Music: An Appreciation by Roger Kamien

Music: An Appreciation by Roger Kamien

Music: An Appreciation 10th Edition by Roger Kamien Part VII The Twentieth Century and Beyond 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education Time Line Twentieth Century & Beyond

Freud: Interpretation of Dreams1900 Wright brothers: first powered flight1903 Einstein: special theory of relativity1905 First World War1914-1918 Great Depression begins1929 Second World War1939-1945 Atomic Bomb destroys Hiroshima1945 Korean War1950-1953 Crick & Watson: structure of DNA1953 Vietnam War1955-1975

President Kennedy assassinated1963 American astronauts land on moon1969 Dissolution of the Soviet Union1991 Terrorist attacks in the US 2001 20th Century Developments Violence & progress are hallmarks 1st halfhardship and destruction Two World Wars brought terrible new weapons Between wars boom/bust economic cycle 2nd halfcolonial empires dismantled Multiple smaller scale wars erupt worldwide Extended cold war between US and USSR Many smaller wars fueled by cold war tactics

Unprecedented rapid economic growth Widespread gain in principle of equal rights Rapid technology & science advancement Sound recording, movies, radio, television, satellites, computers, & Internet alter society 20th Century Developments Rapid, radical changes in the arts also occur Shock value becomes goal of many art forms Modern dance clashes with classical ballet Picasso and cubism present distorted views as artwork Kandinsky & others no longer try to represent visual world Expressionistsdeliberate distortion/ugliness as protest Individual artists do both traditional & radical styles

Summary: US shapes world culture, new artistic world center Nonwestern culture & thought affect all arts New technologies stimulate artistsnew art forms Artists explore human sexualityextremely frank More opportunities for women, African-American, and minority artists/composers than ever before Artists express reaction to wars/massacres in art Since 1960s, pop-art begins to replace elitist art Ch. 1 - Musical Styles: 1900-1945

First 13 years brought radical changes Seen as time of revolt & revolution in music Composers broke with tradition & rules Rules came to be unique to each piece Some reviewers said the new music had no relationship to music at all 1913 performance of The Rite of Spring caused riot Sounds that were foreign to turn of the century ears are common to us now Key, pitch center, and harmonic progression practices of the past were mostly abandoned Open-minded listening, without expectations based upon previous musical practice, provides an opportunity for musical adventure

1900-1945: An Age of Musical Diversity Vast range of musical styles during this time Intensifying of the diversity seen in Romantic Musical influences drawn from Asia & Africa Composers drawn to unconventional rhythms Folk music incorporated into personal styles American jazz also influenced composers For American composers, jazz was nationalistic music For European composers, jazz was exoticism Medieval, Renaissance, & Baroque music was re-discovered, performed, & recorded

Forms from earlier periods were imitated, but with 20th Century harmonic & melodic practices Romantic music, especially Wagner, was seen as either a point of departure or a style to be avoided Characteristics of 20th Century Music Tone Color Unusual playing techniques for sound effects Glissando, flutter tongue, col legno, extended notes Percussion use greatly expanded New instruments added/created Xylophone, celesta, woodblock, Other instruments: typewriter, auto brake drum, siren Music not written for choirs of instruments

Composers write for timbres, or groups of soloists Unusual groupings of instruments for small ensembles Orchestra scoring also reflects this trend Characteristics of 20th Century Music Harmony Consonance and Dissonance Harmony and treatment of chords changed Before 1900: consonant (stable) and dissonant Opposite sides of the coin After 1900: degrees of dissonance New chord structures Polychord Quartal and quintal harmony Cluster

Characteristics of 20th Century Music Harmony Alternatives to the Traditional Tonal System Composers want alternatives to major/minor Modes of Medieval & Renaissance were revived Scales from music outside western Europe utilized Some composers created their own scales/modes Another approach: use 2 or more keys at once Polytonality (bitonality) Atonality No central or key note, sounds just exist and flow 12 tone system Atonal, but with strict rules concerning scale use

Serialism, an ultra strict method, develops from 12 tone sys. Characteristics of 20th Century Music Rhythm Rhythmic vocabulary expanded Emphasis upon irregularity and unpredictability Shifting meters Irregular meters Polyrhythm Melody Melody no longer bound by harmonys notes Major and minor keys no longer dominate Melody may be based upon a variety of scales, or even all 12 tones

Frequent wide leaps Rhythmically irregular Unbalanced phrases Ch. 2 - Music and Musicians in Society Recorded & broadcast music brought concert hall to living room, automobile, & elsewhere Music became part of everyday life for all classes Becoming popular in 1920s, recordings allowed lesser known music to reach broader audience 1930sradio networks formed own orchestras Radio brought music to the living room Television (popular 1950s) brought viewer to concert hall Modern composers alienated audience

Turned to old familiar music (Classical, Romantic) For 1st time in history, older, not new music was desired Recordings helped to make the modern familiar Women became active as composers, musicians, and music educators African-American composers & performers became more prominent Some governments controlled their music USSR demanded non-modern, accessible music Hitlers Germany banned Jewish composers work Many artists & intellectuals left Europe for the US Working, creating, & teaching in American universities, they enriched the culture of the US

American jazz & popular music swept world American orchestras became some of worlds best Universities supported modern music & composersbecame musics new patrons Ch. 3 - Impressionism and Symbolism Musical outgrowth of French art and poetry French Impressionist Painting Used broad brush strokes and vibrant colors Viewed up close, the painting appears unfinished Viewed from a distance it has truth Focused on light, color, & atmosphere

Depicted impermanence, change, and fluidity A favorite subject was light reflecting on water Named after Monets Impression: Sunrise French Symbolist Poetry Symbolists also broke with traditions & conventions Avoided hard statementspreferred to suggest (symbolize) their topics Symbolist poetry became the basis for many Impressionist musical works Ch. 4 - Claude Debussy French Impressionist composer Crossed Romantic/20th Cent. (1862-1918) Studied in Paris and Rome Lived largeliked luxury, but stayed in debt

Debussys Music Attempted to capture in music what Impressionist painters did in visual art Titles imply a program music type approach Used orchestra as pallet of sounds, not tutti Expanded harmonic vocabulary and practice Used 5-note chords instead of traditional 3 Made use of pentatonic and whole-tone scales Obscured harmony, tempo, meter, & rhythm Listening Prelude a lApres-midi dun faune by Claude Debussy (1894) Listening Outline: p. 377

Basic Set, CD 7:17 Brief Set, CD 4:38 The program material evokes the dreams and erotic fantasies of a faun -- pagan, half man/half goat creature Note: Use of solo instruments Disguised meter Extended harmonic style Ch. 5 - Maurice Ravel Listening Bolero (1928) Listening Outline: p. 380 Basic Set, CD 7:31 Tone colors Spanish flavor Rhythmic repetitions

AABB Violently dissonant ending Ch. 6 - Neoclassicism Flourished 1920-1950 Based new compositions upon devices and forms of the Classical & Baroque Used earlier techniques to organize 20th Century harmonies & rhythms (painting p. 362) Eschewed program music for absolute Preferred to write for small ensembles Partially due to limited resources in postWWII Europe Sounded modern, not classical

Ch. 7 - Igor Stravinsky Born in Russia (1882-1971) Studied with Rimsky-Korsakov Early success writing ballet music The Rite of Spring caused riot at premier in Paris Moved due to the wars WWI went to Switzerland, to France afterward, then to US at onset of WWII Stravinskys Music Vocal & instrumentalmany styles & forms Utilized shifting and irregular meters Sometimes more than one meter at once Frequently used ostinato

Listening Le Sacre du printemps (1913) by Igor Stravinsky Part I: Introduction Listening Outline: p. 388 Basic Set, CD 7:38 Brief Set, CD 5:01 Part I: Omens of SpringDances of the Youths & Maidens Listening Outline: p. 388 Basic Set, CD 7:40 Brief Set, CD 5:03 Part I: Ritual of Abduction Listening Outline: p. 388

Basic Set, CD 7:44 Brief Set, CD 5:07 Part II: Sacrificial Dance Listening Outline: p. 390 Basic Set, CD 7:46 Ballet piece: tells story of prehistoric tribe paying tribute to the god of spring Note use of rhythmic accent intended to portray primitive man (remember, this is a work for dance) Listening Symphony of Psalms (1930) by Stravinsky Basic Set: CD 7:49

Vocal Music Guide: p. 390 First Movement Chordal tones are spaced & orchestrated in a novel way Chant like melody comprised of two notes Major ending triad contrasts with minor triads Ch. 8 - Expressionism Attempts to explore inner feelings rather than depict outward appearances Used deliberate distortions To assault and shock the audience To communicate tension and anguish Direct outgrowth of the work of Freud Rejected conventional prettiness

Favored ugly topics such as madness and death Art also seen as a form of social protest Anguish of the poor Bloodshed of war Mans inhumanity to man Ch. 9 - Arnold Schoenberg Born in Vienna (1874-1951) First to completely abandon the traditional tonal system Father of the 12-tone system When Nazis came to power he (a Jew) was forced to leavecame to America

Taught at UCLA until his death Schoenbergs Music Atonality Starting 1908, wrote music w/ no key center The 12-Tone System Gives equal importance all 12 pitches in octave Pitches arranged in a sequence or row (tone row) No pitch occurs more than once in the 12 note row in order to equalize emphasis of pitches Listening Mondestrunken (Moondrunk) from Pierrot Lunaire, Op. 21 (Moonstruck Pierrot)

by Schoenberg (1912) Vocal Music Guide: p. 398 Basic Set, CD 8:01 Brief Set, CD 5:09 Program piece: The poet (Pierrot) becomes intoxicated as moonlight floods the still horizon with desires that are horrible and sweet. Note: This song part of a 21 song cycle Departure from voice/piano Romantic Art song: scored for voice, piano, flute, violin, & cello Freely atonal, intentionally no key center Use of Sprechstimme, song/speech style that was developed by Schoenberg Listening

A Survivor from Warsaw (1947) by Arnold Schoenberg Cantata for narrator, male chorus, and orchestra Vocal Music Guide: p. 399 Basic Set, CD 8:02 Brief Set, CD 5:10 Tells story of Nazi treatment and murder of Jews in occupied Poland Note: Sprechstimme 12-tone technique English and German text with Hebrew prayer Expressionist music and textshocking Ch. 10 - Alban Berg

Born in Vienna, 1885-1935 Student of Schoenberg Wrote atonal music Due to ill health, did not tour or conduct Possibly also reason for his small output Most famous work is Wozzeck Story of a soldier who is driven to madness by society, murders his wife, and drowns trying to wash the blood from his hands (Expressionist topic & music) Listening Wozzeck (1917-1922) Opera by Alban Berg Act III: Scene 4

Vocal Music Guide: p. 403 Basic Set, CD 8:05 Wozzeck, the soldier, returns to the scene of the crime to dispose of his knife Act III: Scene 5 Listening Guide: p. 404 Basic Set, CD 8:09 Maries son (Wozzecks stepson) & other children are playing. Another group of children rushes in saying they have found Maries body. As all the children go to see, the opera ends abruptly. Note: Sprechstimme

Atonal Expressionist subject matter Ch. 11 - Anton Webern Born in Vienna, 1883-1945 Schoenbergs other famous student His music was ridiculed during his lifetime Shy family man, devoted Christian Shot by US soldier by mistake near end of WWII Weberns Music Expanded Schoenbergs idea of tone color being part of melody His melodies are frequently made up of several two to three note fragments that add up to a complete whole

Tone color replaces tunes in his music His music is almost always very short Listening Five Pieces for Orchestra (1911-1913) Third Piece by Anton Webern Listening Outline: p. 408 Basic Set, CD 8:10 Brief Set, CD 5:13 Note: Lack of traditional melody Tone color washes over the listener Dynamics never get above pp Ch. 12 - Bla Bartk

Hungarian, 1881-1945 Taught piano in Hungary and wrote books for pedagogy Like many other composers, fled Nazis and came to live in the US Used folksongs as basis of his music Went to remote areas to collect/record folksongs Bartks Music Best known for instrumental works Especially piano pieces & string quartets Compositions contain strong folk influences Worked within tonal center Harsh dissonances, polychords, tone clusters

Listening Concerto for Orchestra (1943) First Movement: Introduction (Andante non troppo; Allegro vivace) by Bartk Basic Set: CD 8:11 Sonata form Listening Concerto for Orchestra (1943) Second movement: Game of Pairs Allegretto scherzando by Bartk Listening Outline: p. 413 Basic Set, CD 8:20

Brief Set, CD 5:14 Note: Title of work derived from treatment of instruments in soloistic (concertant) manner Ternary form Pairing of instruments in A section gives name to this movement Prominent drum part Ch 13 - Dmitri Shostakovich Symphony No. 5 in D Minor Listening Outline: p. 416 Second Movement Basic Set, CD 8:27 Scherzo A B A form Glissandos

Ch. 14 - Charles Ives American, 1874-1954 Son of a professional bandmaster (director) Worked as insurance agent, composed music on the side 1st published own music, initially ridiculed Won Pulitzer Prize in 1947 for 3rd Symphony Wrote quite original music Ivess Music Music based upon American folk songs Polyrhythm, polytonality, & tone clusters Claimed was like 2 bands marching past each other on a street

Often, his music is very difficult to perform Listening Putnams Camp, Redding, Connecticut from Three Places in New England (1908?-14) by Charles Ives (1912) Listening Outline: p. 420 Basic Set, CD 8:33 Piece is based upon a childs impression of a Fourth of July picnic, two bands playing Note: Polyrhythm Polytonality Harsh dissonances Ch. 15 - George Gershwin

American, 1898-1937 Wrote popular music, musical theatre, and serious concert music Frequently blended the three into a single style At 20 wrote Broadway musical La, La, Lucille Wrote Swanee, Funny Face, & Lady, Be Good Also, Rhapsody in Blue, Concerto in F, An American in Paris, & opera Porgy and Bess Often co-wrote with his brother, Ira, as lyricist Met Berg, Ravel, and Stravinsky in Europe

Financially successfulsongs were popular Was friends & tennis partner w/ Schoenberg Died of brain tumor at age 38 Listening Rhapsody in Blue (1924) by George Gershwin For piano and orchestra Listening Outline: p. 424 Basic Set, CD 8:38 Note: Jazz influence, especially notable in the clarinet introduction One movement Ch. 16 - William Grant Still

American composer (1895-1978) 1st African-American composer to have work performed by a major American orchestra Born Woodville, MS-grew up Little Rock, AR Worked for W. C. Handy in Memphis, TN Later wrote film scores in Los Angeles 1st African-American to conduct a major symphony orchestra (1936) Also 1st to have an opera performed by a major opera company (1949) Troubled Island about Haitian slave rebellion Listening Afro-American Symphony (1931) Third movement by Still Listening Outline: p. 427

Basic Set, CD 8:45 Brief Set, CD 5:21 Note: Blues and spiritual influence Scherzo-like, as in a 3rd movement from the Classical Period Ternary form Ch. 17 - Aaron Copland American, 1900-1990 Wrote music in modern style more accessible to audience than many other composers Drew from American folklore for topics Ballets: Billy the Kid, Rodeo, Appalachian Spring

Lincoln Portrait, Fanfare for the Common Man Wrote simple, yet highly professional music Other contributions to American music: Directed composers groups Organized concerts Lectured, taught, & conducted Wrote books and articles Listening Appalachian Spring (1943-44) Section 7: Theme and Variations on Simple Gifts

by Aaron Copland Listening Outline: p. 431 Basic Set, CD 8:50 Brief Set, CD 5:26 Ballet involves a pioneer celebration in Spring in Pennsylvania Note: Use of folk melody (Shaker melody: Simple Gifts) Theme & variation form Ch. 18 Albert Ginastera

From Buenos Aires, Argentina (1916 1983) Attracted to percussive sounds Studied w/ Aaron Copland Operas included scenes of explicit sex & violence Don Rodrigo (1964) Bomarzo (1967) Beatrix Cenci (1971) Moved to Switzerland, continued to compose __________________________________________

Ginasteras Music Employs forceful rhythms Powerful percussions Dense orchestra textures Argentinean folk material Listening Estancia Suite, Op. 8a (1941) by Ginastera Final Dance: Malambo Listening Outline p. 434 Basic Set, CD 8:56 Brief Set, CD 5:32 Ballet depicting various aspects of ranch activities

Malambo dance for men performed by gaucho Perpetual motion; percussive sounds Ch. 19 - Musical Styles since 1945 Many societal changes since WWII Instant communication has altered the world Constant demand for novelty Characteristics of Music Since 1945

Increased use of the 12-tone system Serialism12-tone techniques extended Chance music that includes the random Minimalist music w/ tonality, pulse, repetition Deliberate quotations of earlier music in work Return to tonality by some composers Electronic music Liberation of sound Mixed media New concepts of rhythm & form

Increased Use of the 12-Tone System After WWII, Europeans explored 12-tone Nazis had banned music by Schoenberg & Jews European composers heard 12-tone as new 12-tone viewed as techniquenot a style Pointillist approach w/ atomized melodies Weberns music & style became popular Extensions of the 12-Tone System: Serialism The system was used to organize rhythm, dynamics, and tone color Tone row ordered relationships of pitches Serialism ordered other musical elements Result was a totally controlled, organized music Relationships often very difficult to perceive

Chance Music Opposite of serialism Composers choose pitches, tone colors, & rhythms by random methods John Cage: 433, Imaginary Landscape Karlheinz Stockhausen: Piano Piece No. 11 Minimalist Music Characteristics Steady pulse, clear tonality, repetition of short melodic fragments Dynamics, texture, & harmony constant over time Emphasis on simple forms, clarity, understatement Musical Quotation Represents conscious break with serialism Improves communication w/ audience

Quoted material conveys symbolic meaning Frequently juxtaposes quoted material with others, creating an Ives-esque sound Return to Tonality Parallels quotation in implying other styles Electronic Music Uses technological advances for new music Recording tape, synthesizers, computers Allows composers to skip the middle step of performers to convey their ideas to an audience Provides unlimited palette of sounds/tone colors Liberation of Sound Use of wider variety of sounds than ever Some sounds were previously considered noises

Novel & unusual performance techniques are required (screaming, tapping instrument, ) Use of microtones, clusters, any new sound Mixed media Visual art often combined w/ music for effect Often intended to relax concert atmosphere Rhythm and Form Some new compositions ignore rhythmic notation & specify sound in seconds/minutes Traditional forms giving way to new ideas Some music unfolds w/o obvious form devices Ch. 20 - Music since 1945: Eight Representative Pieces Sonatas and Interludes for Prepared Piano Sonata II (1946-1948)

by John Cage (1912-1992) Basic Set, CD 9:01 Brief Set, CD 5:35 Prepared piano is grand piano w/ objects inserted between some strings Note: Binary formA A B B Percussive sounds on some notes Polyphonic Listening Pome lectronique (Electronic Poem; 1958) by Edgard Varse (1883-1965) Listening Outline: p. 448 Basic Set, CD 9:03 Brief Set, CD 5:37 Created using recording tape, wide variety of

raw sounds that are often electronically processed Note: Electronic and electronically processed sounds Some tone-like sounds, some noise-like Early electronic composition Listening Threnody: To the Victims of Hiroshima, for 52 strings, by Krzysztof Penderecki (1960) Listening Outline: p. 450 Basic Set, CD 9:07 Musical events (absence of beat) Listening From Where Do You Come, My Love, My Child? by George Crumb (1970) Vocal Music Guide p. 451

Basic Set, CD 9:13 Bolero rhythm Mezzo-Soprano solo on phonetic sounds Listening Einstein on the Beach (1976) Knee Play 1 by Philip Glass (b. 1937) Listening Outline: p. 453 Basic Set, CD 9:14

Opera has no real plot or character development Lyrics are mostly numbers & solfege syllables Title derived from Nevil Shutes novel On the Beach about nuclear destruction Includes 5 short pieces called Knee Plays. Note: Minimalist approach: Steady, driving pulse Clear tonality Slow rate of change Constant repetition of melody & rhythm patterns Listening Concerto Grosso 1985 (To Handels Sonata in D Major for Violin and Continuo, First Movement) by Ellen Taaffe Zwilich (b. 1939) Listening Outline: p. 455

Basic Set, CD 9:16 Brief Set, CD 5:41 Quotation music, each of its 5 movements uses material from 1st movement of the Handel piece. Note: Use of quoted material Continuo part, as in Baroque Period Terraced dynamics to imply Baroque Listening Short Ride in a Fast Machine, by John Adams Listening Outline: p. 456 Basic Set, CD 9:18 Brief Set, CD 5:43 Rapid tempo Rhythmic drive

Powerful, colorful sonorities Listening Shard (1997) by Elliott Carter for solo acoustic guitar Listening outline p. 459 Basic Set, CD 9:22 Brief Set, CD 5:47 Jazzlike offbeat accents Dyads two tones sounding simultaneously Harmonics

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