Module 1: Common Core Instruction for ELA & Literacy
Session 4: Academic Vocabulary Audience: 6-12 ELA & Content Area Teachers Become familiar with the concept of academic vocabulary (Tier 2 words) and why it is important to teach Become familiar with criteria for selecting Tier 2 words for explicit instruction Explore some strategies and resources for teaching Tier 2 words In the K-12 Teachers: Building Comprehension in the Common Core In Chapter 3: Instruction of the Oregon K-12 Literacy Framework
2 Acquire and use accurately a range of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases 3 4 5 Plate tectonics (the study of the movement of the sections of Earths crust) adds to Earths story. In 1975, he coined the term fractal for shapes that repeat themselves within an object.
The carpenters then installed pieces of wood, called lagging, . Strict lawscalled Jim Crow lawsenforced a system of white supremacy . This principle is known as popular sovereignty. 6 Are critical to understanding academic texts Appear in all sorts of texts and are highly generalizable Require deliberate effort to learn, unlike Tier 1 words Are far more likely to appear in written texts than in speech. Often represent subtle or precise ways to say otherwise relatively simple things Are seldom heavily scaffolded by authors or teachers,
unlike Tier 3 words 7 In school settings, students can be explicitly taught a deep understanding of about 300 words each year. Divided by the range of content students need to know (e.g., math, science, history, literature), of these 300 350 words, roughly 60 words can be taught within one subject area each year. It is reasonable to teach thoroughly about eight to ten words per week. -- more at K-12 Teachers: Building Comprehension in the Common Core
8 Importance of the word for understanding the text What does the word choice bring to the meaning of the text? (E.g., precision, specificity?) General utility of the word Is it a word that students are likely to see often in other texts? Are there multiple meanings? Will it be of use to students in their own writing?
Students prior knowledge of the word and the concept(s) to which it relates How does the word relate to other words, ideas, or experiences that the students know or have been learning? Are there opportunities for grouping words together to enhance understanding of a concept? -- more at K-12 Teachers: Building Comprehension in the Common Core 9 With partners, read the selections and identify Tier 3 words Important to the concept under study Unlikely to appear in texts on other subjects Tier 2 words
Unfamiliar to most students at this level Likely to appear in texts on other subjects May have multiple meanings Can be grouped with other known ideas, words for instruction A few Tier 1 words Familiar to most students at this level, but likely to require attention for English language learners 10 Tier 3 Words
Innumeracy Tier 1 Words additivity, innumerates nanoseconds, fulcrum Evolution of the Grocery Bag lever, bottleneck, vastness, pronouncement, resisted ______________________ ______________________
Biography of the Fish What They Fought For . ______________________ ______________________ Evolution of the Grocery Bag ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________
Innumeracy Biography of the Fish ______________________ ______________________ What They Fought For . ______________________ ______________________ 11 The word is central to understanding the text. The word choice and nuance are significant.
Students are likely to see this word frequently. Students will be able to use this word when writing in response to the text. It is a more mature or precise label for concepts students already have under control. The word lends itself to teaching a web of words and concepts around it. 12 Central to the meaning of the text Dimensions, property, principle
Nuance, impact of word choice Intractable Frequency Fundamental More precise label for known concepts Depletion, phenomena Lend themselves to teaching a web of words
Millennia, minuscule, nanoseconds, microphysics 13 Meaning of specific words Provide student-friendly definition(s) Read the word in text Discuss examples and non-examples of the word Create semantic maps Teach multiple meanings Link new words to words students already know (CCSS Language Standard 5)
Word-learning strategies By using contextual cues By using their existing knowledge of words and word parts (CCSS Language Standard 4) -- more at Oregon K-12 Literacy Framework 14 Set a purpose for learning Learn that in science phenomena are observable events or facts, no matter how common, while in general use, it refers only to remarkable occurrences or people.
Identify critical details that define the new concept Science can be perceived by the senses General use exceptional, outstanding, unusual, extraordinary Use highly specific examples and non-examples Science combustion, gravity, respiration, light/ philosophy, sadness General use a genius, a record-setting athletic performance/ gravity Connect new concepts to previously learned material -- more at Oregon K-12 Literacy Framework 15
Sufficient to enable a student to know and use vocabulary without hesitation Distributed over time Cumulative, with vocabulary integrated into more complex tasks Varied so vocabulary use can be applied to multiple contexts -- more at K-12 Teachers: Building Comprehension in the Common Core 16 What is one difference between Tier 3 and Tier 2 words? Why is it important to teach Tier 2 words? What are two criteria to consider when selecting Tier 2
words to teach in depth? What are some instructional procedures or strategies to include when teaching general academic vocabulary? 17 In grade level or subject area teams, analyze one or more core texts for Tier 2 and Tier 3 words. Plan instruction, review, and practice for Tier 2 words. In teams, discuss opportunities for students to review and practice using new academic vocabulary across subject areas and/or grade levels. 18
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