Earth EarthObservations ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors Sensors An AnOverview Overview

Earth EarthObservations ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors Sensors An AnOverview Overview

Earth EarthObservations ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors Sensors An AnOverview Overview Overview of Earth Observations Satellites by David E. Pitts University of Houston Clear Lake copies of this presentation are available from: http://sce.uhcl.edu/Pitts/ Dec. 15, 2017 Copyright 2017 David E. Pitts Earth EarthObservations ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors Sensors

An AnOverview Overview Updates on the Status of Earth Observations Satellites can be found on: http://www.spaceflightnow.com/tracking/index.html History of satellite launches & upcoming launches is at: http://www.itc.nl/research/products/sensordb/Launch_Schedule.aspx David E. Pitts Earth EarthObservations ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors Sensors An AnOverview Overview LANDSAT (as of 1991, Landsat is a joint program of NASA, NOAA, and USGS) Landsat 4 Landsat 5 Landsat 6 Landsat 7 (ETM+, no MSS)

July 1982 - 1993 March 1984 -Failed Jan 6, 2013 Sept. 1993 (Failed) available until 2018 16 day repeat cycle Sun-synchronous orbit (705 km altitude, inclination 98.2 deg, period 99 minutes) MSS Swath 185 km 4 bands (green, red, 2 near IR) 80 m resolution 0 DN (Digital Number) 128 David E. Pitts Earth EarthObservations ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors Sensors An AnOverview Overview LANDSAT 8 Launch - February 11, 2013

Combined with Landsat 7 gives 8 day coverage. OLI 7,000 pixel, 9 band pushbroom, 30 m resolution Silicon Pin detectors, bands 1 - 4, & 8 MerCdTe detectors, bands 6,7, & 9 13,000 pixel, pan pushbroom, 15 m resolution ITRS - Thermal IR, 10.6-11.2 & 11.5 - 12.5 m, 100 m res. NET = 0.4 deg K. Gallium Arsenide detectors http://tinyurl.com/awzxj6m http://ldcm.nasa.gov/ David E. Pitts Earth EarthObservations ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors Sensors An AnOverview Overview LANDSAT 8 - continued OLI sensor bands (Pushbroom Scanner) David E. Pitts

Earth EarthObservations ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors Sensors An AnOverview Overview LANDSAT MSS & Landsat 7 ETM+ Data Availability: EROS Data Center Mundt Federal Building Sioux Falls SD 57198 telephone - 605-594-6511 Digital Data MSS full scene $200-$375 (1972-1992) Landsat 4-5, $425-$625 (1982-present) Landsat 7 ETM $475-$800 (1999-present) Global visualization viewer http://glovis.usgs.gov/ http://eros.usgs.gov/remote-sensing http://eros.usgs.gov/satellite-imagery http://earthexplorer.usgs.gov/ Use this tool to find images David E. Pitts

Earth EarthObservations ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors Sensors An AnOverview Overview LANDSAT continued Thematic Mapper 185 x 170 km 7 bands (blue, green, red, near IR, 2 mid IR, thermal) 30 m resolution 0 DN (Digital Number) 255 No on-board tape recorders - instead uses: TDRSS Ground Stations Landsat 7 ETM+ will have previous capabilities plus 15 m resolution - panchromatic Thermal IR - 60 m resolution David E. Pitts Earth EarthObservations

ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors Sensors An AnOverview Overview Landsat 9 Launch 2020 Orbital ATK was awarded a contract by NASA for $129.9 million to complete the delivery order in 5 years Will be similar to Landsat 8 USGS will continue to operate, process, archive and provision the data (free). David E. Pitts Earth EarthObservations ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors Sensors An AnOverview Overview Terra

Launch Dec. 18, 1999 Part of the Earth Observing System (EOS) CERES (Clouds and the Earth Radiant Energy System) A broadband scanning radiometer that measures emitted and reflected energy. MODIS-N (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer - Nadir) 36 band Imaging Spectrometer Thermal IR 1 km resolution, Vegetation and Land surface - 250 m to 1 km. David E. Pitts Earth EarthObservations ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors Sensors An AnOverview Overview Terra concluded MISR (Multi-Angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer) Push broom CCD 9 view angles, 4-band. Study bidirectional characteristics of the atmosphere, vegetation canopies and phytoplankton pigment concentrations. ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer)

Japanese 3-band (visible, mid IR, thermal IR) high resolution imager (15 to 90 m) along track stereo for topography. MOPITT (Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere) 3 band scanner. Gas correlation radiometer to measure CO2 and CH4 vertical profiles in the atmosphere. http://modis.gsfc.nasa.gov/data/ David E. Pitts http://edcimswww.cr.usgs.gov/pub/imswelcome/ Earth EarthObservations ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors Sensors An AnOverview Overview Aquarius Global sea surface salinity (seawater emissivity) Launch - June 10, 2011 (lost power June 8, 2015) Altitude 600 km Repeat cycle - 8 days, sun synchronous Radiometer/Scatterometer operating at 1.4 GHz (L-band) Partnership between NASA and Argentina.

David E. Pitts Earth EarthObservations ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors Sensors An AnOverview Overview Aqua Launch: May 4, 2002 Altitude 705 km, 98.2 deg Inclination, period 99 minutes Sun Synchronous, repeat 16 days. MODIS: Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer AMSR-E: Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-JAXA 6.9, 10.7, 18.7, 23.8, 36.5, 89.0 Ghz AMSU-A: Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A CERES: Cloud's and the Earth's Radiant Energy System AIRS: Atmospheric Infrared Sounder HSB: Humidity Sounder for Brazil http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=2421 David E. Pitts Earth

EarthObservations ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors Sensors An AnOverview Overview Aura Launch: July 15, 2004 Sun Synchronous HIRDLS Measures Ozone, Water vapor, methane, and many chemicals - stopped working 2008 OMI measured Nitrous Oxide, Sulfur Dioxide, aerosols and other chemicals. Similar to TOMS TES Fourier Transform spectrometer, Also on the Aqua satellite Can measure many chemicals including those listed for HIRDLS and OMI. MLS measures temperature and water vapor profiles and OH, HO2 and BRO. http://aura.gsfc.nasa.gov/scinst/index.html David E. Pitts Earth EarthObservations ObservationsSatellite

SatelliteSensors Sensors An AnOverview Overview EO-1 NASA Satellite TRW built Hyperion hyperspectral imager - launched Nov 21, 2000 after 17 years in orbit will be powered off March 30, 2017 30 m resolution 220 spectral bands swath 7.5 km x 180 km CCD Vis nIR, HgCdTe SWIR A test bed for new sensors- resulted in the OLI on Landsat 8 Sales and Distribution by USGS (provided 2600 sets by 2005) http://eo1.usgs.gov/ Serving as knowledge base for several other efforts: ARTEMIS (USAF), CHRIS (ESA), HERO (Canada), SPECTRA (ESA), EnMAP (German) http://eo1.gsfc.nasa.gov/new/validationReport/Technology/TRW_EO1%20Papers_Presentations/02.pdf David E. Pitts Earth EarthObservations ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors Sensors

An AnOverview Overview OCO Orbiting Carbon Observatory The $278 million dollar satellite failed on launch - Feb 24, 2009 OCO-2 Orbiting Carbon Observatory -2 Successful launch July 2, 2014 Measures Solar Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence (SIF) Measured Carbon Dioxide in the atmosphere http://oco2.jpl.nasa.gov/ NASA's Glory Earth Observation Satellite launch March 4, 2011 resulted in failure

Monitoring aerosols in the atmosphere Monitoring solar irradiance David E. Pitts Earth EarthObservations ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors Sensors An AnOverview Overview SMAP Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission Successful launch January 31, 2015 Measures soil moisture in the top 5 cm Resolution 9 km, repeat coverage every 2-3 days Failed Sept 2, 2015 http://www.nasa.gov/smap David E. Pitts Earth EarthObservations ObservationsSatellite

SatelliteSensors Sensors An AnOverview Overview SWOT (Surface Water and Ocean Topography) Satellite Under development, Launch scheduled 2020 Uses Ka band radar to map areal extent and topography http://swot.jpl.nasa.gov/mission/ SWOT (Surface Water and Ocean Topography) Aircraft Program Ka band radar on a King Air Aircraft based at Armstrong Flight Research Facility in California http://swot.jpl.nasa.gov/airswot/ Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IFSAR) is a technique to determine surface elevation using 2 or more SAR scenes https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interferometric_synthetic_aperture_radar David E. Pitts Earth EarthObservations ObservationsSatellite

SatelliteSensors Sensors An AnOverview Overview Planet Labs launches 88 Dove satellites Launch Feb 17, 2017 from Satish Dhawan Space Centre in India Provides daily coverage of entire Earth at 3.7 m Four bands R,G,B, and near IR https://www.planet.com/pulse/planet-launches-satellite-constellation-toimage-the-whole-planet-daily/ Now has 300 of these shoebox satellites in orbit. Planet Labs has acquired Googles Terra Bella Satellites Seven Skysats which have 0.7 m resoltuion https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terra_Bella David E. Pitts Earth EarthObservations ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors Sensors An AnOverview

Overview France Spot-4 launched March 23, 1998 (Spot-2 retired July 30, 2009) Spot-5 launched May 4, 2002 http://eoedu.belspo.be/en/satellites/spot.htm Sun synchronous orbit repeat cycle - each 26 days Cross track point of 60 km swath gives 2.5 day coverage 3-bands (green, red, near IR) 20 m resolution 1-band (combined) 10 m resolution 60 x 60 km scene Full multispectral scene or full B & W $1,200.00 Rectified multispectral scene $11,475.00 Source - Spot Image Corp. Washington D. C. 1897 Preston White Drive Reston VA 22091-4368 Telephone 703-620-2200 http://www.spot.com Spot-6 & 7 launch 2012-2014 David E. Pitts Earth EarthObservations

ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors Sensors An AnOverview Overview India Bhaskara 1 launched June 7, 1979 Bhaskara 2 launched Nov. 20, 1981 IRS-1A series began in March 1988 - not in use IRS P- 3 Launched March 21, 1996 IRS-1D Launched Sept. 29, 1997 140,000 scenes of India obtained Ground stations at Bangalore and Hyderabad 4 bands - (G, R, nIR, SWIR) resolution - 23.5 m 70.5 m resolution inSWIR band (IRS-1C,D is 5.8 m) Swath width - 145 km (has a wide FOV mode like AVHRR) Repeat cycle - 22 days, Sun Synchronous Cross Track Stereo David E. Pitts Earth EarthObservations ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors

Sensors An AnOverview Overview India launch Risat-2 on April 20, 2009 TecSAR imaging radar built by Israel X-band, 550 km orbit, 41 deg inclination Military as well as civilian Earth Observations ResourceSat-1 (IRS-P6) Sun synchronous orbit Steerable 26 degrees across track

3 bands Visible & near IR, 5.8 m, 23.5 m resolution AWiFS has 56 meter resolution ResourceSat-3 launch 2011 David E. Pitts Earth EarthObservations ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors Sensors An AnOverview Overview India Cartosat - 1 Stereo .8 m resolution B & W cameras. Launched May, 5, 2005 Sun-synchronous orbit Cartosat - 2 Similar spacecraft, launched Jan. 10, 2007 Cartosat - 2a Military version with a SAR, launched Jan. 10, 2007 IMS - 1 Low cost remote sensing satellite to share with poor countries IRS Satellite Data Availability http://www.geoeye.com/products/services/default.htm David E. Pitts Earth

EarthObservations ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors Sensors An AnOverview Overview India concluded IRS Satellite Data Media - CD ROM Format - tiff, bsq North American Coverage 23 x 23 km scene $900.00 5m IRS-1C/1D (B&W) (2653 sq km, about 51 x 51 km) $7.00 /sqkm $18,571.00 USD plus shipping ($35) 29.221302, -95.271061, 29.675783, -94.7283 David E. Pitts Earth

EarthObservations ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors Sensors An AnOverview Overview http://www.geoeye.com/products/default.htm http://www.geoeye.com/whitepapers_pdfs/GeoEye_IKONOS_Product_Guide_v17.pdf http://www.satimagingcorp.com/satellite-sensors/ikonos.html High Resolution (launch Sept. 24, 1999) 0.8 m resolution IKONOS, (Panchromatic) $7.00 /sqkm 1 m IKONOS (B&W / 4 band, 3.2 meter) (2653 sq km) 29.221302, -95.271061, 29.675783, -94.7283 $18,571.00 USD plus shipping ($35)

http://www.satimagingcorp.com/satellite-sensors/geoeye-1.html Geoeye-1 spacecraft launch was launched Sept 6, 2008. 0.41 m resolution panchromatic, they combined the 1.64m color and the panchromatic to give 0.41 m color imagery. David E. Pitts Earth EarthObservations ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors Sensors An AnOverview Overview

Geoeye-2 spacecraft Renamed WorldView-4 Launch expected in 2016 Resolution 30 cm in panchromatic mode Resolution (multispectral) 1.2 m Repeat cycle 3 days 15 revolutions per day 10 am local solar time at the equator Dynamic range 11 bits David E. Pitts Earth EarthObservations ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors Sensors An AnOverview Overview Orbview-3 4m Multispectral (8 bands) $7/sq km, (2653 sq km)

$18,571.00 USD plus shipping ($35) 29.221302, -95.271061, 29.675783, -94.7283 Orbview-3 1 m Panchromatic $5/sq km, (2653 sq km) $13,265.00 USD plus shipping ($35) 29.221302, -95.271061, 29.675783, -94.7283 David E. Pitts Earth EarthObservations ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors Sensors An AnOverview Overview Canada Radarsat C-band SAR - November 4, 1995 100 km swaths, 9 m resolution, HH polarization,

16 day repeat cycle Radarsat - 2 launched Dec 14, 2007 from Baikonur Availability - EOSAT (Earth Observations Satellite Co.) 4300 Forbes Boulevard Lanham, Maryland 20706 USA 800 - 344- 9933 ext 537 301-552-3762 Cost $1,250.00 to $2120.00 U. S. per scene on CDROM http://www.spaceimaging.com/products/radarsat/index.htm http://radarsat.space.gc.ca/ David E. Pitts Earth EarthObservations ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors Sensors An AnOverview Overview United Kingdom & Spain UK-DMC2 Multispectral Satellite Launched July 29, 2009

22 m resolution, 660 km swath, Daily coverage, Sun Synchronous 3 bands, similar to Landsat 2,3, 4, wide field of view Part of the Disaster Monitoring Constellation of 6 satellites Image is of Texas David E. Pitts Earth EarthObservations ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors Sensors An AnOverview Overview Japanese Remote Sensing Satellites MOS - Marine Oceanographic Satellite MOS - 1 Launched Feb 1987 MOS - 1B Launch scheduled 1990

17 day repeat Sun Synchronous Satellite MSS copy Direct Downlink JERS - 1 Launched Feb. 1992, Failed Oct. 12, 1998 TM copy (without the thermal band) L-band SAR (HH polarization) - 75 km swath, 18 m resolution Direct Downlink, repeat cycle - 44 days David E. Pitts Earth EarthObservations ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors Sensors An AnOverview Overview Japanese Remote Sensing Satellites concluded ADEOS-1 Launched Aug. 17, 1996 into 98.6 deg orbit, failed June 30, 1997 Orbital period 101.2 min, repeat cycle 41 days AVNIR - Advanced visible & NIR Radiometer 4 bands 16 meter resolution - multispectral

8 meter resolution - panchromatic, Cross track stereo OCTS - Ocean Color and Temp Scanner ADEOS-2 Has OCTS, AVNIR & several gas spectrometers Launch - Dec. 14, 2002, Solar panel failed October 26, 2003 Data Available thru JAXA GOSAT (Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite) launch 2009 David E. Pitts Earth EarthObservations ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors Sensors An AnOverview Overview ALOS JAXA - Advanced Land Observing Satellite 2 systems (Atmosphere and Marine, Land observations) Launch Jan 24, 2006, Sunsynchronous (98.16 deg), repeat cycle 46

days PALSAR (follow on to JERS-1) L-band, 250 to 350 km swath, HH and VV and Cross Polarization AVNIR-2 nadir view, 10 m resolution, 4 band (RGB & nIR), 70 km swath, pointing 44 degrees left or right of nadir PRISM points fore and aft to give stereo 2.5 m resolution 70 km swath, 35 km swath stereo Panchromatic 0.52 - .077 m David E. Pitts Earth EarthObservations ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors Sensors An AnOverview

Overview Russia MIR KFA System - 5 m resolution film based system $1600.00 per scene Recoverable film packages each 4 weeks Operational 1986 - 2001 Spin - 2 Dates of Operation 1980-1998 Panchromatic KVR-1000, 40 x 160 km scene, 2 m res. Panchromatic TK-350, 200 x 300 km scene, 10 m res. Browse Site - http://www.TerraServer.com Format tiff or hard copy prints Cost 10 m res. - $1.00 / km sq 2 m res. - $2.59 / km sq, min order 100 sq. km David E. Pitts Earth EarthObservations ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors Sensors An AnOverview

Overview Russia Resurs-01-4 Launched July 10, 1998 Multispectral Earth Resources Image Transmission Spacecraft (similar to Landsat) Launched Nov. 4, 1994 into a 660 km polar sunsynchronous orbit at 98 deg incl.,repeat cycle 4 days at the equator. Resolution - 170 m, fov = 600 km, 4 bands, intermediate resolution between Landsat and AVHRR Resurs FM-2 Launched Sept. 28, 1999 Resurs DK-1 Launched June 15, 2006 Resolution - 3.3 ft grey scale imagery, 7 ft multispectral David E. Pitts Earth EarthObservations ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors Sensors An AnOverview Overview

Russia KANOPUS Launch - Dec 2009 2.1 m panchromatic resolution 10.5 m multispectral resolution Surrey Satellite Technology (SSTL) in the UK is providing avionics and software plus design support. David E. Pitts Earth EarthObservations ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors Sensors An AnOverview Overview European Space Agency SMOS Soil Moisture & Ocean Salinity - launch Nov 2, 2009 ERS-1 Launch May 1991

ERS-2 Launch 1995 C-band SAR VV polarization, 25 m resolution 3.1 x 3.1 mile imagettes 35 day repeat cycle 80 km swath 4 band Thermal IR instrument 3 Angle Scatterometer for sea surface roughness Cost $1,250.00 to $2120.00 U. S. per scene on CDROM Source - EOSAT http://www.spaceimaging.com/products/imagery.htm David E. Pitts Earth EarthObservations ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors Sensors An AnOverview Overview European Space Agency ENVISAT - Launched March 1, 2002 Lost communications April 8, 2012 ASAR - C band Radar like ERS-1 & 2, swath 400 km

GOMOS - Stellar Occultation - Atmosphere Constituents 0.47 - 0.52 m and 0.926 - 0.952 m MIPAS - Limb emission spectra using Interferometer (4.15 - 14.6 m) MERIS - Vis - nIR coastal zone imager, 300 m res, 1150 km swath, 15 bands http://envisat.estec.esa.nl/ David E. Pitts Earth EarthObservations ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors Sensors An AnOverview Overview ENVISAT (continued) MWR - Cloud water content for correction of Radar altimeter (uses 23.8 and 36.5 Ghz) RA-2 - Radar Altimeter similar to Topex- Poseidon Uses S and K bands AATSR - Sea Surface Temp and Vegetation mapper Scans along track only, 0.67, 0.87, 1.6, 3.7. 10.7, and 12.0 m

SCIAMACHY - Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Cartography Maps gasses such as Ozone 0.24 - 2.5 micrometers David E. Pitts Earth EarthObservations ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors Sensors An AnOverview Overview European Space Agency (continued) Sentinel 1a - C-band SAR 5 m resolution - launch Apr 3, 2013 Sun synchronous, repeat cycle 12 days cycle length 175 days local solar time 1600 Dual Polarization Sentinel 2A - Multispectral 13 bands launch June 23, 2015 Sun synchronous, repeat cycle 10 days (5 days using 2 satellites), local solar time 1030, descending node Swath width 290 km, images 100 km square, 650 Mb. Available USGS EROS data center

Sentinel 2B identical to 2A, launch March 7, 2017 Sentinel 1b - C-band SAR launch April 25, 2016 repeat cycle 12 days, flying 180 deg from Sentinel 1-a Sentinel 5P Launch Oct. 2017, CO, SO2, NO2 Pollution David E. Pitts Earth EarthObservations ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors Sensors An AnOverview Overview European Space Agency (continued) German Space Agency (DLR) Terra SAR-X 1 - 16 m resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar X - band Radar

Launched June 2006 Tandem-X (almost identical satellite to Terra SAR-X) Formed a radar interferometer system (launched in June 2010) EnMap - pushbroom hyperspectral scanner 30 m resolution, swath width 30 km 0.42 to 2.45 m (184 bands, 155 bands visible, 94 band nIR) Launch 2018 Sun synchronous polar orbit, revisit cycle 4 days 30 degrees off nadir David E. Pitts Earth EarthObservations

ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors Sensors An AnOverview Overview European Space Agency (concluded) Sentinel 3 launch expected 2014 Earthcare Satellite Cloud and aerosol mission Atmospheric Lidar Broad band radiometer Mutispectral Imager JAXA Cloud profiling radar Launch 2013 Cryosat -2 launched Apr 8, 2010 SAR/Interferometric Radar Altimeter (Siral) detects ice thickness in

the arctic and antarctic David E. Pitts Earth EarthObservations ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors Sensors An AnOverview Overview Rapid Eye German 5 satellite constellation Launch August 28, 2008 from Baikonur 6.5 meter resolution, 77 km swath, 5.5 day repeat 5 bands, sun synchronous Blue (440-510 nm) Green (520-590 nm) Red (630-685 nm) Red Edge (690-730 nm) Near Infrared (760-850 nm) http://tinyurl.com/8kq9lo9 Minimum order 2,500 euros David E. Pitts

Earth EarthObservations ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors Sensors An AnOverview Overview Italy COSMO-Sky-Med Dual Use (Defense and Civil) X-band Radar 1 & 3 meter resolution Launch Vandenberg AFB on Delta Launches June 7, 2007, Dec 8 2007, Oct 24 2008, & Oct 29, 2010 http://www.telespazio.it/cosmo.html Franco-Italian Pleiades

.7 m resolution Earth Observation Satellite 20 km swath, 26 day repeat cycle, launch Soyuz, French Guiana Visible and near IR Launches: HR1A Dec 17,2011, HR 1B Dec 2, 2012David E. Pitts Earth EarthObservations ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors Sensors An AnOverview Overview Spain Ingenio (SEOSAT)

2.5 m panchromatic resolution 10 meter Multispectral 2012 launch Radar imager to follow U. K. 2.5 m resolution Launched Oct 27, 2005 Build under the British National Space Centre Mosaic Program Surrey Satellite Technology (SSTL), QinetIQ, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory David E. Pitts Earth EarthObservations

ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors Sensors An AnOverview Overview Turkey GKTRK-2 Earth Observations Satellite Launch by China on Dec 18, 2012, 98 deg inclination orbit, 700 km Pushbroom imager, 20 km swath Repeat cycle: 2 to 5 days Resolution: 2.5 m panchromatic, 10 m, 5 bands: B,G,R,Near IR, SWIR Nigeria Sat-2 Resolution: 32m, 300 km swath, multispectral 5m, 20 km swath

Launched Aug 17, 2011, built by British SSTL Nigeria Sat-X Resolution: 22m, 600 km swath Launched Aug 17, 2011, built by British SSTL David E. Pitts Earth EarthObservations ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors Sensors An AnOverview Overview Orbital Imaging Corp. OrbView - 1 launched April 3, 1995 OrbView - 2 launched Aug. 1, 1997 Panchromatic, 1 m resolution Multispectral, 4 m resolution Pointable 45 degrees, Sun Synchronous repeat coverage on the ground of <3 days.

OrbView - 3 launched June 26, 2003 Orb View - 4 launch Sept. 2001 - launch failed to reach orbit Hyperspectral 280 channels, swath 5 km, 4m resolution http://www.geoeye.com/products/default.htm http://www.itc.nl/research/products/sensordb/Launch_Schedule.aspx David E. Pitts Earth EarthObservations ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors Sensors An AnOverview Overview Earthwatch Inc. (merged with Ball Aerospace in 1995) Early Bird launch - Dec. 24, 1997 (failed after 4 days) Quick Bird - 1 launch - launch failure 4 bands B, G, R, NIR, 66 deg orbit, revisit 1-5 days resolution - 4 m multispectral, 1 m panchromatic 704 km swath, scene 22 x 22 km Russian launch vehicle

Quickbird - 2 launched - Oct. 18, 2001 http://www.digitalglobe.com/ David E. Pitts Earth EarthObservations ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors Sensors An AnOverview Overview ImageSat International Joint venture by Israel Aircraft Industries & Core Software Technology receiving station on Cyprus EROS-A1 Satellite Launch - Dec. 5, 2000 Pan 0.5 - 0.9 m - 1.8 m resolution pointable sensor 15 day repeat 10 bit imagery, swath = 14 km (9666 pixels) http://www.csir.co.za/plsql/ptl0002/PTL0002_PGE005_DIVISIONS?DIVISION_NO=7209624 EROS-B1 Satellite Launch - pending

15 day repeat ( 3 days with pointing) 1 m resolution - 20 km swath (20,000 pixels) David E. Pitts Earth EarthObservations ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors Sensors An AnOverview Overview China-Brazil Haiyung 1 - launched May 15, 2002 9 Bands 5 bands - 20 m res., 3 bands 80 m res., 1 band - 160 m res. Cross Track Stereo 900 km wide swath 26 day repeat Sun Synchronous orbit Tsinghua - 1 launched June 28, 2000 CBERS-1 - (4 band 3 m) launched Oct 14, 1999, deactivated 2003 CBERS-2 - (4 band 3 m) launch 2003, deactivated 2007 CBERS 2-B launch Sept 19, 2007, 20 m resolution, 113 km swath, 26 day repeat, 4 bands CBERS-3 launch failed

CBERS-4 early December 2014 launch David E. Pitts Earth EarthObservations ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors Sensors An AnOverview Overview China Feng Yun Meteorological satellites Some are geosynchronous Some are in low Earth Orbit (LEO) Sun Synchronous See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fengyun David E. Pitts Earth EarthObservations ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors Sensors An

AnOverview Overview KH-11 National Imagery and Mapping AgencyPrevious known as the National Reconnaissance Office Resolution < 0.3 m not available to the public Skybox Imaging Skysat-1 launch 2013, 450 km orbit, Sun Synchronous Skysat-2 launch March 27, 2014, identical to Skysat-1 http://space.skyrocket.de/doc_sdat/skysat-1.htm David E. Pitts Earth EarthObservations ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors Sensors An AnOverview Overview Argentina SAC-C Launched Nov. 21, 2000 Comision Nacional de Actividades Especiales (CONAE) SAC-D launched on the NASA Aquarius Satellite June 2011 (on a Delta)

Lost power June 8, 2015 http://www.esr.org/aquarius_sat/aquarius_main.html Aquarius by NASA ROSA by Italy SODAD by CNES (France) CONAE instruments Microwave Radiometer (MWR) Infra-red Camera (NIRST) High Sensitivity Camera (HSC) Data Collection System (DCS) Technological Demonstration Package (TDP) David E. Pitts Earth EarthObservations ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors Sensors An AnOverview Overview Israel Ofek-5 Remote Sensing Satellite launched 2002 Ofek-6 failed due to 3rd stage malfunction Sept. 7, 2004

David E. Pitts Earth EarthObservations ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors Sensors An AnOverview Overview Korea Kompsat-2 - Launched July 28, 2006 1 meter resolution, operational July 2007 Kompsat-3 - Launch May 17, 2012 by JAXA resolution: 0.7 m Pan, 2.8 m B,G,R, near IR Kompsat-5 - Launch Aug 13, 2013 x-band radar 1 m resolution, similar to Germanys SAR-x 900 km wide swath 26 day repeat Sun Synchronous orbit Taiwan Formosat-2 Launch May 19, 2004 2 meter resolution David E. Pitts

Earth EarthObservations ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors Sensors An AnOverview Overview Google Earth Probably uses Geoeye-1 images (color at .4 m) $400 image processing software allows detail analysis David E. Pitts Earth EarthObservations ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors Sensors An AnOverview

Overview Topex/Poseidon (Joint USA/French) Launched Aug. 10, 1992 into a 1,336 km orbit at 66 deg. inc. Repeat coverage - each 10 days. Jason - launched Dec. 7, 2001, similar to Topex/Poseidon Jason measures ocean height with 4.2 cm accuracy for Monitoring El Nino and Ocean eddies. Jason - 2 launch June 15, 2008. Jason 3 launch Jan. 17, 2016 LRA: Laser retroreflector array Poseidon-2: A solid state radar altimeter JMR: Microwave radiometer http://topex-www.jpl.nasa.gov/mission/jason-1.html David E. Pitts Earth EarthObservations ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors Sensors An

AnOverview Overview TOMS-1 launched 1978 on Nimbus 7 to measure stratospheric ozone failed May 1993 TOMS-2 launched on Russian Meteor 3 on Aug 1991 Chopper motor failed Dec. 23, 1994 TOMS-4 (on ADEOS) Launched Aug. 17, 1996 into 98.6 deg orbit, failed June 30, 1997 Earth Probe Launched July 2, 1996 - currently in operation David E. Pitts Earth EarthObservations ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors Sensors An AnOverview Overview TOMS Concluded

Solar UV Backscatter in 1 nm bands at 309, 313, 318, 322, 331, and 360 nm Scans 51 degrees either side of nadir (3000 km wide swath) Resolution 50 km, 11:30 am local time sun synchronous, Altitude 955 km Sulfur Dioxide from volcanic eruptions is detectable in these bands.' Coverage goes back to Nimbus 7 in October 1978. QuickTOMS - launch in Sept. 2001 failed to reach orbit. TOMS-5 Launch on Russian Meteor 3 - 2001 http://jwocky.gsfc.nasa.gov/aerosols/aerosols_v8.html David E. Pitts Earth EarthObservations ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors Sensors An AnOverview Overview SEAWIFS Designed as a follow up to the highly successful Coast Zone Color Scanner (CZCS).

Launched - August 1, 1997 2-day global coverage via GAC (Global Area Coverage) format LAC (Local Area Coverage) format requests are possible Resolution 1.1 km LAC and 4.4 km GAC at nadir For data availability contact http://seawifs.gsfc.nasa.gov/scripts/SEAWIFS.html David E. Pitts Earth EarthObservations ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors Sensors An AnOverview Overview SEAWIFS concluded Eight Bands 402-422nm ctr 412 433-453, ctr 443 500-520, ctr 510 545-565, ctr 555 745-785 ctr 765 845-885, ctr 865

Radiometric accuracy, 5% each band 480-500, ctr 490 660-680, ctr 670 10 bit data Altitude 705 km, swath width, 2800 km (+ or - 58.3 degrees) equatorial crossing time noon 15 min; descending Design lifetime - 5 yrs David E. Pitts Earth EarthObservations ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors Sensors An AnOverview Overview International Space Station (ISS) HREP/RAIDS transferred to ISS Sept 11, 2009 To continue to 2013 Missions |19/20 |21/22 |23/24 |25/26 |27/28 |29/30 |31/32 |33/34| HREP consists of HICO (Hyperspectral Imager for Coastal Ocean) Naval Research Laboratory

0.38 - 1.0 m (0.01 m bands), 7.6 deg fov In WORF (Window Observational Research Facility) on ISS Data archived at NRL Stennis Space Center water clarity bottom types bathymetry on-shore vegetation maps http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/HREP-HICO.html David E. Pitts Earth EarthObservations ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors Sensors An AnOverview Overview GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) Twin satellites launched March 2002 Making detailed measurements of the Earth's gravity field Twin GRACE satellites fly in formation one behind the other. A satellite speeds up when it experiences a stronger gravitational field. This has enabled the detection of shifting ocean currents, desiccation of droughts, draining of lakes, shrinking of ice sheets, and reduction

of ground water in Northern Indian. http://www.csr.utexas.edu/grace/ David E. Pitts Earth EarthObservations ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors Sensors An AnOverview Overview NOAA AVHRR NOAA Polar Orbiter and DMSP Programs merged in 1995, became NPOESS (National Polar-Orbiting Operational Env. Sat. Systems) NOAA satellite (with AVHRR) series started with TIROS - N in 1978 NOAA-15 launched May 13, 1998 NOAA-16 launched Sept. 21, 2000 (10:17 am equatorial crossing) NOAA-17 launched June 4, 2002 ( 2:05 pm equatorial crossing) NOAA - 18 May 20, 2005 NOAA - 19 Feb 6, 2009 NOAA 20 launch 2017 3 DMSP Meteorological Satellites have broken up (F-11, F-12, and F13) producing debris. Five DMSP satellites are still in service, but they have

had power failure issues. David E. Pitts Earth EarthObservations ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors Sensors An AnOverview Overview NPOESS-1 scheduled January 2013 launch but was cancelled. The Suomi National Polar-Orbting Partnership (SNPP) satellite was launched in 2011 Instruments: VIIRS (.56 km AVHRR sensor), CrIS (temperature sounder), ATMS (microwave sounder), OMPS (ozone), CERES (effect of clouds on radiation budget) The Free Flyer 1 and 2 spacecraft will carry radar imagers - launch 2017 NOAA-20, previously called JPSS-1 launched Nov. 18, 2017 https://www.nesdis.noaa.gov/JPSS-1 MiRaTA CubeSat (on the JPSS-1 launch) is proof of concept that a microwave capability can be in a smaller package David E. Pitts Earth

EarthObservations ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors Sensors An AnOverview Overview NOAA AVHRR sun synchronous Daily coverage 2600 km swath Nadir resolution is 1.1 km (LAC) Archived global area coverage (GAC) - 4 km resolution 0.58 - .69 m 0.725 - 1.1 m 3.55 - 3.93 m 10.3 - 11.3 m 11.5 - 12.5 m David E. Pitts Earth EarthObservations ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors

Sensors An AnOverview Overview DMSP Two sun synchronous satellites used (6:30 am and 9:00 am) Bands 0.4 to 1.1 mm, 10.5 - 12.5 mm Resolution either 0.55 km (Regional Coverage) 2.7 km (global coverage) 3000 km swath width Block 5D-2 (F12 , F13, F14, F15) & 5D-3 (F16) DMSP - F15 launched Dec. 12, 1999. DMSP - F16 launched Oct. 18, 2003 (7:54 am equator crossing) DMSP - F17 launched Nov 4, 2007 DMSP - F19 Oct 18, 2009 DMSP - F-20 Oct 2011 Microwave Imager 19, 22, 37 and 85 GHz 1400 km swath width available thru the NOAA/NGDC (National Geophy. Data Center) http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/dmsp/dmsp.html David E. Pitts Earth EarthObservations ObservationsSatellite

SatelliteSensors Sensors An AnOverview Overview U. S. - GOES system resolution in the visible of 1 km and 8 km in the infrared at 30 minute intervals. GOES 10 launched April 25, 1997 (135 deg W) Visible Channel (.55 - .72 m) 0.78 x 0.78 km 6 bits IR Channel 7 x 7 km 10 bits GOES 9 launched May 23, 1995 Sounding & Imaging capability over the entire hemisphere Each 15 minutes , located 75 deg W 19 channels provide Temperature and Moisture profiles GOES - 11 - L Launched May 3, 2000 GOES - 12 - M launched July 23, 2001 (GOES East, 75 deg W) GOES - 13 - N launched May 24, 2006 GOES - 14 - launched June 27, 2009 GOES - 15 - launched March 4, 2010 GOES - R Nov. 19, 2016 3x channels, 4x resolution, 30 sec scan GOES - S - ? David E. Pitts

Earth EarthObservations ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors Sensors An AnOverview Overview Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Joint NASA and JAXA satellite Monitors Tropical Rainfall Launched 1997 35 degree inclination - complicated repeat pattern Not sun synchronous Follow on to TRMM, the GPM was launched Feb 28, 2014 Precipitation Radar (PR) (wavelength 2.17 cm, 13.8 GHz) Images each grid each 3rd day Microwave Imager (TMI) (10, 19, 22, 37, and 85 GHz) Images every grid each day (different local time) Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) (0.63, 1.6, 3.75, 10.8 & 12.0 m) Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Images every grid twice per day Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) David E. Pitts

Earth EarthObservations ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors Sensors An AnOverview Overview Meteosat (Eumetsat) Geosynchronous system Full hemisphere image each 30 minutes Meteosat 1 - 1975 Meteosat 2 - 1981 Meteosat 3 - 1987 (50 degrees west, being used by the U. S.) Meteosat 4 - backup for Meteosat 5 Meteosat 5 - reactivated & moved to 63 degrees East (Saudi & India) Meteosat 6 - in stand by mode at 9 deg W Meteosat 7 - launched Sept. 9, 1997, Indian Ocean, decommissioned May 2017. MSG-1 - launched Aug. 28, 2002, 3.4 deg W MSG-2 - launched Dec 21, 2005 (Eumetsat, Metop) MSG-3 - launch expected June 19, 2012 METOP-A - Launched Oct 19, 2006 from Baikonur METOP-B - 2010 http://forum.nasaspaceflight.com/index.php?topic=6114.135

David E. Pitts Earth EarthObservations ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors Sensors An AnOverview Overview India Metsat 1 launched Sept 12, 2002 Renamed Kalpana-1 in honor of the Columbia astronaut. Japan Himawari 5 - launched March 18, 1995 Geosynchronous satellite MTSat-1R- Feb 24, 2005 MTSat-2 Feb 18, 2006 http://www.cira.colostate.edu/cira/RAMM//hillger/geo-wx.htm David E. Pitts Earth EarthObservations

ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors Sensors An AnOverview Overview Russia Meteor 3M-N1 - launched Dec. 10, 2001 Meteor 3M-N2 - launched Dec 2004 Polar orbiting Metsat similar to the US NOAA series. GOMS-N1- Geosynchronous Meteorological Satelite Launched Oct. 31, 1994, Locate at 76o 50 ' E GOMS-N2 - Launched Dec 2005 visible 0.46 - 0.7 m IR 10.5 - 12.5 m IR 6.7 - 7.0 m on GOMS-2 http://sputnik.infospace.ru David E. Pitts Earth EarthObservations ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors Sensors

An AnOverview Overview China FY-2B Feng Yun geostationary met satellite - June 26, 2000 FY-2C - 2004 FY-2D - 2006 FY-2E - 2009 FY-1D Polar Orbiter May 15, 2002 FSW-3 5 A recoverable imaging satellite - March 2005 David E. Pitts Earth EarthObservations ObservationsSatellite SatelliteSensors Sensors An AnOverview Overview Orbital debris

19,000 objects > 10 cm 150,000 objects > 1 cm China's antisatellite test Jan 11, 2007 was the worst debris creating event. David E. Pitts

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