentials Factory specifications should be used general bolt torque chart may be used if factory specs are not available Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Bolt

Torque Chart Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Torque-to-Yield Requires a bolt to be tightened to a specific torque and then turned an additional number of degrees

Procedure stretches the bolt to its correct yield point, preloading the fastener for better clamping under varying conditions New bolts may be required each time Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Torque Stretch

Determined by measuring bolt length change while torquing the bolt when building a racing engine, you can mike connecting rod bolts to measure the length before and after tightening Too much stretch indicates bolt weakness Not enough stretch may indicate thread problems affecting torque

Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Bolt Tightening Sequence Used to make sure that parts are fastened evenly Creates an even, gradual clamping force along the entire mating surface of the parts

Crisscross pattern is often recommended Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Bolt Tightening Sequence 10

9 6 5 2 1 3

7 4 8 Service manual pattern for a cylinder head Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only

Bolt Tightening Sequence Service manual pattern for wheel lug nuts Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Torque Wrench Rules Keep a steady pull on the wrench

Clean fastener threads Avoid using swivel joints When reading a torque wrench, look straight down at the scale Use manufacturers specifications when available Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only

Torque Wrench Rules When manufacturers specs are not available, use general specs in a crisscross pattern To avoid a false reading, pull only on the handle Tighten bolts and nuts in four steps Retorque when required some assemblies must be retightened after operation and heating Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Threaded holes in parts can become damaged, requiring repairs. A technician must be capable of repairing damaged threads quickly and properly. Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only

Minor Thread Repairs Minor thread damage includes nicks, partial flattening, and other less serious problems Minor damage can be repaired with a thread chaser or a thread file the thread chaser is run through or over the threads to restore them Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Major Thread Repairs Badly smashed or stripped threads may be repaired with either a tap or die Tap threaded tool for cutting internal threads in holes Die

cuts external threads on metal rods, bolts, shafts, and pins Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Tap and Die Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Using a Tap and Die Hold the handle squarely with the work Back the handle off to clean metal out of the threads Use a taper tap to start the threads Use a plug tap and a bottoming tap to cut the threads to the bottom of the hole

Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Tap and Die Rules Never force a tap handle or the tool may break Keep the tap and die well oiled to ease cutting Use coarse threads when threading or tapping into soft metal, like aluminum

coarse threads will hold better than fine threads Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Tapping Oversize When threads cannot be restored, the hole can be drilled and tapped oversize Use a drill and tap size chart to

choose a drill bit and tap Drill the hole one size larger than the original hole Cut new threads in the drilled hole Use a larger bolt in the threaded hole Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Thread Repair Insert Used when the use of an oversize hole

and fastener is not acceptable Takes place of damaged internal threads Allows the use of the original-size bolt Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Using an Insert A. Drill the hole

oversize B. Tap the hole oversize C. Mount the insert on a mandrel D. Thread the insert into the hole Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Using an Insert Insert allows the use of the original-size bolt Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Using an Insert

Damaged threads before a repair Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Installed insert Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only An automotive technician must be able to remove broken bolts, screws, and studs, as well as fasteners having

rusted or rounded-off heads Specific tools and methods are needed for removing problem fasteners Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Removal Methods Grasp a rusted or rounded head with locking pliers Use a stud puller or stud wrench

removes studs and bolts broken off above the surface of the part Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Removal Methods Cut a slot in the fastener with a hacksaw or weld on a nut to grasp Use a hammer and punch

angle the punch so that blows from the hammer can drive out the broken fastener Drill a hole almost as large as the inside diameter of the threads use a tap or punch to remove the thread shell Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only

Removal Methods Using a screw extractor A. Drill a hole B. Tap the extractor into the hole C. Unscrew the extractor and bolt Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only

Removal Methods Use rust penetrant to help ease turning and prevent fastener breakage Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Used between parts to prevent leakage of engine oil, coolant, transmission fluid, and other fluids

Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Gaskets Soft, flexible material placed between parts to prevent leakage Made of fiber materials, rubber, neoprene (synthetic rubber), cork, treated paper, or thin steel When parts are fastened together, the

gasket material fills small gaps, dents, or scratches in the mating surfaces Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Gasket Rules Inspect for leaks before disassembly Be careful not to damage mating surfaces while removing parts

Clean off old gaskets carefully Wash and dry parts thoroughly Compare the new gasket to the shape of the mating surface Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Gasket Rules Use a sealer if specified

When assembling, start all bolts by hand Tighten fasteners in steps Use a crisscross tightening pattern Do not overtighten fasteners apply only the specified torque Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only

Sealers Gaskets are often coated with a sealer to help prevent leakage and to hold the gasket in place during assembly Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Types of Sealers

Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Form-in-Place Gaskets Used instead of conventional fiber or rubber gaskets Two common types are: room temperature vulcanizing (RTV) sealer anaerobic sealer

Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only RTV Sealer Also called silicone sealer Dries in contact with air Used to form a rubber-like gasket on thin, flexible flanges Available in tubes

has a shelf life of one to two years Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only RTV Sealer Commonly recommended where two different gaskets join Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Using RTV Sealer Apply in a continuous bead that is approximately 1/8 (3 mm) wide Circle all mounting holes Torque components in place while the RTV is still wet to the touch within about 10 minutes of application

Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Anaerobic Sealer Cures to a plastic-like substance in the absence of air Designed for tightly fitting, thick parts Used between two smooth, true surfaces

Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Using Anaerobic Sealer Apply in a continuous bead that is approximately 1/16"3/32" (1.5 mm 2 mm) wide Circle all mounting holes Torque components in place within 15

minutes of sealer application Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Using Sealers Both anaerobic and RTV sealers are used on this water pump

Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Seals Prevent leakage between a stationary part and a moving part Found in engines, transmissions, power steering units, and any part containing fluid and moving parts Made of synthetic rubber molded onto

a metal body Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Seal Application Seal lip faces the fluid and keeps it inside the part Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Seal Rules Inspect the seal for leakage before disassembly if the seal is leaking, look for a bent shaft, misaligned seal housing, or damaged parts Remove the old seal carefully, without

scratching the seal housing Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Seal Rules Inspect shafts for wear and burrs Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Seal Rules Compare the old seal to the new seal make sure the inner and outer diameters match before installation Install the new seal correctly coat the outside with an approved sealer coat the inner lip of the seal with system fluid

install the seal with the sealing lip toward the inside of the part Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only O-Ring Seal Stationary seal that fits into a groove between two parts When the parts are assembled, the synthetic rubber seal is partially

compressed to form a leakproof joint Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only O-Ring Seal Normally, the O-ring seal is coated with system fluid before installation Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.

Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Synthetic Seal Specially-shaped seal that fits down into a groove formed in the part Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Chapter 11 Choosing the Congress - Southeast Missouri State ...

    Chapter 11 Choosing the Congress - Southeast Missouri State ...

    Chapter 13 Part One Choosing the Congress Instructor: Kevin Sexton Course: U.S. Political Systems Southeast Missouri State University The Make Up Of The U.S. Congress IN 1789 Senate had 26 Members House of Representatives had 65 Members IN 2010 Senate...
  • GATE and Unicode

    GATE and Unicode

    A Light-weight Approach to Coreference Resolution for Named Entities in Text Marin Dimitrov Ontotext Lab, Sirma AI Kalina Bontcheva, Hamish Cunningham, Diana Maynard, Horacio Saggion Department of Computer Science, University of Sheffield 1(12)
  • STAFF - AUXILIARY ROLE ID AND CHANGES TO ROLE IDS / FUND Code ...

    STAFF - AUXILIARY ROLE ID AND CHANGES TO ROLE IDS / FUND Code ...

    The validation of the correct Role ID and Auxiliary Role ID for each staff person reported through the StaffExtension Complex Type is controlled by the Object Codes reported on the 30060 - PayrollExtension Complex Type. It is possible for a...
  • Estimation of Haemoglobin Content. - Delta Univ

    Estimation of Haemoglobin Content. - Delta Univ

    Haemoglobin: -It is a chromoprotien of M.W. 64450. -It is globular in shape. -It represents 34 % of RBCs volume. -It is made up of 4 subunits each of which is made up of Haem molecule conjugated to a polypeptide...
  • PANTOMIME/MIME - Quia

    PANTOMIME/MIME - Quia

    PANTOMIME/MIME. A mime artist (from Greek "μίμος"—mimos, "imitator, actor"). is someone who uses mime as a theatrical medium or as a performance art, involving miming, or the acting out a story through body motions, without use of speech.. In earlier...
  • E-mail Technical Coordinators Meeting - IT@UMN

    E-mail Technical Coordinators Meeting - [email protected]

    E-mail Technical Coordinators Meeting Steve Siirila Chris Bongaarts Feb 13, 2008 Outages diamond Limitations of 32-bit code on Solaris Short term fix: offloading users Long term fix: recompiling software garnet Increased usage by existing users Starting to offload users who...
  • Soft Skills:Building a Culture - Alabama Community College System

    Soft Skills:Building a Culture - Alabama Community College System

    "The soft skills piece is something we've been hearing from business and industry a good bit." "…understanding you need to show up on time, knowing how to dress, knowing how to work in teams, knowing how to get along with...
  • Oxygen/Fuel Cutting Guidelines

    Oxygen/Fuel Cutting Guidelines

    Oxyfuel: the process of combining pure oxygen with a combustible fuel gas to produce a flame. Can be used for welding, brazing, cutting, and heating metals. Oxygen & fuel gases are stored under pressure in cylinders and are released as...