Introduction to Educational Research (5th ed.) Craig A.

Introduction to Educational Research (5th ed.) Craig A.

Introduction to Educational Research (5th ed.) Craig A. Mertler & C.M. Charles Chapter 2 Types of Educational Research & Corresponding Sources of Data 1 Variables and Educational Research Research helps us understand variables and relationships among them

Variables versus constants Ways of classifying variables: Continuous and discrete variables Independent and dependent variables Confounding variables: Interveningunobservable traits Organismicpermanent physical traits Extraneoustemporary Controlledthose whose effects have been accounted for 2 Types of Educational Research

Can be organized by (1) practicality, (2) methodology employed, or (3) type of research question Research categorized by PRACTICALITY: Basic researchtheory-based Applied researchconducted to solve immediate problems Research categorized by METHODOLOGY: Qualitative vs. quantitative researchaddress specific type of data generated Experimental vs. nonexperimental research describing cause-effect relationships or describing current status, respectively Studies classified using one of each pairs of descriptors

3 Types of Educational Research (contd. Research categorized by RESEARCH QUESTION: Ethnographicexplains social behavior; nonexperimental; qualitative Historicalexplores conditions, events of the past; nonexperimental; qualitative/quantitative/both Descriptivedescribes current status; nonexperimental; qualitative/quantitative/both Correlationalexplores degree of relationship between two or more variables; nonexperimental; quantitative

4 Types of Educational Research (contd. Actionto improve conditions in a particular setting without generalizing; experimental/nonexperimental; qualitative/quantitative/both Evaluationconducted to make judgments about programs, etc.; experimental/nonexperimental; qualitative/quantitative/both Causal-comparativeexamines influence of preexisting condition (IV) on an outcome variable (DV); nonexperimental; quantitative Experimentalexamines effect of a cause (IV,

through manipulation) on an effect (DV); experimental; quantitative 5 Sources of Research Data Datainformation collected on people, settings, objects, etc. Primary sourcesfirsthand information; accurate Secondary sourcesinterpretations of primary data; subject to error Meta-analytical dataanalysis of several existing studies Specific sources of data:

Participants Records Procedures Documents Informants Settings Objects 6 Procedures Used in Collecting Data Verbal description Notation Recording

Analysis Questioning Surveys Interviews Testing Measurement 7 Qualities Required in Research Data Authenticity and believabilityinformal, unstructured assessments External criticismdetermining whether or not data comes from legitimate sources (authentic); purely

judgmental Internal criticismexamination of data accuracy and lack of bias (believable) Validity and reliabilityformal, structured assessments Validity - determining whether or not data deal directly with topic Reliabilitydetermining whether or not data are consistent 8 Participants, Samples, & Populations Data is collected from Participants

who are members of Samples in order to learn about Populations 9 Applying Technology Dr. William Trochim's Research Methods Knowledge Base electronic textbook (http://trochim.human.cornell.edu/kb) 10

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