Michigan Trees - miwaterstewardship.org

Michigan Trees - miwaterstewardship.org

Michigan Trees By: Andrea Berry Michigan Water Stewardship Program Kinds of Trees Gymnosperms

Conifers 10 native to Michigan Leaves remain for several years Exception: tamarack (e. larch) Evolved during

Mesozoic times 245-145mya Triassic 245mya Jurassic 208mya

Cretaceous 145mya Angiosperms Flowering plants Deciduous (North Temperate Zone) Hardwoods Evergreen (Tropical)

None native to MI First appeared during Cretaceous Became widely abundant during Tertiary 65mya Today far outnumber conifers in # &

diversity of species Parts of a Tree Stem Bark Dead material Protects Cambium

Living material Produces bark Phloem Moves nutrients down stem from leaves to roots Xylem Moves water up stem from roots

Parts of a Tree cont Leaves Chloroplasts Photosynthesis Stomata Control water pressure

Simple Not divided into distinct parts, may be lobed Compound Divided into leaflets Arrangement Alternate, opposite, whorled

Venation Netted=reticulate, eucicots (aka dicots) Parallel=striate, monocots Monocots vs. Eudicots Monocotyledons

Monocots 1 seed leaf 65,000 species Grasses, lilies, irises, orchids, cattails, palms *Conifers*

Parallel veination Eudicotyledons Eudicots 2 seed leaves Trees, shrubs, herbs (nonwoody plants) Not conifers!

Netted veination Ash Trees Opposite, pinnately compound leaves Black, white, mountain ash

Ashes Black Ash White Ash 9 leaflets 7-9 leaflets

Wet, low swampy Upland drier sites areas American MountainAsh 9-17 leaflets N. acidic bogs, ornamental

Aspens Boreal, northern species Dry or moist soils Reproduce by cloning Adapted to fire 2 species Large-toothed Trembling (quaking)

Aspens Big-toothed aspen Trembling aspen Birches Gray birch Yellow birch

Paper birch Cedars Eastern Red cedar Northern White cedar

American Elm Balsam Fir Needles 2-ranked Needles spirally arranged Multiple white lines on underside of needles

Distinct balsam smell Seed cone smooth & upward Eastern Hemlock Needles 2ranked & spirally arranged Needles flat Seed cone

round and droops Sycamore Black Willow Willow water-loving species associated with riparian areas

Maples 7 species native to Michigan (5 trees) *All leaves are arranged opposite* *All leaves are simple* Except Boxelder, compound

Winged-fruit samara Cool, moist habitats Sensitive to fire b/c bark is thin Shade-tolerant (except Boxelder) Black, Norway, Red, Silver, Striped, Sugar, Boxelder

Maples Maples Maples Black Maple Maples

Dogwood Oaks 400 species, 12 native to Michigan Massive trunks, thick, fire-resistant bark, large, deep roots Broad wide spreading crown Fruit acorn

Monoecious male & female flower on different part of the same tree Young oaks retain leaves in winter Very long-lived Black, Bur, N. Red, Pin, Swamp White, White White Oak Northern Red Oak

Bur Oak Oaks Black Oak Swamp White Oak

Oaks Pin Oak Pines 36 species in US, 3 native to MI Extensively logged, some with poor management, ex. White pine All pines survive well in dry coarse soils very

deep root system Many require fire to regenerate Cones require 2 years to mature Leaves persist for several years Distinguishing feature: needle clusters from 2-5 Soft Pines 5 leaves in a cluster Hard Pines 2-3 needles in a cluster Soft Pines 5 Needles

Hard Pines 2 Needles 2-ranked long needles; plantation tree Hard Pines 2 Needles Scotch pine twisted

needles Jack Pine straight needles Jack Pines Before Burning After Burning

Jack Pines Require fire (natural or prescribed) to regenerate Thrive on very sandy dry soils Kirtlands Warbler nesting habitat

Tamarack Looses needles in winter Nodules on branches Spruces 7 species in US, 2 native to MI Triangle shaped Tolerate acidic, undrained soils

Shallow roots Low nutrient requirement Needles are 4-sided & persist 510 years White, Black, Norway Spruces Spruces Green-yellow glow, droopy branches

Introduced ornamental Whitish glow, upward branches Upland sites Black Spruce Wetland species

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