MetroHartford Alliance FastTrac NewVenture Entrepeneurial Program
IACT Presents Trademark Clearance and Protection for New Product Introduction Terrence J. McAllister August 25, 2011 1 Discussion Points Common terms - definitions Trademark Clearance- what should be done and when
Trademark Registration process- steps to take to gain additional legal advantages Trademark Enforcement- protecting your trademark against a loss of rights, infringement or dilution 2 Trademarks Definitions Common Terms 3
What is a Trademark? Word Symbol Slogan Product or Packaging Design JUST DO IT. Trademarks and Service Marks Service mark
5 Function Of Trademarks Indicates the source or origin of products or services Assures consumers of the quality of products bearing the mark Creates goodwill and brand awareness More distinctive = more legal protection 6 Distinctiveness of Trademarks The strength of a proposed trademark will diminish as you go
down this list: FANCIFUL MARKS ARBITRARY MARKS SUGGESTIVE MARKS Xerox copiers Apple computer Citibank services MERELY DESCRIPTIVE MARKS GENERIC TERMS Smartphone
computer, desk Merely descriptive and generic terms will probably be challenged in the registration process. -Descriptive terms are difficult to enforce 7 Trademark vs. Trade Name Trade name: identifies a company or business; for example, The Coca-Cola Company Trademark: identifies the goods or services of that
company 8 Trade Dress Device used to designate source or quality of goods or services Packaging or product design Must be Non-Functional Distinctive Identifies source in minds of consumers
9 Trade Dress Examples COKE bottle restaurant style sound, scent, taste Can register if inherently distinctive acquired distinctiveness
10 Domain Names Look at securing .com .net .biz Look at social media naming Facebook, Twitter 11 Trademark Clearance 12
Process Of Selecting A Trademark Choosing a name- brainstorming sessions (think about getting professional help) Timing- dont wait until the last minute to start naming your product Availability look at confusion factors Can you protect the name? 13 Clearing A Trademark All proposed marks should be sent to your legal counsel for clearance early in the product development process to
determine availability and to obtain rights: Rights can be established through use of the mark and/or filing in the U.S. (and in many foreign jurisdictions). Trademark rights can exist without a U.S. federal registrationcalled common law rights. Search process includes federal register, trade directories, various publications, state registries, and the internet. Search factors similarity of names, products, trade channels, intent, strength of mark (likelihood of confusion) 14 Searching Trademarks for Availability Need to Provide as much history and information as
possible: GARBAGE IN --- GARBAGE OUT KNOCK-OUT SEARCH FULL SEARCH International clearance should be considered during the initial evaluation of the search/clearance process for use by a multinational business. 15 What Needs to be Searched? Any new trademarks, brands, sub-brands, designs, slogans include Domain names
Style descriptors and color names (unless they are generic -- e.g. Red vs. Flame-Glo Red). Variations of existing trade marks or designs. Uses of existing trade marks on new products, i.e. brand extensions. 16 If a trademark clears, are you home free? The more fanciful the name, the better are the chances of success.
Low risk does not mean no risk. Risks which may be acceptable at the outset, but may become unacceptable over a fairly short period of time. Third parties prior rights of use/registration
17 Test Would you be confused.. COLON CLEANSE MOVE IT for "dietary food supplements" [COLON CLEANSE disclaimed], COLON CLEANSE for "bulk forming fiber laxative." 18 The Board concluded that confusion is likely, and it sustained the opposition.
The Board found that "taken as a whole," the marks COLON CLEANSE MOVE IT and COLON CLEANSE are "far more similar than dissimilar in appearance and sound." Moreover, they both convey a sense of "digestive regularity." The words MOVE IT reinforce the wording COLON CLEANSE "as well as the result that the goods identified under the marks are intended to achieve." As to the goods, the record showed that Opposer's products are dietary supplements, and that Applicant's goods promote "bowel movement." In short, Opposer's laxative is a type of dietary supplement. Thus Applicant's goods encompass those of the COLON CLEANSE registration. Because the goods overlap, the Board must presume that they travel in the same channels (of trade) to the same classes of consumers. 19
Test- Would you be confused DYNATECH in standard character form for "engine exhaust system components, namely, pipes, collectors and mufflers ordered through specialty racing product ordering services." DYNATEK for "ignition systems for motor vehicles comprising, ignition coils and fuel injection controllers for motor vehicles; [and] crank sensor ignition triggers for motor vehicles." 20 The Board concluded that confusion is not likely, and
allowed the application to be registered. Although the cited registration did not contain any limitation as to channels of trade, the Board must focus on "the only relevant trade channel, namely 'specialty racing product ordering services.'" In light of the declaration of Applicant's CEO, the Board concluded that "the only overlap among customers are the careful, knowledgeable purchasers of applicant's goods." Given the specific difference in the goods, the "sophisticated decision-making involved in purchasing applicant's specialty racing exhaust components, warrant a finding that there is no likelihood of confusion." 21
Test- Would you be confused REEF SAFE for "sun care lotions," REEF for "sun block preparations and sun screen preparations" and REEF OIL & Design for "suntan lotion" [OIL disclaimed]]. 22 We find that applicants mark REEF SAFE is similar to registrants marks REEF and REEF OIL and design in terms of appearance, sound, meaning and commercial impression. In comparing the marks, the test is not whether the marks can be
distinguished when subjected to a side-by-side comparison, but rather whether the marks are sufficiently similar in terms of their overall commercial impression so that confusion as to the source of the goods and services offered under the respective marks is likely to result. The marks are similar in appearance, sound, meaning and commercial impression because they share the word Reef. In fact, applicants mark incorporates registrants entire REEF mark, and under similar circumstances, likelihood of confusion has been found where the entirety of one mark is incorporated within another. The inclusion of the word Oil in the registered mark REEF OIL and design does not distinguish registrants REEF OIL mark from applicants mark REEF SAFE because the word Oil is descriptive of the composition of the suntan lotion and has been disclaimed.
23 Trademark Infringement Urban Home Steading First Descents v. First Descent and First Ascent 24 Examples of trademark enforcementinfringement claims Word Mark URBAN HOMESTEADING Goods and IC 041. ducational services, namely, conducting informal programs in the Services fields of sustainable living, organic foods and gardening, the
environment, and conservation, using on-line activities and interactive exhibits; entertainment services, namely, providing a web site featuring photographic, audio and video featuring sustainable living, organic foods and gardening, the environment, and conservation; on-line journals, namely, blogs featuring sustainable living, organic foods and gardening, the environment and conservation. FIRST USE: 2002 Owner Dervaes Institute 631 Cypress Avenue Pasadena California 25 Urban Homesteading
At the heart of the dispute is the Institutes complaint to Facebook regarding a web site page promoting a book on urban homesteading, which led to Facebooks taking down of the page. When the publisher complained, Facebook told them it was a matter to be decided between the Institute and the authors and the page remained down. Argument- how did they get to register the name? The defendants maintain that although the Institute managed to register the term as a trademark (in connection with educational services such as blogging)[,] . . . the term urban homesteading is commonly understood to refer to a popular movement and related set of practices. According to them, and anyone else are free to use it in that descriptive sense, and that is exactly what they did.
26 Urban Homesteading The parties points: Historically, a registration of this kind of mark might have had limited impact, because sensible mark-owners would think twice before bringing legal action and, short of such action, most legal users could ignore any improper threats. In the Internet context, however, individuals and organizations rely on service providers to help them communicate with the world (YouTube, Facebook, eBay, Blogger, etc.). A trademark complaint directed to one of those providers can mean a fast and easy takedown given that those service providers usually dont have the resources and/or the inclination to investigate trademark infringement claims. Moreover, because there is no counter-notice procedure, the targets of an improper takedown
have no easy way to get their content back up. In response to the Institutes claim over urban homesteading, many people taking part in this movement have joined in the fight against the trademarking of the term. So far there has been an Urban Homesteaders Day of Action and a YouTube campaign in support of these efforts. 27 First Descents, First Ascent- Whos first. First Descents, Inc., a Colorado-based non-profit, filed a trademark infringement lawsuit against Eddie Bauer, the outdoor clothing manufacturer, for the similarity of the company's brand names First Ascent and First Descent. Pro kayaker Brad Ludden started First Descents, Inc. in 2001 to help young adults with cancer experience whitewater kayaking. The organization has since grown to include activities like surfing, climbing, and mountaineering. First Descents
obtained common law trademark rights in 2001 and as the organization grew to include camp apparel, they filed for a trademark in clothing in September 2008, citing their first use dates in 2001. That application was suspended by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office as a result of the trademark applications that had been filed a few months earlier by Eddie Bauer. 28 First Descents, First Ascent- Whos first. In 2009, Eddie Bauer launched First Ascent, a line of technical clothing codesigned by ski and mountain guides. A couple of ski products within that line were named First Descent. First Descents, Inc.'s COO Kelly Malin told ESPN that she has witnessed consumer confusion between the two brands. In a company press release, First Descents stated: "When Eddie Bauer launched its 'First Ascent'
and 'First Descent' product lines, and began marketing efforts at the same events where we had an established presence, our ability to distinguish our organization and its First Descents outdoor adventure therapy programs was lost. According to a corporate statement issued by Eddie Bauer, the Seattle-based company has ownership of trademark rights to the name First Ascent that date back to 1988, prior to the existence of First Descents, Inc. They applied for registration of the name First Descent with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office in 2008 and that registration was granted in 2011. 29 Trademark Protection/Registration
Process 30 How Are Trademark Rights Obtained? Acquired in the U.S. by filing and/or use of the mark. Acquired in many foreign countries primarily by registration. Continue to exist so long as the mark is used and registrations are maintained. Register domain names cheaper now then later UDRP costs
31 Registration of Trademarks the Application Intent to Use v. Actual Use use E-Filing system (USPTO.GOV) For U.S. marks, must be in use before registration is granted. For foreign marks, 2-3 years before registrations, sometimes longer. No use required in many countries. Madrid Protocol Process 32 What Does Registration Provide? Registration provides a government document that provides a
rebuttable presumption of ownership. In other words, the trademark may still be challenged, but the challenger has the greater burden. But registration relates to the specific goods only; it does not cover everything. There are specific classes that the owner must apply for (and meet the use criteria). E.g., Cadillac cars and Cadillac dog food. Registration is not an exclusive monopoly (compare patent and copyright) 33 Major Benefits of Successful U.S. Registration NOTICE OF CLAIM OF OWNERSHIP
DEPOSIT WITH CUSTOMS RIGHT TO SUE IN FEDERAL COURT RECOVERY OF PROFITS AND DAMAGES LIMITS GROUNDS FOR ATTACK AFTER FIVE YEARS CRIMINAL PENALTIES AND DAMAGES IN COUNTERFEITING ACTIONS 34 Should One Always Apply for Registration? Expected period of use: Long term vs. short term (seasonal) Descriptive vs. Distinctive *Note: Even descriptive marks should
undergo a clearance search to confirm use will not infringe the rights of another Time between conception and use Risks of use without registration 35 Trademark Notices Should use TM prior to registration. Should use ONLY after registration. BUT use only for those goods for which it is actually registered. Give notice of registration: WYX is a registered trademark of [Company Name].
36 A Trademarks Life Can continue indefinitely, as long as use is not abandoned and the mark is properly used. U.S. Registration = Renewable every 10 years with proof of use. Similar periods for foreign registration. 37 Rules of Trademark Usage
ALWAYS use a trademark as an adjective. Trademarks (adjectives) modify nouns. NEVER use a trademark in the possessive or plural form. Use CAPITALS, italics, or Special Typography to set off the trademark in copy. Use and / or notices in marketing materials. 38 More Trademark Usage Rules Use the products generic name and/or the word brand after the trademark. E.g. WYX pencils or WYX brand pencils. Avoid all variations, such as spelling changes, changes in hyphenation, and combining with other words (at least until
you have obtained legal clearance). 39 Trademark Enforcement 40 Loss of Trademark Rights in the U.S. Improper use. Failure to use the mark for three (3) consecutive years with no intent to resume. Express abandonment of the mark.
41 More on Loss of US Rights Improper licensing, such as over-licensing or failure to exercise quality control over licensees products. Failure to police use of your mark by others -- INFRINGERS!
Police your employees use of marks - if not used correctly on both internal & external documents, it will be difficult to ensure proper use by third parties. Watching services oppose potential trademark filings and domain name registrations 42
Examples of Lost Trademarks ESCLATOR LINOLEUM CORNFLAKES MIMEOGRAPH CUBE STEAK DRY ICE TRAMPOLINE ASPIRIN KEROSENE LANOLIN HIGH OCTANE CELLOPHANE
43 Trademark Enforcement Keys - trademark rights are enhanced based on use and recognition of the trademark. The more goodwill the greater the legal rights for enforcement CEASE AND DESIST LETTER - puts recipient on notice (consult with a trademark lawyer)
LAWSUIT - Proof: 1.Ownership/prior use of mark & 2.Evidence of likelihood of confusion. - Remedies Injunctive relief. Money damages. Attorney fees.
Other Claims Dilution: where the owner of a famous trademark seeks to forbid others from using that mark in a way that would lessen its uniqueness. Unfair Competition: section 43(a) of the Lanham Act & causing confusion, deception. 44 Trademarks & Fair Use Fair Use is a defense to a claim of infringement. Includes use in Comparative Advertising. Protected First Amendment use also includednews reporting, criticism, parody. WARNING- Any planned use of a third partys trademark
for your marketing or promotional material or on your website should be reviewed with legal counseldo not rely on non-lawyer advice as to what constitutes fair use! 45 Trademark Parody TRADEMARK PARODY: TAKING A BITE OUT OF OWNER'S RIGHTS Haute Diggity Dog, LLC is a company that sells pet toys and beds. Haute Diggity Dog makes a number of parody products including Chewnel No. 5, Jimmy Chew, Dog Perignonn, Sniffany & Co., and Dogior. The product which is the subject of the Louis Vuitton lawsuit is Haute Diggity
Dog's parody pet toy called CHEWY VUITON. The product mimicked the shape, design and color of Louis Vuitton's Murakami handbags. Instead of LV, the toy's pattern included a stylized CV. The toy's pattern also employed a flower, cross and diamond pattern that resembled but was not identical to the Muakami pattern. Haute Diggity Dog generally sold the chew toy through pet stores for less than $20.00. 46 Chewy Vuiton LVM filed a lawsuit alleging trademark infringement, trademark dilution, counterfeiting, trade dress infringement, copyright infringement, and related common law violations. Courts generally are in agreement about what constitutes a "parody. A
trademark parody is a simple form of entertainment conveyed by juxtaposing the irreverent representation of the trademark with the idealized image created by the mark's owner. It must convey two simultaneous and contradictory messages: that it is the original, but also that it is not the original and is instead a parody. This latter message not only differentiates the parody from the original but must also communicate some element of satire, ridicule, joking or amusement. The Fourth Circuit found Haute Diggity Dog's use of CHEWY VUITON and its associated pattern to be a parody. 47 Chewy Vuiton The CHEWY VUITON toy was found to be similar in its name, monogram, design
and coloring, which clearly indicate that the toy is an imitation. The toy also was found to be different from the original handbags, for example, being a small and plush dog toy not an expensive, luxury handbag. The Court also noted that all of the design elements were different. (e.g., Chewy/Louis, Vuiton/Vuitton, CV/LV, simplified and crude pattern/detailed and distinguished pattern). Each of the elements Haute Diggity Dog selected to create the parody effect was close but not identical. 48 Porsche Sues Crocs Over Trademark Infringement
The Porsche Cayman is a sexy 2-seater sports coupe born of German engineering. The Crocs Cayman is a snug-fitting lightweight clog, allegedly modeled on Italian design, by Americans in Colorado. Porsche, fearing consumer confusion and the dilution of their established brand, notified the clog manufacturer in May of their alleged infringement. Porsche filed a trademark infringement suit against Crocs in a German court. 49
THE SALES FUNCTION SELLING AND THE MANAGEMENT CONCEPT PURPOSE AND GOAL The purpose of selling is to help customers make satisfying buying decisions, with the goal of creating ongoing, profitable relationships with them. The marketing concept has created a customer-centered...
11 Muscles of the Body Muscles of the Forearm Extensors Posterior compartment of the forearm Innervated by the radial nerve Originate at a common tendon Lateral epicondyle of the humerus Superficial Posterior Muscles of the Forearm Brachioradialis— flexes forearm Extensor...
HUD's Father's Day Initiative was developed by the Office of Public and Indian Housing in response to the stark socio-economic data indicating how children and youth are being negatively affected by father-absent homes. A National Father's Day Campaign Committee was...
Fish and Wildlife Program Project Review Process April 2008 Today's Discussion Committee recommendation to the full Council to begin the planning phase for categorical review of wildlife projects Based on the proposed schedule and steps How we got here Began...
SPaD risks are thought to be increasing, with the RSSB showing a keen interest. Despite all the mitigations put in place the risk still remains. RSSB is keen to avoid any sense of complacency, and has asked whether enough is...
Sports and Angular Momentum Dennis Silverman Bill Heidbrink U. C. Irvine Overview Angular Motion Angular Momentum Moment of Inertia Conservation of Angular Momentum Sports body mechanics and angular momentum Angular Momentum and Stability How a baseball curves Angular Momentum Linear...
The SAP team provides Soldiers with the Unit Risk Inventory survey and the Reintegration Unit Risk Inventory survey. The . Unit Risk Inventories (URIs) and the Reintegration-Unit Risk Inventories (R-URIs) are anonymous questionnaires . that screen . for high-risk behaviors...
Ready to download the document? Go ahead and hit continue!