What does segmented mean? Genome in segments often representing different genes.
Segmented genomes confer evolutionary advantages. Different strains of a virus with a segmented
genome can shuffle and combine genes and produce progeny viruses or (offspring) that have unique characteristics.
This is called reassortment Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV)
The VSV Genome
Uses of sense template Capping and polyadenylation mechanism of
viral RNA different to host mRNA and is carried out by host encoded enzymes.
Switch from translation to replication Influenza Virus
Segmented sense RNA The genome
Marking strands for packaging
N Protein Nucleocapsids are transported into the nucleus.
mRNA synthesis and replication of viral RNA occurs in the nucleus. This is very unusual for an RNA virus. Influenza virus has an
unusual mechanism for acquiring a methylated, capped 5'end to its mRNAs. A viral endonuclease (which is packaged in the influenza virus)
snips off the 5'end of a host capped, methylated mRNA about 1315 bases from the 5' end and uses this as a primer for viral mRNA synthesis. Hence all flu mRNAs have a short stretch at the 5' end which is
derived from host mRNA. Capping from host mRNA (cap snatching)
RNA synthesis from dsRNA genomes
dsRNA viruses Contain dsRNA segmented genomes
Viral polymerase Figure 3.10: List of dsRNA viruses and their replication strategy.
Adapted from D. R. Harper. Molecular Virology, Second Edition. BIOS Scientific Publishers, 1999. The genome
Negative Strand Viruses Contain enzymes for transcription in virion
Make mRNA prior to antigenome Message gets capped; genome does not
Plus strand is template for minus strand genome Makes more minus than plus strand
Here B is vertex. The two rays are called the arms of the angle. Here BA and BC are arms of angle ABC. TYPES OF ANGLES There are five types of angles:- Acute angle Right angle Obtuse angle Straight angle...
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