Rhetorical Devices Used by Speakers and Writers Rhetorical devices are the nuts and bolts of speech and writing; the parts that make a communication work. Separately, each part of is meaningless, but once put together, they create a powerful effect on the listener/reader. Repetition Repetition can be effective in creating a sense of structure and power. In both speech and literature, repeating small phrases can ingrain an idea in the minds of the audience. Yes,
we can, to opportunity and prosperity. Yes, we can heal this nation. Yes, we can repair this world. Yes, we can. Restatement Expressing the same idea in different words to clarify and stress key points Slowly and grimly they advanced, not knowing what lay ahead, not knowing what they would find at the top of the hill, not knowing that they were so near to the outpost. Nature still offers her bounty and human efforts have multiplied it. Plenty is at our doorstep, but a generous use of it languishes in the very sight of the supply. (Roosevelt 505). Parallelism
Writing structures that are grammatically parallel help the reader understand the points better because they flow more smoothly. If there is anyone out there who still doubtswho still wonderswho still questions Parallelism:Tricolon A tricolon is a list of three, or a sentence in which there are three parts or clausesinvolves parallelism of grammatical structure. The cumulative effect of three has a powerful effect on an audience.
Iso colon -two parts Tetra colon-four parts Antithesis A figure of speech in which sharply contrasting ideas are juxtaposed (put side by side-in proximity) in a balanced or parallel phrase or grammatical structure "We must learn to live together as brothers or perish together as fools." - Martin Luther King, Jr.
Read more at http://examples.yourdicti onary.com/examples-ofantithesis.html#2M1g20 ZdVDyESOpi.99 "It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity, it was the season of Light, it was the season of Darkness, it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair, we had everything before us, we had nothing before us, we were all going direct to Heaven, we were all going direct the other way." (Dickens, A Tale of Two Cities) Allusion
An allusion is a figure of speech that refers to a well-known story, event, person, or object in order to make a comparison in the readers' minds. By using allusion, you not only associate yourself with the ideas of the original text but also create a bond with the audience by evoking shared knowledge We reviewed biblical, historical, and Greek allusionsspecific term relates to the selection to which you are referring. Where did it come from? Where might a literary allusion come from? Allusion Examples We are not in Kansas anymore. (Literary allusion to Dorothy in Wizard of Oz- meaning you are in a strange and different place.)
Always strive to be a good Samaritan. (Biblical allusion to the good Samaritan in the Bible.) You're a regular Einstein. (Historical allusion) When your parents learn about your new plan to raise money, it's going to sink like the Titanic. (Historical allusion) You are carrying the weight of the world on your shoulders. (reference to Atlas in myth-Greek allusion) That man is so narcissistic. (reference to Narcissus in mythology-Greek allusion)
Don't be a Scrooge! (reference to A Christmas Carol by Charles Dickens-literary allusion) Potato chips are my diet's Achilles heel. (reference to Achilles in mythology-Greek allusion) Rhetorical & Persuasive Ethosappeal to ethics; asks the Appeals reader/listener to look favorably on the writer/speaker; stresses the writer/speakers intelligence, competence, fairness, morality, and other qualities desirable in a trustworthy leader. (Hint: Ethos appeals are often made at the beginning of a speech or argument to establish credibility and connection-so look first at the beginning of a speech to try to
find an ethos appeal. Examples of Ethos I promise you, we as a people will get there. But I will always be honest with you about the challenges we face. I will listen to you, especially when we disagree. And, above all, I will ask you to join in the work of remaking this nation . . . As a doctor, I am qualified to tell you that this course of treatment will likely generate the best results." "My three decades of experience in public service, my tireless commitment to the people of this community, and my willingness to reach across the aisle and cooperate with the opposition, make me the ideal candidate for your mayor."
Read more at http://examples.yourdictionary.com/examples-of-ethos-logos-andpathos.html#HmyVBsrjptCp1POc.99 Rhetorical & Persuasive Appeals Logosrational appeal; asks the readers to use their intellects and powers of reasoning. It relies on established conventions of logic and evidence. used to convince or persuade the targeted audience by employing reason or logic. Logos mostly employs the utilization of inductive and deductive reasoning methods to be effective. (Hint: Statistics are often used in logos appeals, so look for the use of numbers/statistics to make a point.) Inductive Reasoning
Inductive reasoning involves a specific representative fact or case which is drawn towards a conclusion or generalization. However, inductive reasoning requires reliable and powerful evidence that is presented to support the point. Jennifer leaves for school at 7:00 a.m. Jennifer is always on time. Jennifer assumes, then, that she will always be on time if she leaves at 7:00 a.m. Bob is showing a big diamond ring to his friend Larry. Bob has told Larry that he is going to marry Joan. Bob has bought the diamond ring to give to Joan. The chair in the living room is red. The chair in the dining room is red. The chair in the bedrrom is red. All chairs in the house are red.
Every time you eat peanuts, your throat sweels up and you can't breath. So, you are allergic to peanuts. Read more at http://examples.yourdictionary.com/examples-of-inductive-reasoning.html#XBehZeLUz41FLK54.99 Deductive Reasoning Deductive reasoning involves generalization at the initial stage and then moves on towards the specific case. The starting generalization must be based on reliable evidence to support it at the end. All men are mortal, Socrates is a man, therefore Socrates is mortal.. In mathematics, If A = B and B = C, then A = C.
All dolphins are mammals, all mammals have kidneys; therefore all dolphins have kidneys. Since all squares are rectangles, and all rectangles have four sides, so all squares have four sides. Deductive ReasoningMore Examples All numbers ending in 0 or 5 are divisible by 5. The number 35 ends with a 5, so it is divisible by 5. To earn a masters degree, a student must have 32 credits. Tim has 40 credits, so Tim will earn a masters degree. All birds have feathers and robins are birds, so robins have feathers.
It is dangerous to drive on icy streets. The streets are icy now so it is dangerous to drive now. All cats have a keen sense of smell. Fluffy is a cat, so Fluffy has a keen sense of smell. Snakes are reptiles and reptiles are cold-blooded; therefore, snakes are cold-blooded. Be careful around bees, they might sting you. (The reasoning is understood that all bees might sting.) Read more at http://examples.yourdictionary.com/deductive-reasoningexamples.html#39lXXmm8AhPgo6DP.99 Examples of Logos
"The data is perfectly clear: this investment has consistently turned a profit year-over-year, even in spite of market declines in other areas." "Ladies and gentlemen of the jury: we have not only the fingerprints, the lack of an alibi, a clear motive, and an expressed desire to commit the robbery We also have video of the suspect breaking in. The case could not be more open and shut." "Its a matter of common sense that people deserve to be treated equally. The Constitution calls it self-evident. Why, then, should I have been denied a seat because of my disability?" "More than one hundred peer-reviewed studies have been conducted over the past decade, and
none of them suggests that this is an effective treatment for hair loss." Read more at http://examples.yourdictionary.com/examples-of-ethoslogos-and-pathos.html#HmyVBsrjptCp1POc.99 Rhetorical & Persuasive Appeals Pathosan emotional appeal; asks readers to respond out of their beliefs, values, or feelings. It inspires, affirms, frightens, angers. (Hint: look for exclamation points-they indicate strong emotion) Examples of Pathos Tonight we proved one more that the true strength of our nation comes not from the might of our arms or the
scale of our wealth, but from the enduring power of our ideals: democracy, liberty, opportunity, and unyielding hope. Yes we can. So tonight, let us ask ourselvesif our children should live to see the next century; if my daughters should be so lucky to live as long as Ann Nixon Cooper, what changes will they see? What progress will we have made? "Youll make the right decision because you have something that not many people do: you have heart. Read more at http://examples.yourdictionary.com/examples-of-ethos-logos-and-pathos.html#HmyVBsrjptCp1POc.99
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