Mobile Court Progresses The royal court was a mobile operation and moved to where the queen was Lord Chamberlain was in charge of the court There were about 500 members which included nobles, advisors, officials and servants as a group they were called courtiers. In the age of Personal Monarch it was important to have access to the Queen for decision making The economical Elizabeth did not build any new houses as she was short of money. She enjoyed staying at Richmond, when in London she stayed at Whitehall palace. She enjoyed hunting at St James palace. There was also the Tower of London and Windsor castle to imprison anyone she wanted rid of. Elizabeth would travel with her court on tours of progresses, visiting the homes of nobility. They were a major public relations exercise which allowed Elizabeth to be seen by her subjects and build up relationships and flatter the nobles she chose to stay with. It wold involve 400 wagons piled high with clothes, linen documents and furnishingsincluding her bed. To her subjects she would appear a goddess parading in her finery. Progresses also served the purpose of allowing Elizabeth to live in luxury but not have to pay for it. Also progresses allowed her to leave the hot and often plague ridden cities and visit important nobles. Performance Patronage The court served a number of functions as well as being a social hub, providing the queen and the courtiers with a home and entertainment, it was a political nerve-centre. She would entertain foreign guests and give the impression of power giving great performances and banquets. In feast days the Queen would dine in public with much performance and ceremony including people marching behind her carrying her sceptres and sword of state. In Henry VIII time his private apartments were much of a power Hub but as Elizabeth was a woman her private apartments mainly involved women. Elizabeth dealt with this situation by using a system of patronage ( basically giving people she liked an important job and wage) She gave her male courtiers political roles and was equally careful to give key politicians places at court. Although it was a highly corrupt system it was very effective as people would compete to be in her favour to gain the best roles in court etc. The Privy Council The privy council co-ordinated financial departments, law courts and the star chamber. It issued instructions to local officials such as lord lieutenants and justices of peace. Members generally from the nobility, Gentry and the church, but Elizabeth could choose and dismiss whenever she wanted ELIZABETHS COURT Elizabeth delegated well and the work of the privy increased while she was monarch but she did always attend the meetings. The key role of the Privy council was to advise and direct policy but the Queen was not obliged to take their advice. In fact, Elizabeth often demonstrated her right to ignore them. Aspect Developments Architecture Great rebuilding Elizabeth didnt have the money but her subjects did! New elaborate Manor Houses created-showing wealth and status Residences no longer needed defensive features!!!!( Moving away from M/Ages) ROBERT SMYTHSON!!!! Important for developing new homes! (HH) Local materials used therefore construction varied (think of HH) Designed to amaze Profits of landowners rising (allowing for building) due to poor harvests CULTURE Fashion Rise of the Gentry-fashions/wigs/influenced by French fashions Sumptuary Laws of 1574-controlling what people wore
Theatre Biblical stories popular from M-Ages, , actors were a threat to law and order-thought of as no better than beggars 1572 law passed to treat actors as beggars-to be punished 1572 law actors to licensed Puritans disapproved on religious grounds (devils work) 1580 Earthquake in England Puritans blamed it on Gods disapproval of theatre THE CURTAIN OPENED 1577, THE ROSE OPENED 1587, THE SWAN OPENED 1596, THE GLOBE OPENED 1599 By 1603 there were 7 major theatres and 40 acting companies Social activity open for all budgets- could seat up to 2000 spectators ( rich sit high up or on the stage itself!) No artificial lighting so performances could only be in the afternoon Women not allowed to perform Famous playwrights-Shakespeare/Christopher Marlow- skilful plays carried out Books Renaissance-new thinkers, mathematicians and philosophers e.g.. John Dee Historians develop during this period based on source work as modern historians do HARVEY!!!!! (influence on challenging ancient ideas) Art Music Artists such as Nicholas Hillard-influential painter/influences at Court New musicians who were influential e.g. Thomas Tallis. NORTHERN REBELLION 1569 Catholic rebellion Duke of Norfolk-jealous of Cecils role/catholic sympathisers REBELLIONS Norfolk wanted to marry MQoS NO PLAN TO REMOVE ELIZ AND PLOTS Thockmorton involved Dudley (Earl of Leicester) confessed all to the Queen despite his involvement Earl of Northumberland and Earl of Westmoreland summoned to court (Catholics)they were not involved but this act pushed them into acting against Eliz EoN and EoW joined by 5000 rebels marched to Durham and heard mass-illegally The Earl of Sussex struggled to raise an army to deal with the rebels Support was promised from Spain Eliz confiscated lands of the offending earls and reorganised the council in the North EoW escaped, EoN executed and Norfolk was spared and released from the Tower 9 months later THE THROCKMORTON PLOT 1583 French Catholic plot backed by Spanish and Papal money Invade England to free MQoS from house arrest Elizabeth to be murdered Francis Throckmorton worked as an intermediary between MQoS and the Spanish Ambassador (Mendoza) Throckmorton under surveillance for 6 months after Walsingham discovered what was happening Throckmorton was put on the rack and confessed
Following the plot, the Bond of Association was passed meaning that anyone associated with a plot against the queen could NOT benefit from it in any way Mendoza was expelled from England and no more Spanish Ambassadors lived in England during Elizabeths reign MQoS was left under house arrest due to a lack of evidence Walsingham became determined to find MQoS guilty of treason RIDOLFI PLOT 1571 Roberto di Ridolfi, a Catholic Italian banker attempted to restore Catholicism in England Involved MQoS Philip II and Norfolk involved Eliz has been excommunicated at this point (1570) Catholics were encouraged to rebel against the Queen Planassassinate Eliz and replace with MQoS Idea for 6000 troops from Spain to land at Harwich led by the Duke of Alba Ridolfi anticipated the support of Catholic nobles and approx. 40,000 men MQofS to marry Norfolk MQoS and Norfolk agreed to the plot Ridolfi escaped prosecution MQoS-act of parliament that any attempt of Elizs life would lead to removal from the succession Norfolk was excused 3 times (Eliz kept changing her mind)-he was executed in 1572 Eliz refused to have MQoS executed THE BABINGTON PLOT 1586 MQoS was moved to the ruined Tutbury Castle (following the Throckmorton Plot) and then to Chartley Hall, her jailer was a Puritan (Amyas Paulet) Tried to push MQoS into another Plot-she was incredibly resentful of her position MQoS began secret correspondence with Sir Anthony Babington (A Catholic recusant recruited by a Jesuit priestJohn Ballard) Letters were in code By mid-1586 a plot had been devised to kill Eliz Walsingham had discovered the plot The letters were deciphered by Thomas Phelippes On 17th July 1586 Mary wrote a coded letter approving of the attempt on Elizs life Babington was arrested and hung, drawn and quartered with 6 other conspirators in September This was the final straw for Elizabeth and MQoS death warrant was signed in December and MQoS was executed in a botched job in February 1587 Sir Francis Drake
Patriotic, did not seek wealth or status Wanted new territory for England/Elizabeth Puritan, therefore hated the Spanish EXPLORATION 1572-captured 40,000 of Spanish Silver Spain referred to his as El Draque AND EXPLORERS Became rich and famous upon his return Financed by Elizabeth and Cecil, although careful not to support him openly due to strained relations with Spain 1577 circumnavigated the globe (first Englishman-second person) Drake returned almost 3 years later with a fortune of approx. 400,000 (2 million today) Drake made 10,000 and the rest went to the Queen and investors. The Spanish were furious and wanted him punished, Elizabeth Knighted him on his flagship the Golden Hind Died in 1597 Sir Walter Raleigh A courtier Led a number of voyages to America Received a patent to colonise America (Spain and Portugal had already) Named the colony VIRGINIA in honour of Elizabeth (1585) The colony was believed to have vast amounts of flax, wine, oil and sugar Wanted to reduce England's reliance on Europe Colonisation was seen as a method of easing poverty at home Raleighs attempts to seek self sufficiency and colonise FAILED due to food shortages and he returned back to England 1592 married Elizabeth Throckmorton without the Queens permission and temporarily fell from grace 1595 set sail again looking for gold in America, again he failed The first successful colony was in 1607 named Jamestown in Virginia (after Elizabeths death) Was executed in 1618 due to Spanish pressure Trade: Goods such as were traded from the East such as Spices, incense, cotton, perfumes. This was difficult as hostility from the Ottoman Empire. Places high taxes on good. New sea routes were sought out to improve this. Exploration: Christopher Columbus successfully discovered the New World Amerigo Vespucci (Portuguese explorer) recognised the New World was in fact a new continent not just an extension of Asia (therefore named after him as AMERICA) Ferdinand Magellan first to circumnavigate the globe (Portuguese) Spain and Portugal were dominant America had huge amounts of silver, gold, tobacco, potatoes and tomatoes (Central American colonised by Spain) Portuguese colonised Brazil using slaves farming cotton, sugar and cotton Licenses were needed from Spain/Portugal for exploration of the New World, which were rarely granted to the English Privateers: Licenced by Elizabeth Ships were privately owned English ships were smaller and faster therefore could easily manoeuvre around Spanish ships
Trading companies: Muscovy Company-sent up before Elizabeths reign-traded in timber and fur with Russia from 1553 The Eastland Company-established in 1579 traded timber, rope with the Baltic region The Lavant Company-established 1581 traded currents and dyes from the Mediterranean The East India Company, established in 1600 traded silks, spices, cotton and tea with the Far East Inventions: Astroglobe-plotted accurate ship positions Printing Press- maps and literature readily available CONSEQUENCES: Increased hostility between Spain and England Brought great wealth to merchants/Elizabeth and England Magnificent image of Elizabeth Foundations of Britain as a global superpower Basis of a world renowned Navy Led to the establishment of colonies Succession crisis: Attitudes Pressures Suitors Heirs 25 years at her accession Urgency of the issue-stabilisation Interference from the Privy Council/Parliament and council 3rd Parliament of 1566 raised it-much to her annoyance Foreign suitors Prince Eric of Sweden Philip of Spain Son of the HRE-Charles of Austria Duke of Alencon (last) English Suitors Earl of Arundel Sir William Pickering Robert Dudley (already married) Pros and cons of marriage A foreign marriage would prove useful for alliance purposes Need for a child/heir Power struggle if English Limit personal power if foreign/English Most likely candidates were Catholic Isolate other nations if selected one over another Possible heirs Lady Jane Greys sisters-Lady Catherine (marries the Earl of Hertford in secret, becomes pregnant and is imprisoned in the tower-Elizabeth is furiousshe dies) and Lady Mary- she also married without permission and was placed under house arrest and died childless (legitimate through Henrys sister Mary) MQoS ELIZABETH AND HER SUITORS Acts Groups Opposition 1559-Act of Supremacy 1559-Act of
uniformity 1569-39 Articles Common prayer book 1570-Papal Bull 1571-Treason Act 1585-Act against Jesuits/Seminary Priests death if caught 1593-Law against Seditious Sectaries Jesuits-dedicated Catholics to the Pope Recusants (refused to attend CoE mass) Puritans Protestants Catholics unwilling Whitgif (ABoCant) to accept Elizabeths issued 3 articles AoS forcing members of the clergy to obey Puritans felt that Elizs treatment of bishops/39 articles the Catholics didnt and prayer book go far enough 300 ministers suspended Puritans in 1572 published Led to another pamphlets against faction of PuritansElizabeth Separatists and Brownists Law against separatists-faced death (1593) ELIZABETH AND THE PROBLEM OF RELIGION Puritans (repression of) Conclusions Catholic threat effectively dealt with by 1603 Political stability Middle Way Some opposition still remained Henry VIII Great matter The Kings sister Accession
Henry VIII was married first to Catherine of Aragon for more than twenty years, unfortunately the marriage failed to produce a surviving male heir after many still births and miscarriages. Henry was worried as last time there was a female heir (Matilda) there was a civil war as a cousin took the throne instead. Henry did not want to leave the throne in that position. He convinced himself that God was punishing him for marrying his brother widow and all of their sins which meant he would never gain the male heir he desired. At the same time Henry had met a new woman in court who refused to become Henrys mistress (Anne Boleyn)- Henry wanted to marry her as he was convinced she would provide the boy he desired. There was some urgency that followed this as Anne had fallen pregnant and if the baby was born before they were married it would not have a legitimate right to the throne. So Henry took the dramatic step of breaking with Rome and making himself the Head of the Church of England and this allowed him to marry Anne. Anne gave birth to a healthy girl, there was an act of Succession passed confirming the new baby as the heir and declared Mary as illegitimate In January 1547 Henry VIII died, when told of her fathers death Elizabeth was actually fairly close to her brother Edward but he quickly became arrogant and aloof with her. Edward and his Government brought about radical changes to actual religious practice and beliefs. Colourful images and stained glass windows were removed from churches, and the English language was used rather than Latin in sermons and prayer. There are many that question if actually these were Edwards idea or he was drove by his government. Thomas Seymour led to Elizabeth become embroiled in Scandal as there was an affair (accused) but Seymour was embroiled in a act of treason against the King and there were many who questioned if Elizabeth was involved. Presuming that Elizabeth would marry Thomas Seymour allowing him to become King. There was never found to be any evidence against her and she escaped just humiliated, but it taught her a valuable political lesson. At the end of Edwards reign while he laid on his death bed at 15 he was persuaded to sign the Third Act of Succession naming his Protestant cousin Lady Jane Grey. The Kings Daughter The Queens Sister When Elizabeth was aged just two and a half, her mother was executed on trumped up charges of treason, incest, adultery and witchcraft. The birth of a male heir the following year to Henry and his third wife, Jane Seymour, seemed to relegate Elizabeth to a position of political irrelevance. In the late 1530s and early 1540s many of Elizabeths remaining Yorkist cousins were arrested and executed, as the paranoid King felt his position and that of the dynasty to be threatened. Elizabeth was taught by a governess, Kat Ashley, who became a lifelong friend. Later, despite being a woman, Elizabeth was given a brilliant education and was able to share some of the tutors
employed to school her brother. The greatest intellectual influence on Elizabeth was undoubtedly her tutor, the Cambridge scholar Roger Ascham. This shows how advanced and modern her education was, she was also fluent in French, Italian, Spanish and Latin and was able to read Greek. During Elizabeths teenage years, Henrys sixth wife Catherine Parr acted as a mother figure for Elizabeth. Shortly after Lady Jane Grey was defeated, Mary and Elizabeth rode into London triumphantly together, but behind closed doors the two were enemies. Mary was a staunch Catholic, Elizabeth a protestant. There was hatred because of Elizabeths mother Anne Boleyn who had replaced Marys mother Catherine of Aragon as Henrys wife. She also hated Elizabeth's beauty and intelligence. The situation was more complicated as Mary was unmarried and childless- this led to her quickly marrying Phillip and Spain. This caused upset and a rebellion followed (Wyatt's rebellion), there were accusations that Elizabeth was secretly working with the rebels but this was never confirmed. Elizabeth was arrested but with her being released as there was a lack of evidence against her. She wrote a letter to her sister protesting her innocence but she was kept under house arrest. Elizabeths tense relationship with Mary continued until Marys death. Childless and having suffered two phantom pregnancies, borne out of her desperate desire to secure a catholic succession. Mary refused to name Elizabeth as her heir until a few days before her death. Lucky for Elizabeth there were two deaths on the same day with Mary and her chief advisor meaning there was little objection to her being given the role of queen. Elizabeth was anointed with holy oil and crowned Queen in Westminster Abbey on 15th January 1559 beginning her more than forty year reign . Conclusion Elizabeths life before her accession was unhappy, dysfunctional and brimming with danger. Having lost her mother as a toddler, and lacking a harmonious relationship with either her father or siblings, Elizabeth twice cam close to execution for treason. However unlike her sister Mary who's traumatic life left her embittered and emotionally damaged. Elizabeth's early life did the opposite. Elizabeth miraculous survival served to strengthen her character and mould her into the cautious, clever and courageous queen she became. ELIZABETH BEFORE BECOMING QUEEN Marys background: A Rival to the throne?
Mary was Elizabeth's cousin. She had become the Queen of Scotland as a baby, but violence and instability in Scotland meant that she spent most of her early life in France being cared for by her mother family. She was bought up as a Catholic and grew into a beautiful and accomplished young woman After a brief marriage to the French King, the widowed Mary returned to Scotland in 1561 after over a decade abroad. At this time, Scotland was going through its own Protestant reformation. This was unfortunate as it put Mary at odds against her people making her very much a foreigner in her own land. The Trial and execution of Mary: Walsingham had proof of Marys guilt because of the Babington Plot 1586. In October Mary was placed on trial she actually chose to be her own defence and did it very well but was still found Guilty. Parliament and the Privy Council believed she should be executed. England had always had a difficult relationship with Scotland, but the situation become further complicated because of Elizabeths refusal to marry. This meant Elizabeth was childless so Mary was a possible heir to the throne. Mary was keen to assert her claim to the throne which made Elizabeth deeply suspicious. Elizabeth suggested she married her close friend Robert Dudley as a method to control her. Instead Mary married Lord Darnley who was also a descendant of Henry VII which made Elizabeth even more worried as both of them had claims to the throne thus strengthening Marys claim to the throne. Marys marriage to Darnley was not a happy one he was a violent drunk and he was murdered two years later, there was even gossip that Mary was involved especially when she took her third husband very quickly Earl Bothwell (who was also suspected of having arranged Darnleys murder) Civil war broke out in Scotland leading Mary to have to Abdicate and give her infant son the throne. Mary comes to England The death warrant: Elizabeths response Elizabeth was indecisive as she had been earlier with Norfolk, also a letter from Mary had reduced Elizabeth to tears meaning she had
conflicting opinions of what to do with her problem. In December 1586 Cecil prepared a death warrant, but Elizabeth refused to sign it. After more threats of invasion Elizabeth signed the warrant but told her secretary not to seal it this was meant to be just a precautionary measure. He secretary ignored her instructions and took it to the Privy Council where it was decided the death warrant would be sealed. February 1587 Mary Queen of Scots was beheaded in a badly performed execution. MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS She quickly escaped captivity in Loch Leven in Scotland and fled to England, arriving, disguised, in a fishing boat at Workington in Cumberland in May 1568. Mary might have been Elizabeth's cousin but her arrival was not good news for Elizabeth, Mary was a supporter of the French a staunch Catholic and a potential heir to the throne. There were still people who did not believe that Elizabeth was a legitimate heir to throne so doubted her ability to rule, Mary now arriving would threaten her control over her court etc. Mary was placed on house arrest far away in the North first at Carlisle Castle then Bolton Castle. Elizabeth was hoping to keep Mary out of the way far enough away from London and away from Scotland. Elizabeth was appalled that her instructions had been ignored and reacted with anger. She refused to talk to Cecil and her secretary William Davison was placed in the Tower of London. She had committed regicide and was very afraid of the consequences. Mary was now a Catholic Martyr and she was afraid the Catholics would use her death to justify an uprising BUT Catholics in England were more appalled that there had been another uprising against their monarch making it obvious they were more loyal to Elizabeth than estimated. The bigger objections came from abroad England was already at war with Spain and Marys death angered Phillip of Spain even more. Scotlands king (Marys son) was obviously displeased at the murder of his mother and the Catholic king in France objected greatly as he was Marys brother in law. However none of them acted upon their displeasure, Elizabeth claimed to be innocent in the whole matter and explained that it had been a misunderstanding that her secretary was to blame for her cousins death. Many historians believe Elizabeths outpouring of grief was for show and actually she was very pleased to get rid of the problem and that Davison was purely used a s scapegoat to cover her own ruthless act. Causes of the Conflict: The Spanish king was married to Elizabeths sister Elizabeth had rejected the kings advances Phillip hated Protestant England Phillip believed Elizabeth shouldnt have been Queen Wanted to conquer England and restore Catholicism. In the Netherlands there were mostly Protestants and they objected to
Catholic rule. England was disrupting Spains trade. Unofficially England allowed rebels to board Spanish ships and steal their goods. Resources: Phillip had huge resources at his disposal. Elizabeth was in comparison a weak competitor. She had the plan in place to summon soldiers from different parts of the country. She didnt know where or when the Spanish would land so she had to spread her soldiers across the coast. Elizabeth only had 35 ships she did manage to get 200 boats in the end not battle ships though. Phillip had 130 ships at his disposal. Fireships: The Launch of the Armada: Armada left Lisbon in May 1588. The fleet quickly ran into storms , needing supplies and repairs the ships had to drop anchor. They did successful sail to the English Channel in a crescent shape. There were beacons on the coast to light when the Spanish were sited. English followed the Cresent shapes successfully. With the wind rising as the Spanish Armada set off from Calais, Drake had a master stroke. He took some old English ships and stuffed them with explosives and flammable materials. Setting them out towards the Spanish ships. No Spanish ships were actually burnt but it sent them of course and broke the well organised crescent. This meant some of the Spanish were now heading too far north and had missed the Channel and their method Spanish plans for invasion: Plans were delayed by about a year when Drake raided Spanish ships damaging many of them. He had prepared 130 ships with 2500 men to man them. The paln was for the Armada to sail up the channel to meet the Spanish army coming from the Netherlands. This army was under control of the Duke of Parma- they were going to meet up with the Armada and capture ports on the south coast. The English Catholics were also
expected to rebel against Elizabeth. Ship Design: Hawkins had spent a long time on the design of the ships. They were lighter, faster and more manoverable than the Spanish. They used accurate and long ranging guns allowing them to attack while at a safe distance from the Spanish ships. Spanish Armada Leaders: Phillip had appointed the Duke of Medina Sidonia to lead the Spanish attack. The English fleet was expertly led by Lord Howard and several other men including Sir Francis Drake . Consequences for Spain: Philip humiliated, good propaganda opportunity for Elizabeth Philip continued to stir Catholic support against Elizabeth War put a strain on the economy Importance of guns in sea battles-lasting tactic Consequences for England: Englands independence ensured England becomes a major naval power Importance of guns in sea battles-lasting tactic Philip continued to stir Catholic support against Elizabeth Elizabeth continued to help Dutch rebels War put a strain on the economy Elizabeths Privy Council By January 1559 Elizabeth had appointed 19 members of the council which was far more manageable than Marys 40 members of the council. Half were drawn from Marys council keeping experience in the council, the other half were brand new allowing her to reward her loyal members not involving any strong
Catholics. Over time Elizabeth realised she could control the Privy more and would appoint more gentry and move the nobility out. Some may argue that this meant that there was resentment from the nobles which may have encouraged rebellion. William had her main men which included William Cecil who Elizabeth relied on for 40 years- (see profile sheet) Robert Dudley her childhood friend (see profile sheet)Francis Walsingham her spy master (see profile sheet). Divide and rule Elizabeth was skilled at controlling her Privy council even though they were very ambitious. She would play with their emotions, she would scold if they did anything wrong she excluded Dudley and Walsingham for 6 months, she would also show affection. She was not afraid to punish members of the council which were seen in her actions against Norfolk and Essex. Elizabeth would appoint men who were hostile to each other tom make them argue so she could see the contrasting opinions and make a well researched choice. Elizabeth played the game of divide and rule this meant the men would compete for her affection and try to please her. Even though Elizabeth did play games with her council but many of them maintained a professional working relationship throughout her reign. Changes Despite Elizabeth's attitude to Parliament during her reign, MPs became more confident to argue against the Queen. This could be linked to the fact that her council were now better educated with over half of them having attended university. Members of parliament are supposed to have freedom of speech leading to some heated debates. This would even involve areas the Queen did not want to discuss for example her marital status. Elizabeth would attend Parliament meaning her presence could persuade many of the members to follow her wants. She also had the right to appoint the Speaker, who was able to control the topics which were discussed and the direction of the debates. Elizabeth also had a Royal Veto which meant she could block any ideas she did not agree with. She could also dissolve parliament when she wanted. Members of the Privy Council also sat in the house of Commons and the Houses of Parliament. This provided a way for the government to manipulate parliamentary affairs. The role of parliament Years of Decline Essex Rebellion 1601 Parliament were quite assured of their importance since they helped Henry VIII break from Rome. This was done by
Parliament passing laws allowing this to happen. The idea that the monarch ruled with parliament that it was more of a political partnership. However it was not Parliaments role to rule they were to pass the laws to allow Elizabeths policies to be a reality. Elizabeth mainly relied on parliament for her financial predicaments she relied on parliament to pass on subsidies (taxes) she asked for these in eleven of the thirteen sessions and each time parliament granted them. By the 1590s parliament was in crisis the country had been severely damaged by war, plague and increased population. Harvests were failing and this was also leading to food shortages. As this progressed for Elizabeth the Patronage system started to collapse. Blow after blow occurred to Elizabeth as one by one her most trusted councillors died Dudley in 1588, Walsingham 1590, Hatton 1591 and finally Cecil in 1598. Elisabeth became quite depressed and angry and faced sharp criticism and had always relied on her close assistance to help. A larger blow was now she seemed to be losing the control of her council as one of her favourites rebelled against her. As Elizabeths old guard disappeared a new one started to take their places, many of the ambitious. There were two main rivals Robert Cecil ( William Cecil's son) and the Earl of Essex (Robert Dudleys Step son). Essex became annoyed that Cecil was gaining more power as his father aged he was taking on more work. Cecil was a smooth methodical worker and Essex on the other hand was dashing and young. Essex annoyed the Queen once by marrying without permission and then she refused to promote one of his supporters which angered him even more he yelled her conditions are as crooked as her carcass and turned his back on her leading to Elizabeth punching Essex who almost drew his sword. Essex was given another chance to redeem himself by defeating a rebellion in Ireland against the Earl of Tyrone but instead he negotiated with the Earl while Essex was making a mess of his tasks the queen had promoted Cecil. When Essex returned he was so angry he stormed into her bed chambers before she was dressed or had her wig on. This led to serious consequences he was put under house arrest and lost his job and all his monopolies he was ruined! In 1601 Essex gathered around 300 supporters and he began to fortify his mansion, Elizabeth sent four privy members to find out if a rebellion was occurring and Essex held them as hostages and marched on London in an effort to capture the Queen. People in London were uninterested and many of his supporters fled. Essex was arrested and charged with treason and was executed on 25 th Feb 1601- a swift and spectacular fall from grace for a former royal favourite, but also a sure sign of Elizabeths fading powers.