From Raw Data to an Image Field Record

From Raw Data to an Image Field Record

From Raw Data to an Image Field Record (marine) Data Processing Stream Time Offset http://www.ig.utexas.edu/people/staff/ mrinal/Results/carlos_nn1_files/ image006.jpg Subsurface Image Courtesy of ExxonMobil F W Schroeder 04

L 3 - Types of Data Seismic Processing Deconvolution removing unwanted parts of the signal spiking Statics Correction Positioning Problems Energy Source s 0.2 up n ow

sd 0.2 0.4 s Bounce Point The seismic ray hits an inclined surface at 90 and reflects back Courtesy of ExxonMobil F W Schroeder 04 The reflection is displayed beneath the source-receiver midpoint L 5 Seismic Method Time for an Exercise

1 2 3 4 5 6

90 Where would the reflection lie? Courtesy of ExxonMobil F W Schroeder 04 L 5 Seismic Method Time for an Exercise 1 2 3

4 5 6 Compass Where would the reflection lie? Courtesy of ExxonMobil F W Schroeder

04 L 5 Seismic Method Time for an Exercise 1 2 3 4 5

6 Where would the reflection lie? Courtesy of ExxonMobil F W Schroeder 04 L 5 Seismic Method Exercise Answer 1 2

3 4 5 6 The reflection is downdip and its dip is less than the interface Courtesy of ExxonMobil

F W Schroeder 04 L 5 Seismic Method Wavefront Migration Correcting for Location Unmigrated energy on single trace... S R Sweep Ellipse S ...spread to all possible locations of origin R OR

Sweep Ellipse S R OR Sweep Ellipse Courtesy of ExxonMobil F W Schroeder 04 L 5 Seismic Method Migration Power of Correlation Two reflections on unmigrated data After spreading to all possible locations Reflections are not positioned

in the subsurface correctly since they have dip Constructive interference occurs where the reflections are properly positioned Destructive interference dominates where the reflections are NOT properly positioned Courtesy of ExxonMobil F W Schroeder 04 L 5 Seismic Method Other methods of migration Diffraction Stack Sum arrivals along Diffraction Hyperbola F W Schroeder

04 Seismic Migration Unmigrated Image Positioning Problems Blur the Image Migrated Image Migration Reduces Positioning Problems, which Improves the Image Courtesy of ExxonMobil F W Schroeder 04

L 5 Seismic Method Migration Example North Sea Salt Dome Velocity Model Kirchoff Migration Reverse Time Migration CGGVeritas

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