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[email protected] From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com Image: Compound microscope objectives, T. Port Metabolism Anaerobic Cellular Respiration & Fermentation From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on Aerobic Cellular Respiration Utilizes glycolysis, synthesis of acetyl-CoA, Krebs cycle, and electron transport chain; results in complete breakdown of _________ to carbon ATP dioxide, water and ATP
The ultimate objective is to make molecules to do cellular work. Q: How many total ATP can be obtained from one glucose using aerobic cellular respiration? From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on Aerobic Cellular Respiration Q: What is the role of O2 in aerobic cellular respiration? From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on Images: Cellular Respiration, Regis Frey Using oxygen (1/2 O2) in metabolism creates toxic waste. Cells that are able to use aerobic respiration produce ______ to detoxify oxygen: (catalase)
Catalase: H2O2 ------- H20 and 02 (SOD) Superoxide dismutase (SOD): oxygen radical ------- H20 and O2 Cells that dont make one or both of these cannot exist in the presence of oxygen. From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on Bacterial Genus: _____________ GRAM-POSITIVE Obligate anaerobe, bacillus-shaped Clostridium botulinum All species form endospores. All have a strictly fermentative mode of metabolism (Dont use oxygen). Vegetative cells are killed by exposure to O2, but their endospores are able to survive long periods of exposure to air.
Known to produce a variety of toxins, some of which are fatal. Clostridium tetani = agent of tetanus C. botulinum = agent of botulism C. perfringens = one of the agents of gas gangrene C. difficile = part of natural intestinal flora, but resistant strains can overpopulate and cause pseudomembranous colitis. From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on Images:Clostridium botulinum: stained with Gentian violet. CDC Public Health Image Library. (PHIL #2107), 1979; Charles Bell If oxygen is required for aerobic cellular respiration how do cells get energy if there is no O2, or if they
cant use oxygen? From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on Images: Clostridium botulinum, CDC; Calvin holding breath, Bill ______ ______ ________ Many anaerobic bacteria, and muscle cells that have run out of O2, can make ATP by using something other than oxygen as an electron acceptor (nitrate, sulfate & carbon dioxide). In anaerobic respiration, not all the ETC is used, so less ATP is
produced. From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on Image: Electron transport chain, Tim Vickers Anaerobic Respiration & Farts When carbon dioxide is used as an electron acceptor, the product is either methane or acetic acid (depending on the organism). Methane produced in our gut is produced by this process. From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on Image: Methane 3D, Ben Mills
______________ When there is no final __________ __________ for the ETC, the electron transport cant happen. Fermentation is an alternative system that allows glycolysis to continue without the other steps of respiration. Not as energetically efficient as respiration. Produces only 2 ATP. ATP From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ATP
From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on Image: Glycolysis, Regis Frey Fermentation Two different fermentation pathways: Yeasts and some bacteria are able to get their ATP from glycolysis by using __________ fermentation. Converts pyruvate into ethanol and carbon dioxide. Animal cells and some bacteria through the process of _____ ______ fermentation. Here pyruvate results in end product of lactic acid. From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on The formation of carbon dioxide, a byproduct of ethanol fermentation, causes bread to rise.
When muscles need energy produced faster than the body can deliver oxygen, such as when lifting heavy weights, the working muscles generate energy anaerobically, through lactic acid fermentation. Images: Bread Rolls, Bangin; Dexter Jackson, Local Fermentation From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on Why does fermentation require extra steps after glycolysis? In fermentation, after glycolysis, there are additional steps to oxidize NADH (into NAD+). Electrons and hydrogen ions from the NADH that was produced by
glycolysis are donated to another organic molecule. No more ATP is created through these additional steps. So essentially fermentation = glycolysis + recycling of NAD+ From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on Image: Glycolysis, Regis Frey Muscles & Lactic Acid Fermentation _____ and ______ Twitch Muscle Muscle contains both slow twitch fibers and fast twitch fibers.
Slow twitch fibers contract and fatigue more slowly than fast twitch muscle fibers. Most of us have about 50% slow twitch fibers and 50% fast twitch fibers. Long-distance runners often have more slow twitch fibers while sprinters or bodybuilders often have more fast twitch fibers. But what is the difference between slow and fast twitch muscle? From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on Slow and Fast Twitch Muscle Poultry: White Meat & Dark Meat
White meat is ______ twitch muscle. Dark meat is ______ twitch muscle. It is dark because it contains an oxygen storing protein called __________. Slow twitch muscles tend to be wing and leg muscles where long term endurance is required. Fast twitch muscles more common in the breast where quick response but not necessarily endurance is needed.
Wild animals tend to have more slow twitch muscle than their domestic counterparts. From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on Image: Chicken parts, Wiki Fermentation Most of the potential energy remains in the bonds of fermentation products. Fermentation products are wastes to cells that make them, many are useful to humans (ethanol, acetic acid, and lactic acid). From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on Souring vs. Spoilage Fermentation of carbohydrates to organic acid products is commonly called _________.
Sour cream, cheese, and yogurt are produced by the action of fermenting bacteria. Lactic-acid bacteria of the genus Lactobacillus are used in the fermentation process. Bacteria convert lactose to lactic acid, which causes milk to change from liquid to solid curd. __________, or putrification, is when microbes use anaerobic respiration to break
down proteins, releasing nitrogen and sulfur-containing organic compounds. Anaerobic respiration of protein often produces foul smelling chemicals such as putrescine, cadaverine & hydrogen sulfide. From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on Metabolic Processes Bottom Line Every cell acquires __________. Metabolism requires energy from _______ or from ___________ of nutrients. Energy is ultimately converted to _____ . ATP is used to do cellular
work. From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on Image: Jumping rope, Meagan E. Confused? Here are links to fun resources that further explain cellular respiration: Smart Links Anaerobic Cellular Respiration Main Page on the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom of Science Prof Online. Anaerobic Respiration Page by Timothy Paustain,
University of Wisconsin, Madison. Alphabutt song by Kimya Dawson How NAD+ Works animation and quiz from McGraw-Hill. Glycolysis animation and quiz from McGraw-Hill. Krebs Cycle Animation & Quiz 1 from McGraw-Hill. Krebs Cycle Animation & Quiz 2 from McGraw-Hill. Electron Transport Chain animation from Molecular & Cellular Biology Learning Center. Food Molecules video from HowStuffWorks, a Discovery company.
Tiny Bubbles song by Don Ho. (You must be in PPT slideshow view to click on links.) From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on Assignment See the ScienceProfOnline Virtual Cell Biology Classroom: Anaerobic Metabolism Lecture for a printable Word .doc of this assignment. At the end of some lectures, I will give you some type of in-class assignment or homework to evaluate your understanding of todays topic.
This assignment will always be open-book. If assigned, today you will be completing an essay question on the topic of Fermentation. From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on Are you feeling blinded by science? Do yourself a favor. Use the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom (VCBC) ! The VCBC is full of resources to help you succeed, including: practice test questions review questions study guides and learning objectives
PowerPoints on other topics You can access the VCBC by going to the Science Prof Online website www.ScienceProfOnline.com Images: Blinded With Science album, Thomas Dolby; Endomembrane system, Mariana Ruiz, Wiki
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