Morphology Morphology and Word Formation Definition In linguistics, morphology is the study of words and how they are formed. It analyzes the structure of words and parts of words, such as stems, root words, prefixes, and suffixes.
What is a morpheme? Morpheme is defined as the smallest speech unit which can have meaning. a meaningful morphological unit of a language that cannot be further divided (e.g. in, come, -ing, forming incoming ). Free and bound morphemes Free morpheme: It is the morpheme that can occur as a single word with meaning as act in
(actor). Example: girl, system, desire, hope, act, phone, happyetc. Bound morpheme: It is the morpheme that cannot stand alone as a single word as or in (actor). It has meaning only when connected to other morphemes. un- (uncover, undo), dis- (displeased, disconnect), pre(predetermine, prejudge). -er
(singer, performer) -ist (typist, pianist) -ly (manly, friendly) (un- kind ness) Lexical and functional morphemes Free morphemes fall into two
categories. The first category is called lexical morphemes. It is set of ordinary nouns, adjectives and verbs. They carry the content of the messages we convey. Functional morphemes Functional morphemes
consist of functional words in the language such as conjunctions, prepositions, articles and pronouns. Examples: and, but, when, because, on, near, above, in, the, that, it, them. Affixes: English words can be classified into simple or
complex. A simple word consists of a free base morpheme; a complex word consists of a base morpheme and other elements (bound morphemes) that can be attached to the beginning or end of the bases. The word (unhappily) is made up of a base morpheme 'happy' and the bound morphemes are un ly. These elements are called "Affixes".
Affixes: are bound morphemes that can be attached to the beginning (prefixes) or the end of words (suffixes). [ affix simple form .. affix]. un . happi ly Derivational and inflectional morphemes
Derivational morphemes They can be suffixes or prefixes. They involve change in the word meaning and class (part of speech). Un + happy = unhappy (change in meaning) En + rich = enrich (change in class, adjective into verb) Derivational
affixes always precede inflectional ones if they come in the same word. For example: No other added after
"modern-ize-s". affixes can be inflectional ones. Inflectional Affixes (morphemes): are suffixes "elements that are added to the end of a word. They do not come at the beginning of a word.
There are only 8 inflectional morphemes in English. 1- They do not change the meaning or part of speech of the word. (boy/boys (n.) read / reads (v.) tall / taller / tallest (adj.)) Derivational Inflectional
Prefixes and suffixes Only suffixes Derive new words Only shows difference in number, tense, possession Change in meaning
No change in meaning Change in class No change in class (part of speech) Derivation in Arabic Arabic morphology consists primarily of a system of consonant roots
which interlock with patterns of vowels. Pattern Consonantal root We can also get Word formation processes
1. Compounding is the process of creating compounds by stringing together separate words in order to make new words. There are varied combinations of (nouns adjectives verbs and particles). Types of compounds 1. Compound nouns: involve different parts a. Noun + noun: bath towel; boy-friend; death blow policeman, boyfriend, water tank, diningtable, bedroom, motorcycle, printer cartridge,
bus stop, egg rolls b. Verb + noun: pickpocket; breakfast, drive inn, fire place, guide book, handle bar, note book, pay day, post man, search engine, show room, watch man, taste buds, stop clock c.
Noun +verb: nosebleed; sunshine, haircut, hairdo, spoon-feed sunrise, d. Verb +verb: make-believe, sleepwalk e. Adjective + noun: deep structure; fast-food, high school, smallpox, bluebird,
greenhouse. f. Particle + noun: in-crowd; down-town, down stair, off shore, out patient, on line, over weight, underworld g. Adverb + noun: now generation, onlooker bystander, afterthought, inside h. Verb + particle: cop-out; drop-out 2. Compound verbs
a. Noun + verb: sky-dive b. Adjective + verb: fine-tune c. Particle + verb: overbook d. Adjective + noun: brown-bag (to bring sth to a restaurant) 3. Compound adjectives Noun +
Particle + noun Verbal Compounds: Compound Particles: 3. Coining/coinage (invention) is the process where the new words are coined or invented
from existing material to represent a new invention or development. Examples: wireless, hypermarket, Aspirin, nylon, zipper, Teflon Some other words are used as the generic name for different brands (trademarks) of products, such as: Kleenex, Xerox, Coinage in Arabic
Coinage can take place in Arabic either through borrowing or derivation. Examples of borrowing: Examples of derivation: 4. Borrowing Borrowing: Taking words from other languages From other languages to English.
Examples: Alcohol (Arabic), Boss (Dutch), Piano (Italian), Robot (Czech), Yogurt (Turkish), Tycoon (Japanese). Borrowing in Arabic Arabic borrows words like emperor, cardinal, mile, philosophy, geography, photograph, camera, laser, fax, television,
diplomacy, democracy, consulate, strategy. 5. Clipping Some words are used in shortened form by subtracting one or more syllables from a word. This shortening sometimes occurs at the beginning of a word, at the end of a word, or at both ends of a word. EXAMPLES
Shortened word............................Full word photo...............................................photograph
Clipping is not common in Arabic. It can sometimes occur due to grammatical rules as in " "... ...... 6. Blends/blending
Two words are sometimes clipped and the clippings are joined to form a new word. EXAMPLES brunch.....from.........breakfast and lunch smog........from.........smoke and fog telecast.......from......... television and broadcast motel.........from........motorists and hotel
Blends in Arabic riding sea tide + = sea surfing + from + from + from
7. Backformation A word of one type (may be noun) is reduced to another word of another type (may be verb) Television became televise, donation became donate, Backformation in Arabic e electricity Noun to
electrify Verb globalization Noun to globalize Verb programming Noun to programme Verb Arabic Noun to Arabianize Verb international Noun to internationalize Verb
8. Acronyms An acronym is formed by joining together the initial letters (or sometimes a little larger parts) of other words and is pronounced as a word. Acronyms Full form Acronyms Full form AIDS BASIC
B2C LASER UNICEF UNESCO Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (A computer language) Business to Customer Light Amplification by Simulated Emission of Radiation United Nations International Childrens Emergency Fund
United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation Acronyms Borrowed acronyms ROOT vs. STEM Root Roots are the cores 'hearts' of words or those parts of words that are
not analysable into further morphemes. For instance: 'nature' is the root in the word 'naturalization' it is the heart of this word. Roots can either be free or bound 1. Free roots can appear alone in English in all parts of speech. 2.All monosyllabic words are free roots such as 'cat, write, sad, near, room, create and fast. 3.Also some multisyllabic words are free roots such as 'margin, pretty
Bound roots cannot occur alone in speech as they carry no meaning. They combine forms from Latin origin and Greek; they often appear in English words of Latin and Greek origin such as 'geology' (geo+logy), 'predict' (pre+dict), 'conceive (co+ceive' and nonchalance. Stem
The stem of a word is that part of the word to which the last morpheme is structurally added. For example, the word 'nature' is the stem of 'natural; natural is the stem of naturalize; and naturalize is the stem of naturalization. A root can also be a stem and a stem can be a root.
However, while all roots can be stems, not all stems are roots. For example; 'person' is both the stem and root of 'personal' is the stem but not the root of 'personality' as the root of 'personality' is 'person'. The Difference between a Root and a Stem "The terms root and stem are sometimes used interchangeably. However, there is a subtle difference between them.
a root is a morpheme that expresses the basic meaning of a word and cannot be further divided into smaller morphemes End of Section
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