New Imperialism - Hollidaysburg Area School District
New Imperialism 1800s Europebegan push for the extension of one nations power over anothers lands Targeted Africa and Asia Sources of raw materials and markets Need for direct control over territories, not trade agreements European countries controlled only small part of Africa in 1880; but by 1914 only Ethiopia, Liberia remained independent.
European powers rapidly divided Africa Period known as Scramble for Africa Most visible example of new imperialism New imperialism not based on settlement of colonies European powers worked to directly govern large areas occupied by nonEuropean peoples
Driven by economic interests, political competition, cultural motives Economic Interests Raw Materials Before early 1800s, several European nations profited from slave trade in Africa After some nations passed laws abolishing slave trade, Europeans looked to Africa as source for raw materials
Materials like coal, metals needed to manufacture goods during Industrial Revolution Needs fueled Europeans desire for land with natural resources available in Africa Entrepreneurial Colonization To gather, export natural resources, European entrepreneurs developed own
mines, plantations, trade routes Entrepreneurs sometimes called on home countries to protect economic interests from European competitors In this way, drive for colonization came from ambitious individuals, not just European governments Political Competition
Imperialism in Africa reflected struggles for power in Europe, such as long-term rivalry between France, Britain France expanded control over West, Central Africa; Britain began to expand colonial empire to block French Nationalism a Factor Rise of Germany, Italy as powers contributed to the new imperialism
Both nations jumped into race for colonization to assert status Nationalism also contributed to rise of new imperialism European leaders believed controlling colonies would gain them more respect from other leaders Cultural Motives In addition to practical matters of economics and politics, the new imperialism was motivated by cultural attitudes.
European imperialists felt superior to nonEuropean peoples Some began to argue humanity divided into distinct peoples, races Claimed biological differences existed between races Racist viewpeople of European descent superior to people of African, Asian descent As result, some Europeans believed rule in Africa justified
Teaching Africans good government Some imperialists believed actions noble, their duty to educate those considered inferior Referred to their influence in Africa as the white mans burden, after poem by Rudyard Kipling Justification Darwin Defenders of imperialism often applied Charles Darwins theory of natural selection to struggle between nations, races
Darwin argued species more fit for environment will survive, reproduce Social Darwinism Social Darwinism notion stated certain nations, races more fit than others Social Darwinists believed fit nations came to rule over less fit nations, often showed discrimination against citizens of ruled nations Cecil Rhodes
Social Darwinism advocate Cecil Rhodes, I contend that we are the finest race in the world and that the more of the world we inhabit the better Believed British-built railway would bring benefits of civilization to all Africans Forces of Imperialism Re-cap: Industrial Revolution Need to add lands for raw materials and markets European Superiority Social Darwinism
Missionaries Technological superiority Colonial Takeover in SE Asia Great Britain Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles-1819 New Colony: Singapore Major stopping point for all ships to/from China Burmato protect India; Burmese monarchy collapses
France French worried about British advance French missionaries in Vietnam persecuted by locals, but missionaries not stopped Internal rivalries divided Vietnam into two governments, north and south 1857French force Vietnamese to accept French Protection
By 1884, Vietnam became French protectorate By 1887, Cambodia, Annam, Tonkin, Laos added Thailandthe Exception King Mongkut and King Chulalongkorn promoted western learning Maintained friendly relations with both Britain and France 1896Thailand guaranteed independence as a buffer state United States
1898Spanish-American War Commodore George Dewey defeated Spanish at Manila Bay President McKinley turned Philippines into American colony (to prevent Japanese from taking it) Filipinos did not agree: Emilio Aguinaldo led independence movement, begun under Spanish Rule and continued under US rule, but was defeated
By 1900, Southeast Asia under Western Rule By 1890, almost all of Africa under Western rule In 1857, India becomes a colony of Britain After 1870, US involved in Latin American countries affairs protector of Cuba, Puerto Rico Military forces in Nicaragua, Haiti Direct Rule
Foreign officials brought in to rule No self-rule Goal: assimilation Government institutions based on European Styles (French Vietnam, Somaliland) Indirect Rule
Local Government officials used Limited self-rule Goal: to develop future leaders Government institutions are based on European styles but may have local rules (British India, Nigeria, Burma) Colonial Economies Mother countries stressed export of raw materials from new possessions Teak, rubber, tin, spices, tea, coffee palm oil, sugar Plantation Agriculture established:
peasants became wage laborers Thousands died on plantations High taxes levied caused heavy burden on peasants Negative Effects of Colonial Rule Africans lost control of their land Many died of new diseases smallpox Many died resisting Europeans Agriculture changed to cash crops Negative Effects of Colonial Rule Famines resulted Breakdown of traditional cultures Men forced to leave their homes in search of jobs
African continent divided & artificial boundaries enforced Positive effects of imperialism Reduced local warfare Improved sanitation Hospitals and schools built Increased lifespan and literacy Economic expansion: Railroads, dams, phones, telegraph lines built Entrepreneurial class created Resistance to Colonial Rule
Existing ruling class Can Vuoug (Save the King) in Vietnam Peasant revolts All failed Westernized intellectuals in cities led revolts in the 20th century Educated in Western-style schools; professionals Defend economic, religious beliefs of natives; then, organized formal protests
By 1930s they began demanding independence European Claims in Africa Africa, huge continent, rugged terrain; travel, control difficult 1800s, scientific advances made travel, control in Africa easier Discovery of drug quinine helped Europeans protect selves against malaria
Automatic machine gun created strong military advantage Development of telegraphs, railroads, steamships helped Europeans overcome problems of communication, travel 1869, Suez Canal influenced Britains interest in Egypt Canal linked Mediterranean with Red Sea, shortened trip from Europe to Indian Ocean; no need to sail around southern tip of Africa 1882, Egyptian government appeared
unstable; British occupied Egypt to protect British interests in Suez Canal; later established partial control as protectorate European nations competed aggressively for other territories 18841885, European leaders met in Berlin to divide African territory Tried to prevent conflict between European nations
Berlin Conferencefor European nation to claim new African territory, it had to prove it could control territory No attention paid to ethnic boundaries in dividing Africa The Boer War Dutch Settlers British met opposition to land claims in southern Africa
Dutch settlers, Boers, had lived in region since 1600s No Political Rights Gold discovered late 1800s Boers refused to grant political rights to foreigners, including British Heightened Tensions, War
Britain tried to make Boer territory part of British empire 1899, war broke out Boer forces outnumbered Union of South Africa British committed numerous atrocities, defeated Boers
1902, Boer territory became self-governing Union of South Africa under British control Belgian Congo LEOPOLD Central Africas Congo Free State not ruled by European country King of Belgium, Leopold II, claimed territory for himself Leopold created personal
fortune exploiting Congos natural resources for himself DEMAND FOR RUBBER 1890s, early 1900s, European, American demand for rubber increased To meet demand, Leopold forced Congolese subjects to extract rubber from regions rubber trees; millions died from overwork, disease
Eventually international outcry caused Belgian government to take control of Congo, 1908 Scramble For Africa African Resistance Africans did not passively accept European claims to rule over them. As European troops advanced on African territory, they met stiff resistance. Zulu people resisted colonialization more than 50 years
Zulu leader Shaka built strong kingdom by subduing several neighboring peoples 1879, British invaded Zulu territory, annexed kingdom as colony Ethiopia Only nation to retain independence by matching European firepower 1889, emperor Menelik II modernized nation, army
1895, Italian forces invaded over treaty dispute Meneliks forces defeated Italians Even without modern weapons, other Africans still fiercely resisted European powers.
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